Download Anna University B-Tech ECE 3rd Sem EC8361 Analog and Digital Circuits ADC Lab Manual Question Paper

Download Anna University B.Tech (Bachelor of Technology) ECE (Electronics And Communications Engineering) 3rd Sem EC8361 Analog and Digital Circuits ADC Lab Manual Question Paper.




?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice



?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Result:
Thus the Darlington amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Darlington amplifier is used as high power amplifier
2. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe
voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
3. Darlington transistors can be used in high-current circuits, such as that involving computer control of
motors or relays. The current is amplified from the normal low level of the computer output line to the
amount needed by the connected device.
4. Power Regulators
5. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
6. Display drivers
7. Controlling of Solenoid
8. Light and touch sensors



1. What is a Darlington pair?
2. Give few applications of Darlington amplifier.
3. What are the advantages of using Darlington pair of transistors?
4. Why do you avoid RC or transformer coupling for amplifying extremely low frequency signals?
5. Why transformer coupling does give poor frequency response?
6. List out the techniques to improve the input impedance.
7. Why Darlington connection is given to the circuit?
8. What is meant by bootstrapping technique?
9. What is the value of reactance capacitances at low frequencies?
10. What is the name of an amplifier in which voltage gain is more important than power gain?
11. Whether Darlington connection can be used for more number of stages?
Viva ? voce
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DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Result:
Thus the Darlington amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Darlington amplifier is used as high power amplifier
2. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe
voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
3. Darlington transistors can be used in high-current circuits, such as that involving computer control of
motors or relays. The current is amplified from the normal low level of the computer output line to the
amount needed by the connected device.
4. Power Regulators
5. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
6. Display drivers
7. Controlling of Solenoid
8. Light and touch sensors



1. What is a Darlington pair?
2. Give few applications of Darlington amplifier.
3. What are the advantages of using Darlington pair of transistors?
4. Why do you avoid RC or transformer coupling for amplifying extremely low frequency signals?
5. Why transformer coupling does give poor frequency response?
6. List out the techniques to improve the input impedance.
7. Why Darlington connection is given to the circuit?
8. What is meant by bootstrapping technique?
9. What is the value of reactance capacitances at low frequencies?
10. What is the name of an amplifier in which voltage gain is more important than power gain?
11. Whether Darlington connection can be used for more number of stages?
Viva ? voce
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12. What is meant by ?equivalent circuit? of a transistor?
13. List out the benefits of h-parameters.
14. Write the current gain of Darlington amplifier.
15. Write the voltage gain of Darlington amplifier.




Aim:
To construct a Cascade amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 8
3 Capacitor As per design 5
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
Multistage amplifiers are made up of single transistor amplifiers connected in cascade. The first stage usually
provides a high input impedance to minimize loading the source (transducer). The middle stages usually account
for most of the desired voltage gain. The final stage provides a low output impedance to prevent loss of signal
(gain) and to be able to handle the amount of current required by the load. In analyzing multistage amplifiers, the
loading effect of the next stage must be considered since the input impedance of the next stage acts as the load
for the current stage. Therefore the AC analysis of a multistage amplifier is usually done starting with the final
stage. The individual stages are usually coupled by either capacitor or direct coupling. Capacitor coupling is most
often used when the signals being amplified are AC signals. In capacitor coupling, the stages are separated by a
Expt. No. 6 CASCADE AMPLIFIER
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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

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Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
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Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


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Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

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Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
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Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
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Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



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Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

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Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
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23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

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Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
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9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

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through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
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Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

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Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Result:
Thus the Darlington amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Darlington amplifier is used as high power amplifier
2. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe
voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
3. Darlington transistors can be used in high-current circuits, such as that involving computer control of
motors or relays. The current is amplified from the normal low level of the computer output line to the
amount needed by the connected device.
4. Power Regulators
5. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
6. Display drivers
7. Controlling of Solenoid
8. Light and touch sensors



1. What is a Darlington pair?
2. Give few applications of Darlington amplifier.
3. What are the advantages of using Darlington pair of transistors?
4. Why do you avoid RC or transformer coupling for amplifying extremely low frequency signals?
5. Why transformer coupling does give poor frequency response?
6. List out the techniques to improve the input impedance.
7. Why Darlington connection is given to the circuit?
8. What is meant by bootstrapping technique?
9. What is the value of reactance capacitances at low frequencies?
10. What is the name of an amplifier in which voltage gain is more important than power gain?
11. Whether Darlington connection can be used for more number of stages?
Viva ? voce
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12. What is meant by ?equivalent circuit? of a transistor?
13. List out the benefits of h-parameters.
14. Write the current gain of Darlington amplifier.
15. Write the voltage gain of Darlington amplifier.




Aim:
To construct a Cascade amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 8
3 Capacitor As per design 5
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
Multistage amplifiers are made up of single transistor amplifiers connected in cascade. The first stage usually
provides a high input impedance to minimize loading the source (transducer). The middle stages usually account
for most of the desired voltage gain. The final stage provides a low output impedance to prevent loss of signal
(gain) and to be able to handle the amount of current required by the load. In analyzing multistage amplifiers, the
loading effect of the next stage must be considered since the input impedance of the next stage acts as the load
for the current stage. Therefore the AC analysis of a multistage amplifier is usually done starting with the final
stage. The individual stages are usually coupled by either capacitor or direct coupling. Capacitor coupling is most
often used when the signals being amplified are AC signals. In capacitor coupling, the stages are separated by a
Expt. No. 6 CASCADE AMPLIFIER
29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


capacitor which blocks the DC voltages between each stage. This DC blocking prevents the bias point of each
stage from being upset.



Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. For stage 1, Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Perform frequency response analysis for stage 2.
6. Connect the output of stage 1 to the input of stage 2 by capacitive coupling
7. Perform frequency response analysis for the cascade stage.

Tabulation:
Stage 1:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)
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DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Result:
Thus the Darlington amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Darlington amplifier is used as high power amplifier
2. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe
voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
3. Darlington transistors can be used in high-current circuits, such as that involving computer control of
motors or relays. The current is amplified from the normal low level of the computer output line to the
amount needed by the connected device.
4. Power Regulators
5. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
6. Display drivers
7. Controlling of Solenoid
8. Light and touch sensors



1. What is a Darlington pair?
2. Give few applications of Darlington amplifier.
3. What are the advantages of using Darlington pair of transistors?
4. Why do you avoid RC or transformer coupling for amplifying extremely low frequency signals?
5. Why transformer coupling does give poor frequency response?
6. List out the techniques to improve the input impedance.
7. Why Darlington connection is given to the circuit?
8. What is meant by bootstrapping technique?
9. What is the value of reactance capacitances at low frequencies?
10. What is the name of an amplifier in which voltage gain is more important than power gain?
11. Whether Darlington connection can be used for more number of stages?
Viva ? voce
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12. What is meant by ?equivalent circuit? of a transistor?
13. List out the benefits of h-parameters.
14. Write the current gain of Darlington amplifier.
15. Write the voltage gain of Darlington amplifier.




Aim:
To construct a Cascade amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 8
3 Capacitor As per design 5
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
Multistage amplifiers are made up of single transistor amplifiers connected in cascade. The first stage usually
provides a high input impedance to minimize loading the source (transducer). The middle stages usually account
for most of the desired voltage gain. The final stage provides a low output impedance to prevent loss of signal
(gain) and to be able to handle the amount of current required by the load. In analyzing multistage amplifiers, the
loading effect of the next stage must be considered since the input impedance of the next stage acts as the load
for the current stage. Therefore the AC analysis of a multistage amplifier is usually done starting with the final
stage. The individual stages are usually coupled by either capacitor or direct coupling. Capacitor coupling is most
often used when the signals being amplified are AC signals. In capacitor coupling, the stages are separated by a
Expt. No. 6 CASCADE AMPLIFIER
29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


capacitor which blocks the DC voltages between each stage. This DC blocking prevents the bias point of each
stage from being upset.



Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. For stage 1, Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Perform frequency response analysis for stage 2.
6. Connect the output of stage 1 to the input of stage 2 by capacitive coupling
7. Perform frequency response analysis for the cascade stage.

Tabulation:
Stage 1:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)
30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00











Stage 2:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)








Model Graph:


Cascade Stage:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)







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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Result:
Thus the Darlington amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Darlington amplifier is used as high power amplifier
2. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe
voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
3. Darlington transistors can be used in high-current circuits, such as that involving computer control of
motors or relays. The current is amplified from the normal low level of the computer output line to the
amount needed by the connected device.
4. Power Regulators
5. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
6. Display drivers
7. Controlling of Solenoid
8. Light and touch sensors



1. What is a Darlington pair?
2. Give few applications of Darlington amplifier.
3. What are the advantages of using Darlington pair of transistors?
4. Why do you avoid RC or transformer coupling for amplifying extremely low frequency signals?
5. Why transformer coupling does give poor frequency response?
6. List out the techniques to improve the input impedance.
7. Why Darlington connection is given to the circuit?
8. What is meant by bootstrapping technique?
9. What is the value of reactance capacitances at low frequencies?
10. What is the name of an amplifier in which voltage gain is more important than power gain?
11. Whether Darlington connection can be used for more number of stages?
Viva ? voce
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12. What is meant by ?equivalent circuit? of a transistor?
13. List out the benefits of h-parameters.
14. Write the current gain of Darlington amplifier.
15. Write the voltage gain of Darlington amplifier.




Aim:
To construct a Cascade amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 8
3 Capacitor As per design 5
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
Multistage amplifiers are made up of single transistor amplifiers connected in cascade. The first stage usually
provides a high input impedance to minimize loading the source (transducer). The middle stages usually account
for most of the desired voltage gain. The final stage provides a low output impedance to prevent loss of signal
(gain) and to be able to handle the amount of current required by the load. In analyzing multistage amplifiers, the
loading effect of the next stage must be considered since the input impedance of the next stage acts as the load
for the current stage. Therefore the AC analysis of a multistage amplifier is usually done starting with the final
stage. The individual stages are usually coupled by either capacitor or direct coupling. Capacitor coupling is most
often used when the signals being amplified are AC signals. In capacitor coupling, the stages are separated by a
Expt. No. 6 CASCADE AMPLIFIER
29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


capacitor which blocks the DC voltages between each stage. This DC blocking prevents the bias point of each
stage from being upset.



Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. For stage 1, Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Perform frequency response analysis for stage 2.
6. Connect the output of stage 1 to the input of stage 2 by capacitive coupling
7. Perform frequency response analysis for the cascade stage.

Tabulation:
Stage 1:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)
30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00











Stage 2:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)








Model Graph:


Cascade Stage:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascade amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascade amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Cascading amplifiers are used to increase signal strength in Television receiver.
2. Used in computers,
3. Used in regulator circuits
4. It also forms a building block for differential amplifiers and operational amplifiers.



1 What is an effect of cascading?
2 List out the difference between cascade and cascode amplifiers.
3 Give the reason why RC coupling is not used to amplify extremely low frequencies.
4 What type of coupling is used in final stage of the multistage transistor amplifier?
5 What do you understand by multistage transistor amplifier?
6 Why is transformer coupling used in the final stage of a multistage amplifier?
7 How will you achieve impedance matching with transformer coupling?
8 Why do you prefer to express the gain in db?
9 Give the advantages of RC coupling.
10 In a RC coupled amplifier, what will be the voltage gain over the mid-frequency range?
11 When we use transformer coupling?
Viva ? voce
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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Result:
Thus the Darlington amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Darlington amplifier is used as high power amplifier
2. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe
voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
3. Darlington transistors can be used in high-current circuits, such as that involving computer control of
motors or relays. The current is amplified from the normal low level of the computer output line to the
amount needed by the connected device.
4. Power Regulators
5. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
6. Display drivers
7. Controlling of Solenoid
8. Light and touch sensors



1. What is a Darlington pair?
2. Give few applications of Darlington amplifier.
3. What are the advantages of using Darlington pair of transistors?
4. Why do you avoid RC or transformer coupling for amplifying extremely low frequency signals?
5. Why transformer coupling does give poor frequency response?
6. List out the techniques to improve the input impedance.
7. Why Darlington connection is given to the circuit?
8. What is meant by bootstrapping technique?
9. What is the value of reactance capacitances at low frequencies?
10. What is the name of an amplifier in which voltage gain is more important than power gain?
11. Whether Darlington connection can be used for more number of stages?
Viva ? voce
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12. What is meant by ?equivalent circuit? of a transistor?
13. List out the benefits of h-parameters.
14. Write the current gain of Darlington amplifier.
15. Write the voltage gain of Darlington amplifier.




Aim:
To construct a Cascade amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 8
3 Capacitor As per design 5
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
Multistage amplifiers are made up of single transistor amplifiers connected in cascade. The first stage usually
provides a high input impedance to minimize loading the source (transducer). The middle stages usually account
for most of the desired voltage gain. The final stage provides a low output impedance to prevent loss of signal
(gain) and to be able to handle the amount of current required by the load. In analyzing multistage amplifiers, the
loading effect of the next stage must be considered since the input impedance of the next stage acts as the load
for the current stage. Therefore the AC analysis of a multistage amplifier is usually done starting with the final
stage. The individual stages are usually coupled by either capacitor or direct coupling. Capacitor coupling is most
often used when the signals being amplified are AC signals. In capacitor coupling, the stages are separated by a
Expt. No. 6 CASCADE AMPLIFIER
29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


capacitor which blocks the DC voltages between each stage. This DC blocking prevents the bias point of each
stage from being upset.



Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. For stage 1, Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Perform frequency response analysis for stage 2.
6. Connect the output of stage 1 to the input of stage 2 by capacitive coupling
7. Perform frequency response analysis for the cascade stage.

Tabulation:
Stage 1:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)
30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00











Stage 2:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)








Model Graph:


Cascade Stage:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascade amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascade amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Cascading amplifiers are used to increase signal strength in Television receiver.
2. Used in computers,
3. Used in regulator circuits
4. It also forms a building block for differential amplifiers and operational amplifiers.



1 What is an effect of cascading?
2 List out the difference between cascade and cascode amplifiers.
3 Give the reason why RC coupling is not used to amplify extremely low frequencies.
4 What type of coupling is used in final stage of the multistage transistor amplifier?
5 What do you understand by multistage transistor amplifier?
6 Why is transformer coupling used in the final stage of a multistage amplifier?
7 How will you achieve impedance matching with transformer coupling?
8 Why do you prefer to express the gain in db?
9 Give the advantages of RC coupling.
10 In a RC coupled amplifier, what will be the voltage gain over the mid-frequency range?
11 When we use transformer coupling?
Viva ? voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12 What is the other name of upper and lower cutoff frequency?
13 What is the purpose of RC or transformer coupling?
14 What type of transformer is normally used for impedance matching?
15 What is meant by direct coupling?









Aim:
To construct a cascode amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 5
3 Capacitor As per design 4
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
An important amplifier configuration is known as cascode amplifier. It consists of a common-emitter (CE) stage
followed by a common-base (CB) stage as shown in figure. The common-emitter configuration presents a
relatively high input resistance
e ac
r * ) 1 ( ? ? to the signal source. The common-base configuration presents a
Expt. No. 7 CASCODE AMPLIFIER
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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Result:
Thus the Darlington amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Darlington amplifier is used as high power amplifier
2. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe
voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
3. Darlington transistors can be used in high-current circuits, such as that involving computer control of
motors or relays. The current is amplified from the normal low level of the computer output line to the
amount needed by the connected device.
4. Power Regulators
5. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
6. Display drivers
7. Controlling of Solenoid
8. Light and touch sensors



1. What is a Darlington pair?
2. Give few applications of Darlington amplifier.
3. What are the advantages of using Darlington pair of transistors?
4. Why do you avoid RC or transformer coupling for amplifying extremely low frequency signals?
5. Why transformer coupling does give poor frequency response?
6. List out the techniques to improve the input impedance.
7. Why Darlington connection is given to the circuit?
8. What is meant by bootstrapping technique?
9. What is the value of reactance capacitances at low frequencies?
10. What is the name of an amplifier in which voltage gain is more important than power gain?
11. Whether Darlington connection can be used for more number of stages?
Viva ? voce
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12. What is meant by ?equivalent circuit? of a transistor?
13. List out the benefits of h-parameters.
14. Write the current gain of Darlington amplifier.
15. Write the voltage gain of Darlington amplifier.




Aim:
To construct a Cascade amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 8
3 Capacitor As per design 5
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
Multistage amplifiers are made up of single transistor amplifiers connected in cascade. The first stage usually
provides a high input impedance to minimize loading the source (transducer). The middle stages usually account
for most of the desired voltage gain. The final stage provides a low output impedance to prevent loss of signal
(gain) and to be able to handle the amount of current required by the load. In analyzing multistage amplifiers, the
loading effect of the next stage must be considered since the input impedance of the next stage acts as the load
for the current stage. Therefore the AC analysis of a multistage amplifier is usually done starting with the final
stage. The individual stages are usually coupled by either capacitor or direct coupling. Capacitor coupling is most
often used when the signals being amplified are AC signals. In capacitor coupling, the stages are separated by a
Expt. No. 6 CASCADE AMPLIFIER
29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


capacitor which blocks the DC voltages between each stage. This DC blocking prevents the bias point of each
stage from being upset.



Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. For stage 1, Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Perform frequency response analysis for stage 2.
6. Connect the output of stage 1 to the input of stage 2 by capacitive coupling
7. Perform frequency response analysis for the cascade stage.

Tabulation:
Stage 1:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)
30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00











Stage 2:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)








Model Graph:


Cascade Stage:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascade amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascade amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Cascading amplifiers are used to increase signal strength in Television receiver.
2. Used in computers,
3. Used in regulator circuits
4. It also forms a building block for differential amplifiers and operational amplifiers.



1 What is an effect of cascading?
2 List out the difference between cascade and cascode amplifiers.
3 Give the reason why RC coupling is not used to amplify extremely low frequencies.
4 What type of coupling is used in final stage of the multistage transistor amplifier?
5 What do you understand by multistage transistor amplifier?
6 Why is transformer coupling used in the final stage of a multistage amplifier?
7 How will you achieve impedance matching with transformer coupling?
8 Why do you prefer to express the gain in db?
9 Give the advantages of RC coupling.
10 In a RC coupled amplifier, what will be the voltage gain over the mid-frequency range?
11 When we use transformer coupling?
Viva ? voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12 What is the other name of upper and lower cutoff frequency?
13 What is the purpose of RC or transformer coupling?
14 What type of transformer is normally used for impedance matching?
15 What is meant by direct coupling?









Aim:
To construct a cascode amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 5
3 Capacitor As per design 4
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
An important amplifier configuration is known as cascode amplifier. It consists of a common-emitter (CE) stage
followed by a common-base (CB) stage as shown in figure. The common-emitter configuration presents a
relatively high input resistance
e ac
r * ) 1 ( ? ? to the signal source. The common-base configuration presents a
Expt. No. 7 CASCODE AMPLIFIER
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


very low input resistance
e
r . By replacing the collector resistance
C
R in the CE amplifier stage with a common
base CB amplifier stage, the CE-CB configuration virtually eliminates the Miller effect of
1 u
C . This will lead to
higher 3dB frequency than is possible with a simple common-emitter amplifier. An extension in the upper cutoff
frequency is achieved without reducing the midband gain (Gain-Bandwidth rule), since the collector of Q2 carries
a current almost equal to the collector current of Q1. Another reason for extending the upper cutoff frequency is
that, in the CB configuration the Miller effect does not exist and does not limit the high-frequency response.
Notice that the effective load resistance seen by the CE transistor Q1 is very low and equal to the input resistance
e
r of the CB transistor Q2. The transistor Q2 acts as a current buffer or an impedance transformer.


Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Result:
Thus the Darlington amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Darlington amplifier is used as high power amplifier
2. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe
voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
3. Darlington transistors can be used in high-current circuits, such as that involving computer control of
motors or relays. The current is amplified from the normal low level of the computer output line to the
amount needed by the connected device.
4. Power Regulators
5. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
6. Display drivers
7. Controlling of Solenoid
8. Light and touch sensors



1. What is a Darlington pair?
2. Give few applications of Darlington amplifier.
3. What are the advantages of using Darlington pair of transistors?
4. Why do you avoid RC or transformer coupling for amplifying extremely low frequency signals?
5. Why transformer coupling does give poor frequency response?
6. List out the techniques to improve the input impedance.
7. Why Darlington connection is given to the circuit?
8. What is meant by bootstrapping technique?
9. What is the value of reactance capacitances at low frequencies?
10. What is the name of an amplifier in which voltage gain is more important than power gain?
11. Whether Darlington connection can be used for more number of stages?
Viva ? voce
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12. What is meant by ?equivalent circuit? of a transistor?
13. List out the benefits of h-parameters.
14. Write the current gain of Darlington amplifier.
15. Write the voltage gain of Darlington amplifier.




Aim:
To construct a Cascade amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 8
3 Capacitor As per design 5
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
Multistage amplifiers are made up of single transistor amplifiers connected in cascade. The first stage usually
provides a high input impedance to minimize loading the source (transducer). The middle stages usually account
for most of the desired voltage gain. The final stage provides a low output impedance to prevent loss of signal
(gain) and to be able to handle the amount of current required by the load. In analyzing multistage amplifiers, the
loading effect of the next stage must be considered since the input impedance of the next stage acts as the load
for the current stage. Therefore the AC analysis of a multistage amplifier is usually done starting with the final
stage. The individual stages are usually coupled by either capacitor or direct coupling. Capacitor coupling is most
often used when the signals being amplified are AC signals. In capacitor coupling, the stages are separated by a
Expt. No. 6 CASCADE AMPLIFIER
29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


capacitor which blocks the DC voltages between each stage. This DC blocking prevents the bias point of each
stage from being upset.



Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. For stage 1, Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Perform frequency response analysis for stage 2.
6. Connect the output of stage 1 to the input of stage 2 by capacitive coupling
7. Perform frequency response analysis for the cascade stage.

Tabulation:
Stage 1:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)
30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00











Stage 2:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)








Model Graph:


Cascade Stage:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascade amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascade amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Cascading amplifiers are used to increase signal strength in Television receiver.
2. Used in computers,
3. Used in regulator circuits
4. It also forms a building block for differential amplifiers and operational amplifiers.



1 What is an effect of cascading?
2 List out the difference between cascade and cascode amplifiers.
3 Give the reason why RC coupling is not used to amplify extremely low frequencies.
4 What type of coupling is used in final stage of the multistage transistor amplifier?
5 What do you understand by multistage transistor amplifier?
6 Why is transformer coupling used in the final stage of a multistage amplifier?
7 How will you achieve impedance matching with transformer coupling?
8 Why do you prefer to express the gain in db?
9 Give the advantages of RC coupling.
10 In a RC coupled amplifier, what will be the voltage gain over the mid-frequency range?
11 When we use transformer coupling?
Viva ? voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12 What is the other name of upper and lower cutoff frequency?
13 What is the purpose of RC or transformer coupling?
14 What type of transformer is normally used for impedance matching?
15 What is meant by direct coupling?









Aim:
To construct a cascode amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 5
3 Capacitor As per design 4
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
An important amplifier configuration is known as cascode amplifier. It consists of a common-emitter (CE) stage
followed by a common-base (CB) stage as shown in figure. The common-emitter configuration presents a
relatively high input resistance
e ac
r * ) 1 ( ? ? to the signal source. The common-base configuration presents a
Expt. No. 7 CASCODE AMPLIFIER
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


very low input resistance
e
r . By replacing the collector resistance
C
R in the CE amplifier stage with a common
base CB amplifier stage, the CE-CB configuration virtually eliminates the Miller effect of
1 u
C . This will lead to
higher 3dB frequency than is possible with a simple common-emitter amplifier. An extension in the upper cutoff
frequency is achieved without reducing the midband gain (Gain-Bandwidth rule), since the collector of Q2 carries
a current almost equal to the collector current of Q1. Another reason for extending the upper cutoff frequency is
that, in the CB configuration the Miller effect does not exist and does not limit the high-frequency response.
Notice that the effective load resistance seen by the CE transistor Q1 is very low and equal to the input resistance
e
r of the CB transistor Q2. The transistor Q2 acts as a current buffer or an impedance transformer.


Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)












Model Graph:

Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascode amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascode amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.
Practical Applications
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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Result:
Thus the Darlington amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Darlington amplifier is used as high power amplifier
2. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe
voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
3. Darlington transistors can be used in high-current circuits, such as that involving computer control of
motors or relays. The current is amplified from the normal low level of the computer output line to the
amount needed by the connected device.
4. Power Regulators
5. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
6. Display drivers
7. Controlling of Solenoid
8. Light and touch sensors



1. What is a Darlington pair?
2. Give few applications of Darlington amplifier.
3. What are the advantages of using Darlington pair of transistors?
4. Why do you avoid RC or transformer coupling for amplifying extremely low frequency signals?
5. Why transformer coupling does give poor frequency response?
6. List out the techniques to improve the input impedance.
7. Why Darlington connection is given to the circuit?
8. What is meant by bootstrapping technique?
9. What is the value of reactance capacitances at low frequencies?
10. What is the name of an amplifier in which voltage gain is more important than power gain?
11. Whether Darlington connection can be used for more number of stages?
Viva ? voce
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12. What is meant by ?equivalent circuit? of a transistor?
13. List out the benefits of h-parameters.
14. Write the current gain of Darlington amplifier.
15. Write the voltage gain of Darlington amplifier.




Aim:
To construct a Cascade amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 8
3 Capacitor As per design 5
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
Multistage amplifiers are made up of single transistor amplifiers connected in cascade. The first stage usually
provides a high input impedance to minimize loading the source (transducer). The middle stages usually account
for most of the desired voltage gain. The final stage provides a low output impedance to prevent loss of signal
(gain) and to be able to handle the amount of current required by the load. In analyzing multistage amplifiers, the
loading effect of the next stage must be considered since the input impedance of the next stage acts as the load
for the current stage. Therefore the AC analysis of a multistage amplifier is usually done starting with the final
stage. The individual stages are usually coupled by either capacitor or direct coupling. Capacitor coupling is most
often used when the signals being amplified are AC signals. In capacitor coupling, the stages are separated by a
Expt. No. 6 CASCADE AMPLIFIER
29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


capacitor which blocks the DC voltages between each stage. This DC blocking prevents the bias point of each
stage from being upset.



Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. For stage 1, Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Perform frequency response analysis for stage 2.
6. Connect the output of stage 1 to the input of stage 2 by capacitive coupling
7. Perform frequency response analysis for the cascade stage.

Tabulation:
Stage 1:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)
30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00











Stage 2:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)








Model Graph:


Cascade Stage:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascade amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascade amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Cascading amplifiers are used to increase signal strength in Television receiver.
2. Used in computers,
3. Used in regulator circuits
4. It also forms a building block for differential amplifiers and operational amplifiers.



1 What is an effect of cascading?
2 List out the difference between cascade and cascode amplifiers.
3 Give the reason why RC coupling is not used to amplify extremely low frequencies.
4 What type of coupling is used in final stage of the multistage transistor amplifier?
5 What do you understand by multistage transistor amplifier?
6 Why is transformer coupling used in the final stage of a multistage amplifier?
7 How will you achieve impedance matching with transformer coupling?
8 Why do you prefer to express the gain in db?
9 Give the advantages of RC coupling.
10 In a RC coupled amplifier, what will be the voltage gain over the mid-frequency range?
11 When we use transformer coupling?
Viva ? voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12 What is the other name of upper and lower cutoff frequency?
13 What is the purpose of RC or transformer coupling?
14 What type of transformer is normally used for impedance matching?
15 What is meant by direct coupling?









Aim:
To construct a cascode amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 5
3 Capacitor As per design 4
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
An important amplifier configuration is known as cascode amplifier. It consists of a common-emitter (CE) stage
followed by a common-base (CB) stage as shown in figure. The common-emitter configuration presents a
relatively high input resistance
e ac
r * ) 1 ( ? ? to the signal source. The common-base configuration presents a
Expt. No. 7 CASCODE AMPLIFIER
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


very low input resistance
e
r . By replacing the collector resistance
C
R in the CE amplifier stage with a common
base CB amplifier stage, the CE-CB configuration virtually eliminates the Miller effect of
1 u
C . This will lead to
higher 3dB frequency than is possible with a simple common-emitter amplifier. An extension in the upper cutoff
frequency is achieved without reducing the midband gain (Gain-Bandwidth rule), since the collector of Q2 carries
a current almost equal to the collector current of Q1. Another reason for extending the upper cutoff frequency is
that, in the CB configuration the Miller effect does not exist and does not limit the high-frequency response.
Notice that the effective load resistance seen by the CE transistor Q1 is very low and equal to the input resistance
e
r of the CB transistor Q2. The transistor Q2 acts as a current buffer or an impedance transformer.


Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)












Model Graph:

Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascode amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascode amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.
Practical Applications
35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Cascode amplifier has high output impedance and high gain
2. It is used to insulate o/p and i/p (coupling due to parasitic capacitances (Cgd)).
3. Cascode doesn?t contribute to noise and mismatch and it is used to improve gain.


1. What is cascading and cascoding?
2. Why is a cascode amplifier called as wide band amplifier?
3. What are the characteristics of a cascode amplifier?
4. List out the uses of cascode amplifier.
5. Name some multistage amplifier.
6. Which type of connection is made for cascode amplifier?
7. What is the most desirable feature of a transformer coupled amplifier?
8. Why cascode amplifier is called as wide band amplifier?
9. What are the characteristics of cascode amplifier?
10. Which type of coupling is used in the initial stages of a multi stage amplifier?
11. Compare the bandwidth of a single stage amplifier with that of a multi stage amplifier.



Aim:
To construct a differential amplifier using BJT and to determine
1. The transfer characteristic of transistors
2. Calculate the CMRR value

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 4
4 Multimeter - 1
5 Bread Board - 1
Expt. No. 8 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER USING BJT

Viva ? voce
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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Result:
Thus the Darlington amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Darlington amplifier is used as high power amplifier
2. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe
voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
3. Darlington transistors can be used in high-current circuits, such as that involving computer control of
motors or relays. The current is amplified from the normal low level of the computer output line to the
amount needed by the connected device.
4. Power Regulators
5. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
6. Display drivers
7. Controlling of Solenoid
8. Light and touch sensors



1. What is a Darlington pair?
2. Give few applications of Darlington amplifier.
3. What are the advantages of using Darlington pair of transistors?
4. Why do you avoid RC or transformer coupling for amplifying extremely low frequency signals?
5. Why transformer coupling does give poor frequency response?
6. List out the techniques to improve the input impedance.
7. Why Darlington connection is given to the circuit?
8. What is meant by bootstrapping technique?
9. What is the value of reactance capacitances at low frequencies?
10. What is the name of an amplifier in which voltage gain is more important than power gain?
11. Whether Darlington connection can be used for more number of stages?
Viva ? voce
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12. What is meant by ?equivalent circuit? of a transistor?
13. List out the benefits of h-parameters.
14. Write the current gain of Darlington amplifier.
15. Write the voltage gain of Darlington amplifier.




Aim:
To construct a Cascade amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 8
3 Capacitor As per design 5
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
Multistage amplifiers are made up of single transistor amplifiers connected in cascade. The first stage usually
provides a high input impedance to minimize loading the source (transducer). The middle stages usually account
for most of the desired voltage gain. The final stage provides a low output impedance to prevent loss of signal
(gain) and to be able to handle the amount of current required by the load. In analyzing multistage amplifiers, the
loading effect of the next stage must be considered since the input impedance of the next stage acts as the load
for the current stage. Therefore the AC analysis of a multistage amplifier is usually done starting with the final
stage. The individual stages are usually coupled by either capacitor or direct coupling. Capacitor coupling is most
often used when the signals being amplified are AC signals. In capacitor coupling, the stages are separated by a
Expt. No. 6 CASCADE AMPLIFIER
29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


capacitor which blocks the DC voltages between each stage. This DC blocking prevents the bias point of each
stage from being upset.



Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. For stage 1, Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Perform frequency response analysis for stage 2.
6. Connect the output of stage 1 to the input of stage 2 by capacitive coupling
7. Perform frequency response analysis for the cascade stage.

Tabulation:
Stage 1:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)
30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00











Stage 2:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)








Model Graph:


Cascade Stage:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascade amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascade amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Cascading amplifiers are used to increase signal strength in Television receiver.
2. Used in computers,
3. Used in regulator circuits
4. It also forms a building block for differential amplifiers and operational amplifiers.



1 What is an effect of cascading?
2 List out the difference between cascade and cascode amplifiers.
3 Give the reason why RC coupling is not used to amplify extremely low frequencies.
4 What type of coupling is used in final stage of the multistage transistor amplifier?
5 What do you understand by multistage transistor amplifier?
6 Why is transformer coupling used in the final stage of a multistage amplifier?
7 How will you achieve impedance matching with transformer coupling?
8 Why do you prefer to express the gain in db?
9 Give the advantages of RC coupling.
10 In a RC coupled amplifier, what will be the voltage gain over the mid-frequency range?
11 When we use transformer coupling?
Viva ? voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12 What is the other name of upper and lower cutoff frequency?
13 What is the purpose of RC or transformer coupling?
14 What type of transformer is normally used for impedance matching?
15 What is meant by direct coupling?









Aim:
To construct a cascode amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 5
3 Capacitor As per design 4
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
An important amplifier configuration is known as cascode amplifier. It consists of a common-emitter (CE) stage
followed by a common-base (CB) stage as shown in figure. The common-emitter configuration presents a
relatively high input resistance
e ac
r * ) 1 ( ? ? to the signal source. The common-base configuration presents a
Expt. No. 7 CASCODE AMPLIFIER
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


very low input resistance
e
r . By replacing the collector resistance
C
R in the CE amplifier stage with a common
base CB amplifier stage, the CE-CB configuration virtually eliminates the Miller effect of
1 u
C . This will lead to
higher 3dB frequency than is possible with a simple common-emitter amplifier. An extension in the upper cutoff
frequency is achieved without reducing the midband gain (Gain-Bandwidth rule), since the collector of Q2 carries
a current almost equal to the collector current of Q1. Another reason for extending the upper cutoff frequency is
that, in the CB configuration the Miller effect does not exist and does not limit the high-frequency response.
Notice that the effective load resistance seen by the CE transistor Q1 is very low and equal to the input resistance
e
r of the CB transistor Q2. The transistor Q2 acts as a current buffer or an impedance transformer.


Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)












Model Graph:

Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascode amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascode amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.
Practical Applications
35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Cascode amplifier has high output impedance and high gain
2. It is used to insulate o/p and i/p (coupling due to parasitic capacitances (Cgd)).
3. Cascode doesn?t contribute to noise and mismatch and it is used to improve gain.


1. What is cascading and cascoding?
2. Why is a cascode amplifier called as wide band amplifier?
3. What are the characteristics of a cascode amplifier?
4. List out the uses of cascode amplifier.
5. Name some multistage amplifier.
6. Which type of connection is made for cascode amplifier?
7. What is the most desirable feature of a transformer coupled amplifier?
8. Why cascode amplifier is called as wide band amplifier?
9. What are the characteristics of cascode amplifier?
10. Which type of coupling is used in the initial stages of a multi stage amplifier?
11. Compare the bandwidth of a single stage amplifier with that of a multi stage amplifier.



Aim:
To construct a differential amplifier using BJT and to determine
1. The transfer characteristic of transistors
2. Calculate the CMRR value

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 4
4 Multimeter - 1
5 Bread Board - 1
Expt. No. 8 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER USING BJT

Viva ? voce
36 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


6 Connecting wires - few

Formula:
Common mode Gain (Ac)= VO / VIN
Differential mode Gain (Ad)= V0 / VIN
where, VIN=V1 ? V2
Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) = Ad/Ac
where, Ad is the differential mode gain, Ac is the common mode gain.

Theory:
The differential amplifier is a basic stage of an integrated operational amplifier. It is used to amplify the
difference between two signals. It has excellent stability, high versatility and immunity to noise. In a practical
differential amplifier, the output depends not only upon the difference of the two signals but also depends upon
the common mode signal.
Transistor Q1 and Q2 have matched characteristics. The values of RC1 and RC2 are equal. Re1 and Re2 are also
equal and this. The output is taken between the two output terminals. For the differential mode operation the
input is taken from two different sources and the common mode operation the applied signals are taken from the
same source Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) is an important parameter of the differential amplifier.
CMRR is defined as the ratio of the differential mode gain, Ad to the common mode gain, Ac.
CMRR = Ad / Ac In ideal cases, the value of CMRR is very high.

Circuit Diagram:
Differential mode:







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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Result:
Thus the Darlington amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Darlington amplifier is used as high power amplifier
2. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe
voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
3. Darlington transistors can be used in high-current circuits, such as that involving computer control of
motors or relays. The current is amplified from the normal low level of the computer output line to the
amount needed by the connected device.
4. Power Regulators
5. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
6. Display drivers
7. Controlling of Solenoid
8. Light and touch sensors



1. What is a Darlington pair?
2. Give few applications of Darlington amplifier.
3. What are the advantages of using Darlington pair of transistors?
4. Why do you avoid RC or transformer coupling for amplifying extremely low frequency signals?
5. Why transformer coupling does give poor frequency response?
6. List out the techniques to improve the input impedance.
7. Why Darlington connection is given to the circuit?
8. What is meant by bootstrapping technique?
9. What is the value of reactance capacitances at low frequencies?
10. What is the name of an amplifier in which voltage gain is more important than power gain?
11. Whether Darlington connection can be used for more number of stages?
Viva ? voce
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12. What is meant by ?equivalent circuit? of a transistor?
13. List out the benefits of h-parameters.
14. Write the current gain of Darlington amplifier.
15. Write the voltage gain of Darlington amplifier.




Aim:
To construct a Cascade amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 8
3 Capacitor As per design 5
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
Multistage amplifiers are made up of single transistor amplifiers connected in cascade. The first stage usually
provides a high input impedance to minimize loading the source (transducer). The middle stages usually account
for most of the desired voltage gain. The final stage provides a low output impedance to prevent loss of signal
(gain) and to be able to handle the amount of current required by the load. In analyzing multistage amplifiers, the
loading effect of the next stage must be considered since the input impedance of the next stage acts as the load
for the current stage. Therefore the AC analysis of a multistage amplifier is usually done starting with the final
stage. The individual stages are usually coupled by either capacitor or direct coupling. Capacitor coupling is most
often used when the signals being amplified are AC signals. In capacitor coupling, the stages are separated by a
Expt. No. 6 CASCADE AMPLIFIER
29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


capacitor which blocks the DC voltages between each stage. This DC blocking prevents the bias point of each
stage from being upset.



Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. For stage 1, Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Perform frequency response analysis for stage 2.
6. Connect the output of stage 1 to the input of stage 2 by capacitive coupling
7. Perform frequency response analysis for the cascade stage.

Tabulation:
Stage 1:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)
30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00











Stage 2:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)








Model Graph:


Cascade Stage:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascade amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascade amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Cascading amplifiers are used to increase signal strength in Television receiver.
2. Used in computers,
3. Used in regulator circuits
4. It also forms a building block for differential amplifiers and operational amplifiers.



1 What is an effect of cascading?
2 List out the difference between cascade and cascode amplifiers.
3 Give the reason why RC coupling is not used to amplify extremely low frequencies.
4 What type of coupling is used in final stage of the multistage transistor amplifier?
5 What do you understand by multistage transistor amplifier?
6 Why is transformer coupling used in the final stage of a multistage amplifier?
7 How will you achieve impedance matching with transformer coupling?
8 Why do you prefer to express the gain in db?
9 Give the advantages of RC coupling.
10 In a RC coupled amplifier, what will be the voltage gain over the mid-frequency range?
11 When we use transformer coupling?
Viva ? voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12 What is the other name of upper and lower cutoff frequency?
13 What is the purpose of RC or transformer coupling?
14 What type of transformer is normally used for impedance matching?
15 What is meant by direct coupling?









Aim:
To construct a cascode amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 5
3 Capacitor As per design 4
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
An important amplifier configuration is known as cascode amplifier. It consists of a common-emitter (CE) stage
followed by a common-base (CB) stage as shown in figure. The common-emitter configuration presents a
relatively high input resistance
e ac
r * ) 1 ( ? ? to the signal source. The common-base configuration presents a
Expt. No. 7 CASCODE AMPLIFIER
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


very low input resistance
e
r . By replacing the collector resistance
C
R in the CE amplifier stage with a common
base CB amplifier stage, the CE-CB configuration virtually eliminates the Miller effect of
1 u
C . This will lead to
higher 3dB frequency than is possible with a simple common-emitter amplifier. An extension in the upper cutoff
frequency is achieved without reducing the midband gain (Gain-Bandwidth rule), since the collector of Q2 carries
a current almost equal to the collector current of Q1. Another reason for extending the upper cutoff frequency is
that, in the CB configuration the Miller effect does not exist and does not limit the high-frequency response.
Notice that the effective load resistance seen by the CE transistor Q1 is very low and equal to the input resistance
e
r of the CB transistor Q2. The transistor Q2 acts as a current buffer or an impedance transformer.


Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)












Model Graph:

Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascode amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascode amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.
Practical Applications
35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Cascode amplifier has high output impedance and high gain
2. It is used to insulate o/p and i/p (coupling due to parasitic capacitances (Cgd)).
3. Cascode doesn?t contribute to noise and mismatch and it is used to improve gain.


1. What is cascading and cascoding?
2. Why is a cascode amplifier called as wide band amplifier?
3. What are the characteristics of a cascode amplifier?
4. List out the uses of cascode amplifier.
5. Name some multistage amplifier.
6. Which type of connection is made for cascode amplifier?
7. What is the most desirable feature of a transformer coupled amplifier?
8. Why cascode amplifier is called as wide band amplifier?
9. What are the characteristics of cascode amplifier?
10. Which type of coupling is used in the initial stages of a multi stage amplifier?
11. Compare the bandwidth of a single stage amplifier with that of a multi stage amplifier.



Aim:
To construct a differential amplifier using BJT and to determine
1. The transfer characteristic of transistors
2. Calculate the CMRR value

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 4
4 Multimeter - 1
5 Bread Board - 1
Expt. No. 8 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER USING BJT

Viva ? voce
36 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


6 Connecting wires - few

Formula:
Common mode Gain (Ac)= VO / VIN
Differential mode Gain (Ad)= V0 / VIN
where, VIN=V1 ? V2
Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) = Ad/Ac
where, Ad is the differential mode gain, Ac is the common mode gain.

Theory:
The differential amplifier is a basic stage of an integrated operational amplifier. It is used to amplify the
difference between two signals. It has excellent stability, high versatility and immunity to noise. In a practical
differential amplifier, the output depends not only upon the difference of the two signals but also depends upon
the common mode signal.
Transistor Q1 and Q2 have matched characteristics. The values of RC1 and RC2 are equal. Re1 and Re2 are also
equal and this. The output is taken between the two output terminals. For the differential mode operation the
input is taken from two different sources and the common mode operation the applied signals are taken from the
same source Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) is an important parameter of the differential amplifier.
CMRR is defined as the ratio of the differential mode gain, Ad to the common mode gain, Ac.
CMRR = Ad / Ac In ideal cases, the value of CMRR is very high.

Circuit Diagram:
Differential mode:







37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00








Tabulation:
Vin1(V) Vin2(V) Vin (V) Vo1(V) Vo2(V) Vo(V) AD







Circuit Diagram:
Common Mode:
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?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common emitter amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common emitter amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as Low frequency voltage amplifier.
2. Common-emitter amplifiers are also used in radio frequency transceiver circuits. (Radio)
3. Common emitter configuration commonly used in low-noise amplifiers.
4. Common emitter amplifiers have both voltage and current gain, hence they are used as driving stages of
many audio amplifiers. It can amplify headphone audio, condenser mic audio.
5. Common emitter amplifiers are also used in output drive stages of a large LED circuit or in a circuit with
multiple loads like LED, Buzzer, Resistor, coils, etc.


1. What is an Amplifier?
2. What is meant by Self Bias & fixed Bias circuits, which one is preferred and why?
3. What is quiescent point? What are the various parameters of the transistor that cause drift in Q-point?
4. What is meant Band width, Lower cut-off and Upper cut-off frequency?
5. How the junctions of Transistor are biased in ON state and OFF state?
6. What is meant by single stage amplifier?
7. Who invented the transistor?
8. What is meant by thermal runaway?
9. For faithful amplification, in what region the transistor operates?
10. What is the need for biasing?
11. List out the types of biasing methods in BJT.
12. List out the advantages of common emitter amplifier.
13. What is the function of input capacitor Cin ?
14. What is the function of output capacitor Cout?
15. What is meant by d.c. load line?
16. Define ? Operating Point
17. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the cut-off region?
18. What will happen to the output signal if the operating point locates nearer to the saturation region?
19. What is meant by a.c. load line?
20. What is meant by Beta?
21. Give the relationship between Alpha and Beta.
22. What is the phase difference between the output and input voltages of a CE amplifier?
23. What is the purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier?
24. To obtain highest power gain, which transistor configuration is used?
25. What is the other name CE amplifier?
Viva ? voce
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common collector amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Capacitor As per design 2
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In common-collector amplifier, the input is given at the base and the output is taken at the emitter. In this
amplifier, there is no phase inversion between input and output. The input impedance of the CC amplifier is very
high and output impedance is low. The voltage gain is less than unity. Here the collector is at ac ground and the
capacitors used must have a negligible reactance at the frequency of operation. This amplifier is used for
impedance matching and as a buffer amplifier. This circuit is also known as an emitter follower.

Circuit Diagram:



Expt. No. 2 COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? ? ?? ??
VE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =


Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).



12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common collector amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common collector amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of
the amplifier.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Common-emitter amplifiers are used as audio amplifier and audio tuners
2. These configurations are widely used in impedance matching applications because of their high input
impedance.
3. It is used as a switching circuit.
4. The high current gain combined with near unity voltage gain makes this circuit a great voltage buffer
5. It is also used for circuit isolation.



1. What is the other name for CC Amplifier?
2. What are the uses of CC Amplifier?
3. Why this amplifier has got the name Emitter Follower?
4. What is the maximum Voltage gain of an Emitter Follower?
5. Why it is used as a Buffer amplifier?
6. What is the input resistance of common collector amplifier?
7. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
8. In common collector amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
9. What is the current amplification factor for common collector amplifier?
10. To draw a d.c. equivalent circuit of a transistor amplifier, how capacitors are considered?
11. What is the purpose of coupling capacitor in a transistor amplifier?
12. If a transistor amplifier feeds a load ( ex. Speaker)of low resistance, then what should be the value of the
voltage gain?
13. What is the significance of operating point?
14. What is the importance of load line analysis?
15. Why does a.c. load line differ from d.c. load line?
16. Does phase reversal affect amplification?
17. What type of capacitors is used in transistor amplifier?
18. What will happen to the transistor amplifier if the input capacitor is short circuited?
19. Why the transistor amplifier has high output impedance?
20. Why common collector configuration is used for impedance matching?
21. List out the different types of biasing.
22. Define ? Thermal runway
Viva ? voce
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


23. What is the range ? of a BJT?
24. What are the input and output impedances of CC configuration?
25. Define current gain in CC configuration?
26. Why CE configuration is preferred for amplification?






























15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





Aim:
To construct a common base amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few
Theory:
In the common-base configuration, the input signal is applied to the emitter, the output is taken from the
collector, and the base is the element common to both input and output. The common-base configuration has a
low input resistance and a high output resistance. However, two factors limit its usefulness in some circuit
applications: (1) its low input resistance and (2) its current gain of less than 1. Since the CB configuration will give
voltage amplification, there are some additional applications, which require both a low-input resistance and
voltage amplification that could use a circuit configuration of this type.






Expt. No. 3

COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Circuit Diagram:

Design:
Given
Vcc = 15 V; Ic = 10mA
To find?? ????
:
?? ????
=
?? ????
2
=
VCE =
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
RE =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VB:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VB =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common base amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common base amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Common base amplifier is used in moving coil microphone preamplifiers. These microphones have very
low impedance levels.
2. It is used in UHF and VHF RF amplifiers.
3. It is mainly used at high frequencies where low source resistance is common.
4. It is used for impedance matching in circuits with very low output resistances to those with a high input
resistance.



1. What is the significance of Emitter Resistance?
2. If bypass capacitor is removed, what happens to the gain?
3. What is the current gain in C.B. Amplifier?
4. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a silicon-small signal transistor?
5. What is the ?cut ? in? voltage of a germanium-small signal transistor?
6. When will the transistor is said to be in saturation region?
7. When will the transistor is said to be in cut-off region?
8. What is the current amplification factor for common base configuration?
Viva ? voce
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


9. What is the input resistance of common base amplifier?
10. What is the output resistance of common collector amplifier?
11. In common base amplifier, the input signal is applied to which terminal?
12. List out the applications of common base amplifiers.
13. What will happen to the transistor if it is not properly biased?
14. Why voltage divider biasing is commonly used in amplifiers?
15. What is meant by bias compensation?
16. What is meant by bias stabilization?
17. Which type of BJT configurations has the lowest output impedance?
18. Why common collector circuit is known as an emitter follower?
19. In which direction the current ICBO flows?























20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Aim:
To construct a common source amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 JFET BFW10 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
A field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor commonly used for weak-signal amplification. The device
can amplify analog or digital signals. It can also switch DC or function as an oscillator. In the FET, current flows
along a semiconductor path called the channel. At one end of the channel, there is an electrode called the
source. At the other end of the channel, there is an electrode called the drain. The physical diameter of the
channel is fixed, but its effective electrical diameter can be varied by the application of a voltage to a control
electrode called the gate. Field-effect transistors exist in two major classifications. These are known as the
junction FET (JFET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET(MOSFET). The junction FET has a channel
consisting of N-type semiconductor (N-channel) or P-type semiconductor (P-channel) material; the gate is made
of the opposite semiconductor type.
In P-type material, electric charges are carried mainly in the form of electron deficiencies called holes. In N-
type material, the charge carriers are primarily electrons. In a JFET, the junction is the boundary between the
channel and the gate. Normally, this P-N junction is reverse-biased (a DC voltage is applied to it) so that no
current flows between the channel and the gate. However, under some conditions there is a small current
Expt. No. 4 COMMON SOURCE AMPLIFIER

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


through the junction during part of the input signal cycle. The FET has some advantages and some
disadvantages relative to the bipolar transistor. Field-effect transistors are preferred for weak-signal work, for
example in wireless, communications and broadcast receivers. They are also preferred in circuits and systems
requiring high impedance. The FET is not, in general, used for high-power amplification, such as is required in
large wireless communications and broadcast transmitters.
Field-Effect Transistors are fabricated onto silicon Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. A single IC can contain many
thousands of FETs, along with other components such as resistors, capacitors, and diodes.
Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).







22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the common source amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a common source amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Practical Applications
1. Power Regulators
2. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
3. Used as switch




1. What are the advantages of JFET over BJT?
2. Why input resistance in FET amplifier is more than the BJT amplifier?
3. Write the mathematical equation for gm in terms of gmo?
4. Why JFET has high input impedance?
5. List out the terminals in JFET.
6. What is the other name of JFET?
7. How gate terminal of JFET is bias?
8. What is the input control parameter of a JFET?
9. What is the output voltage of common source amplifier?
10. List out the advantages of JFET.
11. What is meant by VVR?
12. Why JFET is called unipolar transistor?
13. What is the importance of JFET?
14. In a JFET, what will happen to the depletion layers when drain voltage is equal to the pinch-off voltage?
15. Name the basic JFET amplifier configuration.
16. What is the other name of source follower?
17. Mention the applications of FET amplifier?
18. What are the differences between CS,CG and CD amplifier?
19. Mention the characteristics of CS amplifier?
20. What is gain BW product?
21. List out the different types of biasing for JFET.
22. Why FET is called as unipolar device?
23. Why the CS amplifier may be viewed as a transconductance amplifier or as a voltage amplifier?



Viva ? voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
In Darlington connection of transistors, emitter of the first transistor is directly connected to the base of the
second transistor. Because of direct coupling, dc output current of the first stage is (1+hfe )Ib1. If Darlington
connection for n transistor is considered, then due to direct coupling the dc output current foe last stage is (1+hfe )
n times Ib1.Due to very large amplification factor even two stage Darlington connection has large output current
and output stage may have to be a power stage. As the power amplifiers are not used in the amplifier circuits, it
is not possible to use more than two transistors in the Darlington connection. In Darlington transistor connection,
the leakage current of the first transistor is amplified by the second transistor and overall leakage current may be
high, which is not desired.
Circuit Diagram:
Expt. No. 5 DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Design:
ICQ = 50 mA
VCEQ = 15 V
?? ?? =
?? ????
10
\
VE =
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
1.5
50 mA

RE =
Apply KVL to output loop,
VCC = ICRC + VCE + ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ?? =
?? ????
??? ????
??? ??
?? ??
RC =
R2 0.1? RE
R2 =


VCC
R1
R1 =
Procedure:
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.

Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Result:
Thus the Darlington amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a Darlington amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Darlington amplifier is used as high power amplifier
2. A Darlington pair can be sensitive enough to respond to the current passed by skin contact even at safe
voltages. Thus it can form the input stage of a touch-sensitive switch.
3. Darlington transistors can be used in high-current circuits, such as that involving computer control of
motors or relays. The current is amplified from the normal low level of the computer output line to the
amount needed by the connected device.
4. Power Regulators
5. Audio Amplifier o/p stages
6. Display drivers
7. Controlling of Solenoid
8. Light and touch sensors



1. What is a Darlington pair?
2. Give few applications of Darlington amplifier.
3. What are the advantages of using Darlington pair of transistors?
4. Why do you avoid RC or transformer coupling for amplifying extremely low frequency signals?
5. Why transformer coupling does give poor frequency response?
6. List out the techniques to improve the input impedance.
7. Why Darlington connection is given to the circuit?
8. What is meant by bootstrapping technique?
9. What is the value of reactance capacitances at low frequencies?
10. What is the name of an amplifier in which voltage gain is more important than power gain?
11. Whether Darlington connection can be used for more number of stages?
Viva ? voce
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12. What is meant by ?equivalent circuit? of a transistor?
13. List out the benefits of h-parameters.
14. Write the current gain of Darlington amplifier.
15. Write the voltage gain of Darlington amplifier.




Aim:
To construct a Cascade amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 8
3 Capacitor As per design 5
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
Multistage amplifiers are made up of single transistor amplifiers connected in cascade. The first stage usually
provides a high input impedance to minimize loading the source (transducer). The middle stages usually account
for most of the desired voltage gain. The final stage provides a low output impedance to prevent loss of signal
(gain) and to be able to handle the amount of current required by the load. In analyzing multistage amplifiers, the
loading effect of the next stage must be considered since the input impedance of the next stage acts as the load
for the current stage. Therefore the AC analysis of a multistage amplifier is usually done starting with the final
stage. The individual stages are usually coupled by either capacitor or direct coupling. Capacitor coupling is most
often used when the signals being amplified are AC signals. In capacitor coupling, the stages are separated by a
Expt. No. 6 CASCADE AMPLIFIER
29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


capacitor which blocks the DC voltages between each stage. This DC blocking prevents the bias point of each
stage from being upset.



Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. For stage 1, Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) vs Frequency (Hz)).
5. Perform frequency response analysis for stage 2.
6. Connect the output of stage 1 to the input of stage 2 by capacitive coupling
7. Perform frequency response analysis for the cascade stage.

Tabulation:
Stage 1:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)
30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00











Stage 2:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)








Model Graph:


Cascade Stage:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascade amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascade amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.

Practical Applications
1. Cascading amplifiers are used to increase signal strength in Television receiver.
2. Used in computers,
3. Used in regulator circuits
4. It also forms a building block for differential amplifiers and operational amplifiers.



1 What is an effect of cascading?
2 List out the difference between cascade and cascode amplifiers.
3 Give the reason why RC coupling is not used to amplify extremely low frequencies.
4 What type of coupling is used in final stage of the multistage transistor amplifier?
5 What do you understand by multistage transistor amplifier?
6 Why is transformer coupling used in the final stage of a multistage amplifier?
7 How will you achieve impedance matching with transformer coupling?
8 Why do you prefer to express the gain in db?
9 Give the advantages of RC coupling.
10 In a RC coupled amplifier, what will be the voltage gain over the mid-frequency range?
11 When we use transformer coupling?
Viva ? voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


12 What is the other name of upper and lower cutoff frequency?
13 What is the purpose of RC or transformer coupling?
14 What type of transformer is normally used for impedance matching?
15 What is meant by direct coupling?









Aim:
To construct a cascode amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 5
3 Capacitor As per design 4
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
An important amplifier configuration is known as cascode amplifier. It consists of a common-emitter (CE) stage
followed by a common-base (CB) stage as shown in figure. The common-emitter configuration presents a
relatively high input resistance
e ac
r * ) 1 ( ? ? to the signal source. The common-base configuration presents a
Expt. No. 7 CASCODE AMPLIFIER
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


very low input resistance
e
r . By replacing the collector resistance
C
R in the CE amplifier stage with a common
base CB amplifier stage, the CE-CB configuration virtually eliminates the Miller effect of
1 u
C . This will lead to
higher 3dB frequency than is possible with a simple common-emitter amplifier. An extension in the upper cutoff
frequency is achieved without reducing the midband gain (Gain-Bandwidth rule), since the collector of Q2 carries
a current almost equal to the collector current of Q1. Another reason for extending the upper cutoff frequency is
that, in the CB configuration the Miller effect does not exist and does not limit the high-frequency response.
Notice that the effective load resistance seen by the CE transistor Q1 is very low and equal to the input resistance
e
r of the CB transistor Q2. The transistor Q2 acts as a current buffer or an impedance transformer.


Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value. (eg: 20 mV).
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).

Tabulation:
34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)












Model Graph:

Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =
fH (Hz) =
Bandwidth (Hz) = fH - fL
Bandwidth (Hz) =

Result:
Thus the cascode amplifier circuit has been designed and the frequency response is obtained.

Outcome:
Able to design and construct a cascode amplifier circuit and determine the frequency response of the
amplifier.
Practical Applications
35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


1. Cascode amplifier has high output impedance and high gain
2. It is used to insulate o/p and i/p (coupling due to parasitic capacitances (Cgd)).
3. Cascode doesn?t contribute to noise and mismatch and it is used to improve gain.


1. What is cascading and cascoding?
2. Why is a cascode amplifier called as wide band amplifier?
3. What are the characteristics of a cascode amplifier?
4. List out the uses of cascode amplifier.
5. Name some multistage amplifier.
6. Which type of connection is made for cascode amplifier?
7. What is the most desirable feature of a transformer coupled amplifier?
8. Why cascode amplifier is called as wide band amplifier?
9. What are the characteristics of cascode amplifier?
10. Which type of coupling is used in the initial stages of a multi stage amplifier?
11. Compare the bandwidth of a single stage amplifier with that of a multi stage amplifier.



Aim:
To construct a differential amplifier using BJT and to determine
1. The transfer characteristic of transistors
2. Calculate the CMRR value

Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistor As per design 3
3 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 4
4 Multimeter - 1
5 Bread Board - 1
Expt. No. 8 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER USING BJT

Viva ? voce
36 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


6 Connecting wires - few

Formula:
Common mode Gain (Ac)= VO / VIN
Differential mode Gain (Ad)= V0 / VIN
where, VIN=V1 ? V2
Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) = Ad/Ac
where, Ad is the differential mode gain, Ac is the common mode gain.

Theory:
The differential amplifier is a basic stage of an integrated operational amplifier. It is used to amplify the
difference between two signals. It has excellent stability, high versatility and immunity to noise. In a practical
differential amplifier, the output depends not only upon the difference of the two signals but also depends upon
the common mode signal.
Transistor Q1 and Q2 have matched characteristics. The values of RC1 and RC2 are equal. Re1 and Re2 are also
equal and this. The output is taken between the two output terminals. For the differential mode operation the
input is taken from two different sources and the common mode operation the applied signals are taken from the
same source Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) is an important parameter of the differential amplifier.
CMRR is defined as the ratio of the differential mode gain, Ad to the common mode gain, Ac.
CMRR = Ad / Ac In ideal cases, the value of CMRR is very high.

Circuit Diagram:
Differential mode:







37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00








Tabulation:
Vin1(V) Vin2(V) Vin (V) Vo1(V) Vo2(V) Vo(V) AD







Circuit Diagram:
Common Mode:
38 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulation:
Vin (V) Vo1(V) Vo2(V) Vo(V) AD


Procedure:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. To determine the common mode gain, set input signal with voltage VIN and determine Vo
at the collector terminals. Calculate common mode gain, Ac=Vo/Vin.
3. To determine the differential mode gain, set input signals with voltages V1 and V2.
Compute Vin=V1-V2 and find Vo at the collector terminals. Calculate differential mode
gain, Ad=Vo/Vin.
4. Calculate the CMRR= Ad / Ac.

Result:
Thus the differential amplifier using BJT have been designed and the CMRR is calculated.

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DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

III SEMESTER - R 2017

EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY







Name : _______________________________________
Register No : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the
challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation and
ethical practices
VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice this enables
them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in the
students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering issues to
broader social context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in the
large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career







3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in Electronics
and Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of electronics and
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and demonstrate awareness of
contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams







4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


? To study the Frequency response of CE, CB and CC Amplifier
? To learn the frequency response of CS Amplifiers
? To study the Transfer characteristics of differential amplifier
? To perform experiment to obtain the bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
? To perform SPICE simulation of Electronic Circuits
? To design and implement the Combinational and sequential logic circuits
LIST OF ANALOG EXPERIMENTS:
1. Design of Regulated Power supplies
2. Frequency Response of CE, CB, CC and CS amplifiers
3. Darlington Amplifier
4. Differential Amplifiers - Transfer characteristics, CMRR Measurement
5. Cascode and Cascade amplifiers
6. Determination of bandwidth of single stage and multistage amplifiers
7. Analysis of BJT with Fixed bias and Voltage divider bias using Spice
8. Analysis of FET, MOSFET with fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias using simulation
software like Spice
9. Analysis of Cascode and Cascade amplifiers using Spice
10. Analysis of Frequency Response of BJT and FET using Spice
LIST OF DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
1. Design and implementation of code converters using logic gates
(i) BCD to excess-3 code and vice versa
(ii) Binary to gray and vice-versa
2. Design and implementation of 4 bit binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD adder using IC 7483
3. Design and implementation of Multiplexer and De-multiplexer using logic gates
4. Design and implementation of encoder and decoder using logic gates
5. Construction and verification of 4 bit ripple counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12 Ripple counters
6. Design and implementation of 3-bit synchronous up/down counter









? Differentiate cascode and cascade amplifier.
? Analyze the limitation in bandwidth of single stage and multi stage amplifier
? Simulate amplifiers using PSpice
? Measure CMRR in differential amplifier
COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


EC8361 ? ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
ANALOG EXPERIMENTS
1
Common Emitter Amplifier 6
2
Common Collector Amplifier
10
3
Common Base Amplifier 14
4
Common Source Amplifier 18
5
Darlington Amplifier
22
6
Cascade Amplifier
26
7
Cascode Amplifier 30
8
Differential Amplifier 33
9
Simulation of Common Emitter and Common Source Amplifier using PSpice
37
DIGITAL EXPERIMENTS
10
Design and Implementation of Code Converters
41
11 Design and Implementation of 4 Bit Binary Adder/ Subtractor and BCD Adder
48
12 Design and Implementation of Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer 52
13 Design and Implementation of Encoder and Decoder 56
14
Construction and Verification of 4 Bit Ripple Counter and Mod-10 / Mod-12
Ripple Counters
59
15 Design and Implementation of 3-Bit Synchronous Up/Down Counter 63
16 Shift Registers
66
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
17
Study of Op-Amp IC741
70
18
Application of Op-Amp
76

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Aim:
To construct a Common Emitter amplifier circuit and plot the frequency response
Apparatus Required:
S. No. Apparatus Range Quantity
1 Transistor BC107 1
2 Resistor As per design 4
3 Capacitor As per design 3
4 Power Supply (0 ? 30)V 1
5 Function Generator (0 ? 3)MHz 1
6 CRO (0 ? 30)MHz 1
7 Bread Board - 1
8 Connecting wires - few

Theory:
The CE amplifier provides high gain and wide frequency response. The emitter lead is common to both input &
output circuits and is grounded. The emitter-base circuit is forward biased. The collector current is controlled by
the base current rather than the emitter current. The input signal is applied to base terminal of the transistor and
amplifier output is taken across the collector terminal. A very small change in base current produces a much
larger change in collector current. When positive half-cycle is fed to the input circuit, it opposes the forward bias
of the circuit which causes the collector current to decrease, it decreases the voltage further more negative. Thus
when input cycle varies through a negative half-cycle, it increases the forward bias of the circuit, which causes
the collector current to increases thus the output signal in common emitter amplifier is out of phase with the input
signal.

Circuit Diagram:


COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER

Expt. No. 1
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Design:
Given:
Vcc = 10 V; Ic = 10mA
To find VE:
VE =
?? ????
10
=
To find RE:
?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
Find ? from given transistor.
To find R2:
Condition to be3 satisfied: R2 ? 0.1?RE
R2 =
To find VBE:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ? ?? ??
?? ?? = ?? ????
+ ?? ??
VBE =
To find R1:
?? 1
=
?? 2
?? ????
?? ?? ? ?? 2

R1 =
To find RC:
?? ????
= ?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ????
+ ?? ?? ?? ??
?? ????
? ?? ????
? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? = ?? ??
Rc =

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the input voltage to a constant value.
3. Vary the input frequency 0 Hz to 1 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output
voltage.
4. Plot the graph (Gain (dB) Vs Frequency (Hz)).


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tabulation:
Input voltage, Vin (V) =
Frequency (Hz)
Output Voltage ( volts)
Vo
Gain= 20 log(Vo/Vin) (dB)





Model Graph:


Bandwidth Calculation:
fL (Hz) =