Download Anna University B-Tech ECE 5th Sem Communication Systems CS Lab Manual Question Paper

Download Anna University B.Tech (Bachelor of Technology) ECE (Electronics And Communications Engineering) 5th Sem Communication Systems CS Lab Manual Question Paper.

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


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Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




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Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


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Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








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AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
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C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















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Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










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FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















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Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

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Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 5 PCM MODULATION & DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator detect the message signal from PCM signal by using PCM
demodulator
Apparatus Required:
1. PCM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice or any data input is
first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) then quantized. Quantization is the process of
converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary number with fixed number of bits. This quantization
can be either mid tread or mid raise it can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in
speech signals, the higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are
given less step size than the lower amplitudes thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After quantization
the signal is digital the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then launched into the channel
serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames .Each frame is de-quantized to an
equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit the analog signal is passed through a ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword
is passed through a parallel to serial converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to
Parallel converter and then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks
for synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms can be
observed on a CRO for DC without problem. AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.
Procedure:
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








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EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
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EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





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CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
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Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









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Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

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Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
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Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
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Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


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Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























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TDM Trainer Kit




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Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


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Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

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Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









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Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








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AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















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AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






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Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















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Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
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FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















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Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 5 PCM MODULATION & DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator detect the message signal from PCM signal by using PCM
demodulator
Apparatus Required:
1. PCM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice or any data input is
first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) then quantized. Quantization is the process of
converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary number with fixed number of bits. This quantization
can be either mid tread or mid raise it can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in
speech signals, the higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are
given less step size than the lower amplitudes thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After quantization
the signal is digital the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then launched into the channel
serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames .Each frame is de-quantized to an
equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit the analog signal is passed through a ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword
is passed through a parallel to serial converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to
Parallel converter and then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks
for synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms can be
observed on a CRO for DC without problem. AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.
Procedure:
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Connect the DC input to the ADC measure the voltage.
5. Connect the clock to the timing control circuit.
6. Note the binary work from LED display. The serial data through the channel can be observed in the CRO.
7. Also observe the binary word at the receiver end.
8. Now apply the AC modulating signal at the input.
9. Observe the waveform at the output of DAC.
10. Note the amplitude of the input voltage the codeword. Also note the value of the output voltage. Show the
codeword graphically for a DC input.
Block diagram of PCM Transmission system




FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 5 PCM MODULATION & DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator detect the message signal from PCM signal by using PCM
demodulator
Apparatus Required:
1. PCM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice or any data input is
first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) then quantized. Quantization is the process of
converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary number with fixed number of bits. This quantization
can be either mid tread or mid raise it can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in
speech signals, the higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are
given less step size than the lower amplitudes thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After quantization
the signal is digital the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then launched into the channel
serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames .Each frame is de-quantized to an
equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit the analog signal is passed through a ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword
is passed through a parallel to serial converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to
Parallel converter and then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks
for synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms can be
observed on a CRO for DC without problem. AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.
Procedure:
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Connect the DC input to the ADC measure the voltage.
5. Connect the clock to the timing control circuit.
6. Note the binary work from LED display. The serial data through the channel can be observed in the CRO.
7. Also observe the binary word at the receiver end.
8. Now apply the AC modulating signal at the input.
9. Observe the waveform at the output of DAC.
10. Note the amplitude of the input voltage the codeword. Also note the value of the output voltage. Show the
codeword graphically for a DC input.
Block diagram of PCM Transmission system




34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PCM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit























FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
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EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
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Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









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Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

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Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
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Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
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Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


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Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























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TDM Trainer Kit




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Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


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Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

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Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






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Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









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Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








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AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















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AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






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Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
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12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















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Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
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FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
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C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















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Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










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FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

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Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 5 PCM MODULATION & DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator detect the message signal from PCM signal by using PCM
demodulator
Apparatus Required:
1. PCM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice or any data input is
first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) then quantized. Quantization is the process of
converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary number with fixed number of bits. This quantization
can be either mid tread or mid raise it can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in
speech signals, the higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are
given less step size than the lower amplitudes thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After quantization
the signal is digital the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then launched into the channel
serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames .Each frame is de-quantized to an
equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit the analog signal is passed through a ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword
is passed through a parallel to serial converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to
Parallel converter and then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks
for synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms can be
observed on a CRO for DC without problem. AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.
Procedure:
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
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4. Connect the DC input to the ADC measure the voltage.
5. Connect the clock to the timing control circuit.
6. Note the binary work from LED display. The serial data through the channel can be observed in the CRO.
7. Also observe the binary word at the receiver end.
8. Now apply the AC modulating signal at the input.
9. Observe the waveform at the output of DAC.
10. Note the amplitude of the input voltage the codeword. Also note the value of the output voltage. Show the
codeword graphically for a DC input.
Block diagram of PCM Transmission system




34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PCM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit























35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation

Result:
Thus the PCM wave generated for the given DC or sinusoidal signals using Trainer.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the pulse code
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Military Applications.
2. The PCM is used in the satellite transmission system.
SIGNALS AMPLITUDE (V) TIME PERIOD (s)
DC Input
Sampled Signal
Clock Pulse
PCM Output
DC Output
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
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Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









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Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

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Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
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Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


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Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























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TDM Trainer Kit




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Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


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Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

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Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






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Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









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Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








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AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















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AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






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Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















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Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
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FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
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C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















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Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










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FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















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Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

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Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 5 PCM MODULATION & DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator detect the message signal from PCM signal by using PCM
demodulator
Apparatus Required:
1. PCM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice or any data input is
first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) then quantized. Quantization is the process of
converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary number with fixed number of bits. This quantization
can be either mid tread or mid raise it can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in
speech signals, the higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are
given less step size than the lower amplitudes thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After quantization
the signal is digital the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then launched into the channel
serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames .Each frame is de-quantized to an
equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit the analog signal is passed through a ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword
is passed through a parallel to serial converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to
Parallel converter and then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks
for synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms can be
observed on a CRO for DC without problem. AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.
Procedure:
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
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4. Connect the DC input to the ADC measure the voltage.
5. Connect the clock to the timing control circuit.
6. Note the binary work from LED display. The serial data through the channel can be observed in the CRO.
7. Also observe the binary word at the receiver end.
8. Now apply the AC modulating signal at the input.
9. Observe the waveform at the output of DAC.
10. Note the amplitude of the input voltage the codeword. Also note the value of the output voltage. Show the
codeword graphically for a DC input.
Block diagram of PCM Transmission system




34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PCM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit























35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation

Result:
Thus the PCM wave generated for the given DC or sinusoidal signals using Trainer.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the pulse code
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Military Applications.
2. The PCM is used in the satellite transmission system.
SIGNALS AMPLITUDE (V) TIME PERIOD (s)
DC Input
Sampled Signal
Clock Pulse
PCM Output
DC Output
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3. It is used in space communication.
4. It is used in telephony.
5. The compact disc (CD) is a recent application of PCM.


1. Define ? Modulation
2. State sampling theorem
3. Define ? Demodulation
4. Define ? Pulse Code Modulation
5. What is aliasing effect?
6. What is quantization?
7. Define ? Bit Rate
8. Define ? Baud Rate
9. What are the advantages of PCM?
10. Define ? Signal to Noise Ratio
11. What are the limitations of PCM?
12. What are the applications of PCM?
13. Define ? Encoding
14. Define ? Decoding
15. Define ? Nyquist Rate
16. What is multiplexing?
17. What is de-multiplexing?
18. What are the types of pulse modulation?
19. What should be the minimum bandwidth required to transmit a PCM channel?
20. What is the value of signal to noise ratio in PCM?







Viva - voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








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EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
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EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









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Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
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Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


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Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























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TDM Trainer Kit




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Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


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Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

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Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






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Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









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Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








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AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















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AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






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Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















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Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
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FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
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C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















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Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










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FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















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Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

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Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 5 PCM MODULATION & DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator detect the message signal from PCM signal by using PCM
demodulator
Apparatus Required:
1. PCM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice or any data input is
first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) then quantized. Quantization is the process of
converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary number with fixed number of bits. This quantization
can be either mid tread or mid raise it can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in
speech signals, the higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are
given less step size than the lower amplitudes thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After quantization
the signal is digital the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then launched into the channel
serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames .Each frame is de-quantized to an
equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit the analog signal is passed through a ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword
is passed through a parallel to serial converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to
Parallel converter and then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks
for synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms can be
observed on a CRO for DC without problem. AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.
Procedure:
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
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4. Connect the DC input to the ADC measure the voltage.
5. Connect the clock to the timing control circuit.
6. Note the binary work from LED display. The serial data through the channel can be observed in the CRO.
7. Also observe the binary word at the receiver end.
8. Now apply the AC modulating signal at the input.
9. Observe the waveform at the output of DAC.
10. Note the amplitude of the input voltage the codeword. Also note the value of the output voltage. Show the
codeword graphically for a DC input.
Block diagram of PCM Transmission system




34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PCM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit























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Model Graph:

Tabulation

Result:
Thus the PCM wave generated for the given DC or sinusoidal signals using Trainer.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the pulse code
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Military Applications.
2. The PCM is used in the satellite transmission system.
SIGNALS AMPLITUDE (V) TIME PERIOD (s)
DC Input
Sampled Signal
Clock Pulse
PCM Output
DC Output
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3. It is used in space communication.
4. It is used in telephony.
5. The compact disc (CD) is a recent application of PCM.


1. Define ? Modulation
2. State sampling theorem
3. Define ? Demodulation
4. Define ? Pulse Code Modulation
5. What is aliasing effect?
6. What is quantization?
7. Define ? Bit Rate
8. Define ? Baud Rate
9. What are the advantages of PCM?
10. Define ? Signal to Noise Ratio
11. What are the limitations of PCM?
12. What are the applications of PCM?
13. Define ? Encoding
14. Define ? Decoding
15. Define ? Nyquist Rate
16. What is multiplexing?
17. What is de-multiplexing?
18. What are the types of pulse modulation?
19. What should be the minimum bandwidth required to transmit a PCM channel?
20. What is the value of signal to noise ratio in PCM?







Viva - voce
37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 6 DELTA MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit an analog message signal in its digital form and reconstruct back the original analog message
signal at receiver by using Delta modulator
Apparatus required:
1. DM and ADM Trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Delta modulation is the DPCM technique of converting an analog message signal to a digital sequence. The
difference signal between two successive samples is encoded into a single bit code. A present sample of the
analog signal m(t) is compared with a previous sample , the difference output is level shifted, i.e. a positive level
(corresponding to bit 1) is given if difference is positive and negative level (corresponding to bit 0) if it is negative.
The comparison of samples is accomplished by converting the digital to analog form then comparing with the
present sample. This is done using an Up counter DAC. The delta modulated signal is given to up counter then to
a DAC. The analog input is given to OPAMP and LPF to obtain the demodulated output.
Procedure:
1. Switch on the kit. Connect the clock signal and the modulating input signal to the modulator block.
2. Observe the modulated signal in the CRO.
3. Connect the DM output to the demodulator circuit. Observe the demodulator output on the CRO.
4. Also observe the DAC output on the CRO.
5. Change the amplitude of the modulating signal.
6. Observe the DAC output. Notice the slope overload distortion.
7. Keep the tuning knob to minimize distortion.
8. Note this value of the amplitude. This is the minimum required value of the amplitude to overcome slope
overload distortion.
9. Calculate the sampling frequency required for no slope overload distortion.
10. Compare the calculated measured values of the sampling frequency.


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
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EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
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Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









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Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

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Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


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Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























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TDM Trainer Kit




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Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


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Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

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Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






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Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









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Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








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AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















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AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






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Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















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Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
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FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
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C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















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Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










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FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















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Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

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Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 5 PCM MODULATION & DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator detect the message signal from PCM signal by using PCM
demodulator
Apparatus Required:
1. PCM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice or any data input is
first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) then quantized. Quantization is the process of
converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary number with fixed number of bits. This quantization
can be either mid tread or mid raise it can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in
speech signals, the higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are
given less step size than the lower amplitudes thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After quantization
the signal is digital the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then launched into the channel
serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames .Each frame is de-quantized to an
equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit the analog signal is passed through a ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword
is passed through a parallel to serial converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to
Parallel converter and then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks
for synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms can be
observed on a CRO for DC without problem. AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.
Procedure:
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Connect the DC input to the ADC measure the voltage.
5. Connect the clock to the timing control circuit.
6. Note the binary work from LED display. The serial data through the channel can be observed in the CRO.
7. Also observe the binary word at the receiver end.
8. Now apply the AC modulating signal at the input.
9. Observe the waveform at the output of DAC.
10. Note the amplitude of the input voltage the codeword. Also note the value of the output voltage. Show the
codeword graphically for a DC input.
Block diagram of PCM Transmission system




34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PCM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit























35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation

Result:
Thus the PCM wave generated for the given DC or sinusoidal signals using Trainer.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the pulse code
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Military Applications.
2. The PCM is used in the satellite transmission system.
SIGNALS AMPLITUDE (V) TIME PERIOD (s)
DC Input
Sampled Signal
Clock Pulse
PCM Output
DC Output
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3. It is used in space communication.
4. It is used in telephony.
5. The compact disc (CD) is a recent application of PCM.


1. Define ? Modulation
2. State sampling theorem
3. Define ? Demodulation
4. Define ? Pulse Code Modulation
5. What is aliasing effect?
6. What is quantization?
7. Define ? Bit Rate
8. Define ? Baud Rate
9. What are the advantages of PCM?
10. Define ? Signal to Noise Ratio
11. What are the limitations of PCM?
12. What are the applications of PCM?
13. Define ? Encoding
14. Define ? Decoding
15. Define ? Nyquist Rate
16. What is multiplexing?
17. What is de-multiplexing?
18. What are the types of pulse modulation?
19. What should be the minimum bandwidth required to transmit a PCM channel?
20. What is the value of signal to noise ratio in PCM?







Viva - voce
37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 6 DELTA MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit an analog message signal in its digital form and reconstruct back the original analog message
signal at receiver by using Delta modulator
Apparatus required:
1. DM and ADM Trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Delta modulation is the DPCM technique of converting an analog message signal to a digital sequence. The
difference signal between two successive samples is encoded into a single bit code. A present sample of the
analog signal m(t) is compared with a previous sample , the difference output is level shifted, i.e. a positive level
(corresponding to bit 1) is given if difference is positive and negative level (corresponding to bit 0) if it is negative.
The comparison of samples is accomplished by converting the digital to analog form then comparing with the
present sample. This is done using an Up counter DAC. The delta modulated signal is given to up counter then to
a DAC. The analog input is given to OPAMP and LPF to obtain the demodulated output.
Procedure:
1. Switch on the kit. Connect the clock signal and the modulating input signal to the modulator block.
2. Observe the modulated signal in the CRO.
3. Connect the DM output to the demodulator circuit. Observe the demodulator output on the CRO.
4. Also observe the DAC output on the CRO.
5. Change the amplitude of the modulating signal.
6. Observe the DAC output. Notice the slope overload distortion.
7. Keep the tuning knob to minimize distortion.
8. Note this value of the amplitude. This is the minimum required value of the amplitude to overcome slope
overload distortion.
9. Calculate the sampling frequency required for no slope overload distortion.
10. Compare the calculated measured values of the sampling frequency.


38 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Block Diagram Delta modulator and demodulator










Delta Modulator















Delta Demodulator



FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
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Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









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Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

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Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
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Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


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Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


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Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

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Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






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Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









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Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








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AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















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AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






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Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
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FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
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C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















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Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










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FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















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Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 5 PCM MODULATION & DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator detect the message signal from PCM signal by using PCM
demodulator
Apparatus Required:
1. PCM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice or any data input is
first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) then quantized. Quantization is the process of
converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary number with fixed number of bits. This quantization
can be either mid tread or mid raise it can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in
speech signals, the higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are
given less step size than the lower amplitudes thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After quantization
the signal is digital the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then launched into the channel
serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames .Each frame is de-quantized to an
equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit the analog signal is passed through a ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword
is passed through a parallel to serial converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to
Parallel converter and then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks
for synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms can be
observed on a CRO for DC without problem. AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.
Procedure:
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Connect the DC input to the ADC measure the voltage.
5. Connect the clock to the timing control circuit.
6. Note the binary work from LED display. The serial data through the channel can be observed in the CRO.
7. Also observe the binary word at the receiver end.
8. Now apply the AC modulating signal at the input.
9. Observe the waveform at the output of DAC.
10. Note the amplitude of the input voltage the codeword. Also note the value of the output voltage. Show the
codeword graphically for a DC input.
Block diagram of PCM Transmission system




34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PCM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit























35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation

Result:
Thus the PCM wave generated for the given DC or sinusoidal signals using Trainer.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the pulse code
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Military Applications.
2. The PCM is used in the satellite transmission system.
SIGNALS AMPLITUDE (V) TIME PERIOD (s)
DC Input
Sampled Signal
Clock Pulse
PCM Output
DC Output
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3. It is used in space communication.
4. It is used in telephony.
5. The compact disc (CD) is a recent application of PCM.


1. Define ? Modulation
2. State sampling theorem
3. Define ? Demodulation
4. Define ? Pulse Code Modulation
5. What is aliasing effect?
6. What is quantization?
7. Define ? Bit Rate
8. Define ? Baud Rate
9. What are the advantages of PCM?
10. Define ? Signal to Noise Ratio
11. What are the limitations of PCM?
12. What are the applications of PCM?
13. Define ? Encoding
14. Define ? Decoding
15. Define ? Nyquist Rate
16. What is multiplexing?
17. What is de-multiplexing?
18. What are the types of pulse modulation?
19. What should be the minimum bandwidth required to transmit a PCM channel?
20. What is the value of signal to noise ratio in PCM?







Viva - voce
37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 6 DELTA MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit an analog message signal in its digital form and reconstruct back the original analog message
signal at receiver by using Delta modulator
Apparatus required:
1. DM and ADM Trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Delta modulation is the DPCM technique of converting an analog message signal to a digital sequence. The
difference signal between two successive samples is encoded into a single bit code. A present sample of the
analog signal m(t) is compared with a previous sample , the difference output is level shifted, i.e. a positive level
(corresponding to bit 1) is given if difference is positive and negative level (corresponding to bit 0) if it is negative.
The comparison of samples is accomplished by converting the digital to analog form then comparing with the
present sample. This is done using an Up counter DAC. The delta modulated signal is given to up counter then to
a DAC. The analog input is given to OPAMP and LPF to obtain the demodulated output.
Procedure:
1. Switch on the kit. Connect the clock signal and the modulating input signal to the modulator block.
2. Observe the modulated signal in the CRO.
3. Connect the DM output to the demodulator circuit. Observe the demodulator output on the CRO.
4. Also observe the DAC output on the CRO.
5. Change the amplitude of the modulating signal.
6. Observe the DAC output. Notice the slope overload distortion.
7. Keep the tuning knob to minimize distortion.
8. Note this value of the amplitude. This is the minimum required value of the amplitude to overcome slope
overload distortion.
9. Calculate the sampling frequency required for no slope overload distortion.
10. Compare the calculated measured values of the sampling frequency.


38 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Block Diagram Delta modulator and demodulator










Delta Modulator















Delta Demodulator



39 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Block diagram of Adaptive delta modulator and demodulator







Adaptive Delta Modulator








Adaptive Delta Demodulator






FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
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Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









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Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

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Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
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Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


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Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























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TDM Trainer Kit




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Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


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Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

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Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






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Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









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Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








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AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















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AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






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Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
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FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
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C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















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Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










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FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















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Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 5 PCM MODULATION & DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator detect the message signal from PCM signal by using PCM
demodulator
Apparatus Required:
1. PCM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice or any data input is
first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) then quantized. Quantization is the process of
converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary number with fixed number of bits. This quantization
can be either mid tread or mid raise it can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in
speech signals, the higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are
given less step size than the lower amplitudes thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After quantization
the signal is digital the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then launched into the channel
serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames .Each frame is de-quantized to an
equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit the analog signal is passed through a ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword
is passed through a parallel to serial converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to
Parallel converter and then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks
for synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms can be
observed on a CRO for DC without problem. AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.
Procedure:
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
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4. Connect the DC input to the ADC measure the voltage.
5. Connect the clock to the timing control circuit.
6. Note the binary work from LED display. The serial data through the channel can be observed in the CRO.
7. Also observe the binary word at the receiver end.
8. Now apply the AC modulating signal at the input.
9. Observe the waveform at the output of DAC.
10. Note the amplitude of the input voltage the codeword. Also note the value of the output voltage. Show the
codeword graphically for a DC input.
Block diagram of PCM Transmission system




34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PCM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit























35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation

Result:
Thus the PCM wave generated for the given DC or sinusoidal signals using Trainer.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the pulse code
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Military Applications.
2. The PCM is used in the satellite transmission system.
SIGNALS AMPLITUDE (V) TIME PERIOD (s)
DC Input
Sampled Signal
Clock Pulse
PCM Output
DC Output
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3. It is used in space communication.
4. It is used in telephony.
5. The compact disc (CD) is a recent application of PCM.


1. Define ? Modulation
2. State sampling theorem
3. Define ? Demodulation
4. Define ? Pulse Code Modulation
5. What is aliasing effect?
6. What is quantization?
7. Define ? Bit Rate
8. Define ? Baud Rate
9. What are the advantages of PCM?
10. Define ? Signal to Noise Ratio
11. What are the limitations of PCM?
12. What are the applications of PCM?
13. Define ? Encoding
14. Define ? Decoding
15. Define ? Nyquist Rate
16. What is multiplexing?
17. What is de-multiplexing?
18. What are the types of pulse modulation?
19. What should be the minimum bandwidth required to transmit a PCM channel?
20. What is the value of signal to noise ratio in PCM?







Viva - voce
37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 6 DELTA MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit an analog message signal in its digital form and reconstruct back the original analog message
signal at receiver by using Delta modulator
Apparatus required:
1. DM and ADM Trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Delta modulation is the DPCM technique of converting an analog message signal to a digital sequence. The
difference signal between two successive samples is encoded into a single bit code. A present sample of the
analog signal m(t) is compared with a previous sample , the difference output is level shifted, i.e. a positive level
(corresponding to bit 1) is given if difference is positive and negative level (corresponding to bit 0) if it is negative.
The comparison of samples is accomplished by converting the digital to analog form then comparing with the
present sample. This is done using an Up counter DAC. The delta modulated signal is given to up counter then to
a DAC. The analog input is given to OPAMP and LPF to obtain the demodulated output.
Procedure:
1. Switch on the kit. Connect the clock signal and the modulating input signal to the modulator block.
2. Observe the modulated signal in the CRO.
3. Connect the DM output to the demodulator circuit. Observe the demodulator output on the CRO.
4. Also observe the DAC output on the CRO.
5. Change the amplitude of the modulating signal.
6. Observe the DAC output. Notice the slope overload distortion.
7. Keep the tuning knob to minimize distortion.
8. Note this value of the amplitude. This is the minimum required value of the amplitude to overcome slope
overload distortion.
9. Calculate the sampling frequency required for no slope overload distortion.
10. Compare the calculated measured values of the sampling frequency.


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Block Diagram Delta modulator and demodulator










Delta Modulator















Delta Demodulator



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Block diagram of Adaptive delta modulator and demodulator







Adaptive Delta Modulator








Adaptive Delta Demodulator






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Delta Modulation and Adaptive Delta Modulator Trainer kit























FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
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Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









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Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

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Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
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Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


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Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


TDM Trainer Kit




15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


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Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

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Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






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Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









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Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








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AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















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AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






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Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
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FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
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C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















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Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 5 PCM MODULATION & DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator detect the message signal from PCM signal by using PCM
demodulator
Apparatus Required:
1. PCM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice or any data input is
first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) then quantized. Quantization is the process of
converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary number with fixed number of bits. This quantization
can be either mid tread or mid raise it can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in
speech signals, the higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are
given less step size than the lower amplitudes thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After quantization
the signal is digital the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then launched into the channel
serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames .Each frame is de-quantized to an
equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit the analog signal is passed through a ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword
is passed through a parallel to serial converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to
Parallel converter and then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks
for synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms can be
observed on a CRO for DC without problem. AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.
Procedure:
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Connect the DC input to the ADC measure the voltage.
5. Connect the clock to the timing control circuit.
6. Note the binary work from LED display. The serial data through the channel can be observed in the CRO.
7. Also observe the binary word at the receiver end.
8. Now apply the AC modulating signal at the input.
9. Observe the waveform at the output of DAC.
10. Note the amplitude of the input voltage the codeword. Also note the value of the output voltage. Show the
codeword graphically for a DC input.
Block diagram of PCM Transmission system




34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PCM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit























35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation

Result:
Thus the PCM wave generated for the given DC or sinusoidal signals using Trainer.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the pulse code
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Military Applications.
2. The PCM is used in the satellite transmission system.
SIGNALS AMPLITUDE (V) TIME PERIOD (s)
DC Input
Sampled Signal
Clock Pulse
PCM Output
DC Output
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3. It is used in space communication.
4. It is used in telephony.
5. The compact disc (CD) is a recent application of PCM.


1. Define ? Modulation
2. State sampling theorem
3. Define ? Demodulation
4. Define ? Pulse Code Modulation
5. What is aliasing effect?
6. What is quantization?
7. Define ? Bit Rate
8. Define ? Baud Rate
9. What are the advantages of PCM?
10. Define ? Signal to Noise Ratio
11. What are the limitations of PCM?
12. What are the applications of PCM?
13. Define ? Encoding
14. Define ? Decoding
15. Define ? Nyquist Rate
16. What is multiplexing?
17. What is de-multiplexing?
18. What are the types of pulse modulation?
19. What should be the minimum bandwidth required to transmit a PCM channel?
20. What is the value of signal to noise ratio in PCM?







Viva - voce
37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 6 DELTA MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit an analog message signal in its digital form and reconstruct back the original analog message
signal at receiver by using Delta modulator
Apparatus required:
1. DM and ADM Trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Delta modulation is the DPCM technique of converting an analog message signal to a digital sequence. The
difference signal between two successive samples is encoded into a single bit code. A present sample of the
analog signal m(t) is compared with a previous sample , the difference output is level shifted, i.e. a positive level
(corresponding to bit 1) is given if difference is positive and negative level (corresponding to bit 0) if it is negative.
The comparison of samples is accomplished by converting the digital to analog form then comparing with the
present sample. This is done using an Up counter DAC. The delta modulated signal is given to up counter then to
a DAC. The analog input is given to OPAMP and LPF to obtain the demodulated output.
Procedure:
1. Switch on the kit. Connect the clock signal and the modulating input signal to the modulator block.
2. Observe the modulated signal in the CRO.
3. Connect the DM output to the demodulator circuit. Observe the demodulator output on the CRO.
4. Also observe the DAC output on the CRO.
5. Change the amplitude of the modulating signal.
6. Observe the DAC output. Notice the slope overload distortion.
7. Keep the tuning knob to minimize distortion.
8. Note this value of the amplitude. This is the minimum required value of the amplitude to overcome slope
overload distortion.
9. Calculate the sampling frequency required for no slope overload distortion.
10. Compare the calculated measured values of the sampling frequency.


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Block Diagram Delta modulator and demodulator










Delta Modulator















Delta Demodulator



39 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Block diagram of Adaptive delta modulator and demodulator







Adaptive Delta Modulator








Adaptive Delta Demodulator






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Delta Modulation and Adaptive Delta Modulator Trainer kit























41 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
















FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









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Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

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Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
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Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


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Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























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TDM Trainer Kit




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Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


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Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

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Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






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Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









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Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








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AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















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AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






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Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
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12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















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Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
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FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
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C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















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Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










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FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















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Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

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Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 5 PCM MODULATION & DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator detect the message signal from PCM signal by using PCM
demodulator
Apparatus Required:
1. PCM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice or any data input is
first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) then quantized. Quantization is the process of
converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary number with fixed number of bits. This quantization
can be either mid tread or mid raise it can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in
speech signals, the higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are
given less step size than the lower amplitudes thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After quantization
the signal is digital the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then launched into the channel
serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames .Each frame is de-quantized to an
equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit the analog signal is passed through a ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword
is passed through a parallel to serial converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to
Parallel converter and then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks
for synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms can be
observed on a CRO for DC without problem. AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.
Procedure:
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
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4. Connect the DC input to the ADC measure the voltage.
5. Connect the clock to the timing control circuit.
6. Note the binary work from LED display. The serial data through the channel can be observed in the CRO.
7. Also observe the binary word at the receiver end.
8. Now apply the AC modulating signal at the input.
9. Observe the waveform at the output of DAC.
10. Note the amplitude of the input voltage the codeword. Also note the value of the output voltage. Show the
codeword graphically for a DC input.
Block diagram of PCM Transmission system




34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PCM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit























35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation

Result:
Thus the PCM wave generated for the given DC or sinusoidal signals using Trainer.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the pulse code
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Military Applications.
2. The PCM is used in the satellite transmission system.
SIGNALS AMPLITUDE (V) TIME PERIOD (s)
DC Input
Sampled Signal
Clock Pulse
PCM Output
DC Output
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3. It is used in space communication.
4. It is used in telephony.
5. The compact disc (CD) is a recent application of PCM.


1. Define ? Modulation
2. State sampling theorem
3. Define ? Demodulation
4. Define ? Pulse Code Modulation
5. What is aliasing effect?
6. What is quantization?
7. Define ? Bit Rate
8. Define ? Baud Rate
9. What are the advantages of PCM?
10. Define ? Signal to Noise Ratio
11. What are the limitations of PCM?
12. What are the applications of PCM?
13. Define ? Encoding
14. Define ? Decoding
15. Define ? Nyquist Rate
16. What is multiplexing?
17. What is de-multiplexing?
18. What are the types of pulse modulation?
19. What should be the minimum bandwidth required to transmit a PCM channel?
20. What is the value of signal to noise ratio in PCM?







Viva - voce
37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 6 DELTA MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit an analog message signal in its digital form and reconstruct back the original analog message
signal at receiver by using Delta modulator
Apparatus required:
1. DM and ADM Trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Delta modulation is the DPCM technique of converting an analog message signal to a digital sequence. The
difference signal between two successive samples is encoded into a single bit code. A present sample of the
analog signal m(t) is compared with a previous sample , the difference output is level shifted, i.e. a positive level
(corresponding to bit 1) is given if difference is positive and negative level (corresponding to bit 0) if it is negative.
The comparison of samples is accomplished by converting the digital to analog form then comparing with the
present sample. This is done using an Up counter DAC. The delta modulated signal is given to up counter then to
a DAC. The analog input is given to OPAMP and LPF to obtain the demodulated output.
Procedure:
1. Switch on the kit. Connect the clock signal and the modulating input signal to the modulator block.
2. Observe the modulated signal in the CRO.
3. Connect the DM output to the demodulator circuit. Observe the demodulator output on the CRO.
4. Also observe the DAC output on the CRO.
5. Change the amplitude of the modulating signal.
6. Observe the DAC output. Notice the slope overload distortion.
7. Keep the tuning knob to minimize distortion.
8. Note this value of the amplitude. This is the minimum required value of the amplitude to overcome slope
overload distortion.
9. Calculate the sampling frequency required for no slope overload distortion.
10. Compare the calculated measured values of the sampling frequency.


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Block Diagram Delta modulator and demodulator










Delta Modulator















Delta Demodulator



39 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Block diagram of Adaptive delta modulator and demodulator







Adaptive Delta Modulator








Adaptive Delta Demodulator






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Delta Modulation and Adaptive Delta Modulator Trainer kit























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Model Graph:
















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Tabulation 1
For Delta Modulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s) Frequency (Hz)
1 Modulating Signal
2 Carrier Signal
3 Modulated Signal
4 Demodulated Signal

Tabulation 2
For Adaptive Delta Modulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s) Frequency (Hz)
1 Modulating Signal
2 Carrier Signal
3 Modulated Signal
4 Demodulated Signal

Result:
Thus the output waveforms of Delta modulation and adaptive delta modulation circuit were observed.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the delta modulation
adaptive delta modulation circuit.
Applications:
1. Digital voice storage
2. Voice transmission
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
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EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





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CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D Hz.To
recover x(t) or X(f), the sampled signal must be passed through an ideal low pass filter having bandwidth D Hz
and gain T.
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Sample and hold circuit is used to operate on analog information in a time frame which is expedient. This circuit
works by sampling a segment of the information holding it and then converts it into some readout or a form of
control signal.
Procedure:
1. Assemble the sample and hold circuit with the desired components.
2. Give the input signal from the function generator.
3. Do not exceed the input signal above 10 volt.
4. Set the frequency of the input signal to 600 Hz.
5. Set the frequency of the sample signal to 5600 Hz.
6. Integrate the sampling inputs.

Circuit Diagram









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Natural Sampling and Flat Top Sampling Circuit Diagram

Model Graph:

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Tabulation

Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit


Result:
Thus the sampling and reconstruction of signal was studied and verified using sampling reconstruction trainer
kit.


Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
Message signal
Carrier signal
Sampled output
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Outcome:
After completion of this experiment, the students will be able to understand the discretization process of
continuous time signal.
Applications:
1. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC)
2. Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC)
3. Storage, and transmission
4. Telephone and encrypted walkie-talkie (8000 Hz sample rate)
5. Wireless intercom and wireless microphone transmission (Audio Sampling)

1. Define ? Sampling Theorem
2. What is the necessary sufficient condition for sampling reconstruction of a signal?
3. Define ? Nyquist rate
4. Define ? Nyquist interval
5. What are the different types of sampling techniques?
6. What is the effect on sampled signal if fs< 2 fm?
7. Draw the amplitude spectrum of sampled signal if fs< 2 fm, fs =2 fm, fs > 2 fm.
8. What is aliasing effect in sampling? How to avoid it?
9. Why do we use pre-filtering in sampling?
10. What is reconstruction of sampling theorem?
11. What are the types of filters used in reconstruction?
12. Define ? Sample Hold Circuits
13. Differentiate second order; fourth order and sixth order low pass filters in reconstruction process.
14. Explain the sampling reconstruction process.
15. What is the difference between discrete and digital signals?
16. Define ? Digital Signal
17. What is the need for converting a continuous signal into a discrete signal?
18. Explain zero-order hold circuit.
19. How to convert an analog signal into a digital signal?
20. Differentiate flat top sampling from natural sampling.
21. Define ? Natural Sampling


Viva - voce
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Aim:
To study the process of time division multiplexing of four signals using sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. TDM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 No.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common
signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears
on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
Procedure:
1. Switch ON the power supply.
2. Make initial settings on TDM Trainer kit as follows.
(a) Set all sine wave voltages to 2V,
(b) Make the wiring connections as in wiring diagram .
3. Display the multiplexed signal at test point T14 on channel 1 and 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on
channel 2 of oscilloscope.
4. Display the 500Hz sine wave at test point T3 on channel 2 in place of 250Hz, identify sampled version of this
sine wave in TDM signal note down.
5. Observe 1 KHz 2 KHz waveforms at test point T4 T5 respectively on oscilloscope .
6. Display the TDM waveform (test point T14) on channel 1 channel synchronization signal (test point T13)
on channel 2 of oscilloscope .
7. Display 250Hz sine wave at test point T2 on channel 1 and output sine wave at test point T16 on channel 2 of
Oscilloscope.
8. Similarly, observe input output 500Hz, 1 KHz and 2 KHz sine waves on oscilloscope .


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Circuit Diagram
Time division multiplexing























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TDM Trainer Kit




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Model Graph:

Tabulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s)
1. Message signal 1
2. Message Signal 2
3. TDM signal

Result:
Thus the TDM was studied the different types of signals are multiplexed using TDM Technique.
Outcomes:
After completion of this experiment the students will be able to understand the concept of multiplexing the
signals.


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Applications:
1. The plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) system, also known as the PCM system, for digital
transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable (T-carrier or E-carrier)
or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network
2. The synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)/synchronous optical networking (SONET) network
transmission standards that have replaced PDH.
3. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN).
4. The RIFF (WAV) audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basis
5. The GSM telephone system


1. What is meant by multiplexing technique ?
2. What are the different types of multiplexers?
3. What is the transmission band width of a PAM/TDM signal?
4. What is the crosstalk effect in PAM/TDM system?
5. What are the advantages of TDM system?
6. Distinguish between TDM and FDM.
7. What is the value of Ts in TDM system?
8. What are the applications of TDM system? Give some example.
9. What is meant by signal overlapping?
10. Which type of modulation technique will be used in TDM?










Viva - voce
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 3 AM MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after amplitude modulation using AM transmitter receives the signal back after
demodulating using AM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1 Resistor ? 4 No.
2 Capacitor ? 1 No.
3 Diode ? 2 No.
4
AM transmitter receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5 CRO ? 1 No.
6 Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:

AMPLITUDE MODULATION
Amplitude Modulation is a process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the
instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency and phase of carrier wave remains constant.
The modulating carrier signal are given by
Vm(t) = Vm sin ?mt
VC (t) = VC sin ?Ct
The modulation index is given by, ma = Vm/ VC.
Vm = Vmax ? Vmin VC = Vmax + Vmin

The amplitude of the modulated signal is given by,
VAM(t) = VC (1+ma sin ?mt) sin ?Ct

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Where
Vm = maximum amplitude of modulating signal
VC = maximum amplitude of carrier signal
Vmax = maximum variation of AM signal
Vmin = minimum variation of AM signal
Formula Used:
M= (Vmax ? Vmin / Vmax + Vmin ) * 100
Where, M = Modulation index
Vmax = Maximum peak amplitude
Vmin = Minimum peak amplitude
if
M < 1 Under modulation
M = 1 Critical modulation
M > 1 over modulation

Procedure:
1. Give the modulating signal input to the Amplitude modulator.
2. Increase the amplitude of the modulating signal to the required level.
3. Observe the amplitude and the time duration of the modulating signal using CRO.
4. Observe the amplitude modulated output from the output of amplitude modulator stage .
5. Calculate the modulation index






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Circuit Diagram
AM Modulation


AM Demodulation









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Model Graph:
1. AM Waveform (Ring diode Transistor based AM Modulator)

AM Modulated wave



2. Envelope Detector Waveform (Modulating and Demodulated Signal)








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AM Modulation demodulation trainer kit




















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AM Modulation and Demodulation trainer kit






23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the AM signal was transmitted using AM trainer kit the AM signal detected using AM detector kit.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design construct the amplitude modulated
demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Commercial broadcasting of both audio and video signals
2. Two way mobile radio communication such as citizen band (CB) radio.
3. Facsimile transmission



1. What is modulation and demodulation?
2. Draw the phasor diagram of AM signal.
3. What is the degree of modulation?
4. Explain the need of modulation and demodulation?
5. What is analog modulation? State the various techniques.
6. Why frequency modulation is better than amplitude modulation?
7. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?
8. What is depth of modulation?
9. What are the different types of AM generation?
10. Define ? Modulation Index
11. What are different types of analog modulation techniques?
Viva - voce
24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

12. What are the other names of message signal? What are the other names of carrier signal?
13. Write the equation of AM signal .Explain each parameter of the equation.
14. Define ? Amplitude modulation
15. What is the range of Audio frequency signals? What is the range of Radio frequency signal?
16. What are the applications of Amplitude modulators?
17. How many generation methods are there to generate an AM wave? What are the methods of
demodulation of an AM wave?
18. Explain the operation of diode detector circuit.
19. Write the formula for modulation index. Differentiate under, over perfect modulation in AM.
20. As the amplitude of message signal increases, modulation index increases or decreases?
21. Define ? Single tone modulation
22. Draw the frequency spectrum of AM wave.
23. If modulation index is 100%, calculate the ratio of total power to carrier power of an AM wave.
.
















25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4 FREQUENCY MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit a modulating signal after frequency modulation using FM transmitter receive the signal back after
demodulating using FM receiver
Apparatus required:
.
1. Resistor ? 4 No.
2. Capacitor ? 1 No.
3. Diode ? 2 No.
4.
AM transmitter Receiver
trainer kit ? 1 No.
5. CRO ? 1 No.
6. Patch cards ? 6 No.

Theory:
Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation that represents information as variations in the
instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. In analog applications, the carrier frequency is varied in direct
proportion to changes in the amplitude of an input signal. Shifting the carrier frequency among a set of discrete
values can represent digital data, a technique known as frequency-shift keying. FM is commonly used at VHF
radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music speech Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A
narrowband form is used for voice communications in commercial amateur radio settings. The type of FM used
in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM.
In two-way radio, narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to record the
luminance (black,white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible method of recording video and
retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme distortion, as video signals have a very large range of
frequency components ? from a few hertz to several megahertz, it is too wide for equalizers to work with due to
present of electronic noise below -60 dB. FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, therefore acts as a form of
noise reduction, a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output.The FM capture effect removes
print-through pre-echo.

Procedure:
FM Modulator:
1. Switch ON the Power supply.

2. Connect the sine wave generator output to frequency modulator input.

3. Select the low frequency carrier (or) high frequency carrier.

4. Connect the CRO input to the frequency modulator output.

5. Vary the amplitude pot meter from minimum to maximum to find out the frequency deviation for FM.

6. Observe the frequency modulator output .

FM Demodulator:
A) PLL Detector
1. Connect frequency modulated output to the PLL detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in low frequency mode.

3. Connect CRO input to PLL detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P compare with the original input.

B) Quadrature Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Quadrature detector input.

2. Now set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Quadrature detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and compare with the original input.
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C) Phase Discriminator (Foster-Seeley detector)
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Phase discriminator input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Phase discriminator output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.

D) Ratio Detector
1. Connect the frequency modulated output to Ratio detector input.

2. Set the DPDT switch in high frequency mode.

3. Connect the CRO input to Ratio detector output.

4. Observe the Demodulated O/P and then compare with the original input.
















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Circuit Diagram
FM Modulator

FM Demodulator










29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



FM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit





















30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Model Graph:


Tabulation
Signal Amplitude (V) Time Period (s) Frequency (Hz)
Message

Carrier

Modulated

Demodulated


Result:
Thus the FM Modulation and Demodulation is performed for the given message signal.

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the frequency
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Television sound transmission
2. Two way mobile radio
3. Cellular Radio
4. Microwave
5. Satellite Communication System


1. Define ? Frequency Modulation
2. How it is different from phase modulation?
3. Write equation of FM wave, explain each parameter in it.
4. Draw the amplitude spectrum of FM wave.
5. Give the Carson?s rule in FM.
6. Define ? Modulation Index
7. Differentiate between Narrow band FM from Wide band FM.
8. Draw message, carrier FM waves .
9. Explain the methods for generation of FM its demodulation.
10. How FM wave is different from PM wave?
11. Give the practical applications of FM.
12. State advantages and disadvantages of FM.
13. What is the range of speech signals?
14. What type of modulation is used in radios?
15. What type of modulation is used in voice signals?
16. Define ? Phase Modulation
17. Draw the phasor diagram of FM signal.
18. What are the different types of FM generation?




Viva - voce
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 5 PCM MODULATION & DEMODULATION

Aim:
To generate a PCM signal using PCM modulator detect the message signal from PCM signal by using PCM
demodulator
Apparatus Required:
1. PCM trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Pulse code modulation is a process of converting an analog signal into digital. The voice or any data input is
first sampled using a sampler (which is a simple switch) then quantized. Quantization is the process of
converting a given signal amplitude to an equivalent binary number with fixed number of bits. This quantization
can be either mid tread or mid raise it can be uniform or non-uniform based on the requirements. For example in
speech signals, the higher amplitudes will be less frequent than the low amplitudes. So higher amplitudes are
given less step size than the lower amplitudes thus quantization is performed non-uniformly. After quantization
the signal is digital the bits are passed through a parallel to serial converter and then launched into the channel
serially.
At the demodulator the received bits are first converted into parallel frames .Each frame is de-quantized to an
equivalent analog value. This analog value is thus equivalent to a sampler output. This is the demodulated signal.
In the kit the analog signal is passed through a ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and then the digital codeword
is passed through a parallel to serial converter block. This is modulated PCM. This is taken by the Serial to
Parallel converter and then through a DAC to get the demodulated signal. The clock is given to all these blocks
for synchronization. The input signal can be either DC or AC according to the kit. The waveforms can be
observed on a CRO for DC without problem. AC also can be observed but with poor resolution.
Procedure:
1. Power on the PCM kit.
2. Measure the frequency of sampling clock.
3. Apply the DC voltage as modulating signal.
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Connect the DC input to the ADC measure the voltage.
5. Connect the clock to the timing control circuit.
6. Note the binary work from LED display. The serial data through the channel can be observed in the CRO.
7. Also observe the binary word at the receiver end.
8. Now apply the AC modulating signal at the input.
9. Observe the waveform at the output of DAC.
10. Note the amplitude of the input voltage the codeword. Also note the value of the output voltage. Show the
codeword graphically for a DC input.
Block diagram of PCM Transmission system




34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PCM Modulation and Demodulation Trainer kit























35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:

Tabulation

Result:
Thus the PCM wave generated for the given DC or sinusoidal signals using Trainer.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the pulse code
modulated and demodulated wave.
Applications:
1. Military Applications.
2. The PCM is used in the satellite transmission system.
SIGNALS AMPLITUDE (V) TIME PERIOD (s)
DC Input
Sampled Signal
Clock Pulse
PCM Output
DC Output
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3. It is used in space communication.
4. It is used in telephony.
5. The compact disc (CD) is a recent application of PCM.


1. Define ? Modulation
2. State sampling theorem
3. Define ? Demodulation
4. Define ? Pulse Code Modulation
5. What is aliasing effect?
6. What is quantization?
7. Define ? Bit Rate
8. Define ? Baud Rate
9. What are the advantages of PCM?
10. Define ? Signal to Noise Ratio
11. What are the limitations of PCM?
12. What are the applications of PCM?
13. Define ? Encoding
14. Define ? Decoding
15. Define ? Nyquist Rate
16. What is multiplexing?
17. What is de-multiplexing?
18. What are the types of pulse modulation?
19. What should be the minimum bandwidth required to transmit a PCM channel?
20. What is the value of signal to noise ratio in PCM?







Viva - voce
37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 6 DELTA MODULATION & DEMODULATION
Aim:
To transmit an analog message signal in its digital form and reconstruct back the original analog message
signal at receiver by using Delta modulator
Apparatus required:
1. DM and ADM Trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. CRO ? 1 No.
3. Connecting probes ? 4 No.
Theory:
Delta modulation is the DPCM technique of converting an analog message signal to a digital sequence. The
difference signal between two successive samples is encoded into a single bit code. A present sample of the
analog signal m(t) is compared with a previous sample , the difference output is level shifted, i.e. a positive level
(corresponding to bit 1) is given if difference is positive and negative level (corresponding to bit 0) if it is negative.
The comparison of samples is accomplished by converting the digital to analog form then comparing with the
present sample. This is done using an Up counter DAC. The delta modulated signal is given to up counter then to
a DAC. The analog input is given to OPAMP and LPF to obtain the demodulated output.
Procedure:
1. Switch on the kit. Connect the clock signal and the modulating input signal to the modulator block.
2. Observe the modulated signal in the CRO.
3. Connect the DM output to the demodulator circuit. Observe the demodulator output on the CRO.
4. Also observe the DAC output on the CRO.
5. Change the amplitude of the modulating signal.
6. Observe the DAC output. Notice the slope overload distortion.
7. Keep the tuning knob to minimize distortion.
8. Note this value of the amplitude. This is the minimum required value of the amplitude to overcome slope
overload distortion.
9. Calculate the sampling frequency required for no slope overload distortion.
10. Compare the calculated measured values of the sampling frequency.


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Block Diagram Delta modulator and demodulator










Delta Modulator















Delta Demodulator



39 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Block diagram of Adaptive delta modulator and demodulator







Adaptive Delta Modulator








Adaptive Delta Demodulator






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Delta Modulation and Adaptive Delta Modulator Trainer kit























41 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Model Graph:
















42 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation 1
For Delta Modulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s) Frequency (Hz)
1 Modulating Signal
2 Carrier Signal
3 Modulated Signal
4 Demodulated Signal

Tabulation 2
For Adaptive Delta Modulation
Sl. No. Signal Amplitude (V) Time period (s) Frequency (Hz)
1 Modulating Signal
2 Carrier Signal
3 Modulated Signal
4 Demodulated Signal

Result:
Thus the output waveforms of Delta modulation and adaptive delta modulation circuit were observed.
Outcome:
After the completion of this experiment the students will be able to design and construct the delta modulation
adaptive delta modulation circuit.
Applications:
1. Digital voice storage
2. Voice transmission
43 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Radio communication devices such TV remotes.
4. Delta Modulation was used by Satellite Business Systems or SBS
5. DM used in high resolution A/D and D/A converters.


1. What is delta modulation?
2. What is adaptive delta modulation?
3. What are the advantages of adaptive delta modulation over delta modulation?
4. What is slope over load distortion?
5. What is granular noise effect?
6. What are the two limitations of delta modulation?
7. What is the function of integrator?
8. What is comparator?
9. What is companding?
10. What is the advantage of delta modulation over pulse modulation?
11. Distinguish between DPCM and DM.
12. What are the different types of digital modulation?
13. What is sampling rate?
14. Which kind of multiplexing used in digital communication?
15. Why is sample hold circuit used?
16. What are the advantages of digital transmission?
17. How is the performance corrupted in PCM?
18. What are the different types of multiplexing?
19. What is aliasing effect?
20. How to avoid aliasing effect?







Viva - voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


V SEMESTER - R 2013

EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY









Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious
enterprising professionals conforming to global stards through value based quality education training.


? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart soul
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING


To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to
shape them as proficient dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the challenges
in deploying technology for the service of humanity


? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the electronics
industry
? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes industry, on advances in
communication systems
? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning, innovation ethical
practices




VISION
VISION
MISSION
MISSION
3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science fundamentals of engineering,
enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems use this knowledge to acquire higher
education
2. Core Competence
To train the students in Electronics Communication technologies so that they apply their knowledge
training to compare, to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find solutions
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training experience to bridge the gap between theory practice this enables them to
find solutions for the real time problems in industry, to design products
4. Professionalism
To inculcate professional effective communication skills, leadership qualities team spirit in the students
to make them multi-faceted personalities develop their ability to relate engineering issues to broader social
context
5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics
To demonstrate practice ethical professional responsibilities in the industry society in the large,
through commitment lifelong learning needed for successful professional career










4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
a) To demonstrate apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science engineering fundamentals in Electronics
Communication Engineering field
b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic constraints
such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety manufacturability
c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation testing of electronics
communication engineering circuits
d) To identify, formulate solve electronic communication engineering problems
e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize work on laboratory multidisciplinary tasks
f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities
g) To communicate in verbal written form with fellow engineers society at large
h) To understand the impact of Electronics Communication Engineering in the society demonstrate awareness
of contemporary issues commitment to give solutions exhibiting social responsibility
i) To demonstrate professional and ethical responsibilities
j) To exhibit confidence in self-education ability for lifelong learning
k) To participate succeed in competitive exams








5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6512 - COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY

To visualize the effects of sampling and TDM
? To Implement AM and FM modulation and demodulation
? To implement PCM and DM
? To implement FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes
? To implement Equalization algorithms
? To implement Error control coding schemes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1. Signal Sampling and reconstruction
2. Time Division Multiplexing
3. AM Modulator and Demodulator
4. FM Modulator and Demodulator
5. Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation
6. Delta Modulation and Demodulation
7. Observation (simulation) of signal constellations of BPSK, QPSK and QAM
8. Line coding schemes
9. FSK, PSK and DPSK schemes (Simulation)
10. Error control coding schemes ? Linear Block Codes (Simulation)
11. Communication link simulation
12. Equalization ? Zero Forcing and LMS algorithms (simulation)


Simulate end-to-end Communication Link
Demonstrate their knowledge in base b signaling schemes through implementation of FSK, PSK DPSK.
Apply various channel coding schemes and demonstrate their capabilities towards the improvement of the noise
performance of communication system.

COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
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EC6512 ? COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiment Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Signal sampling reconstruction
7
2 Time division multiplexing
13
3 AM modulation demodulation
18
4 Frequency modulation demodulation
26
5 PCM modulation demodulation
33
6 Delta modulation demodulation
38
7 Line coding decoding techniques
45
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
8 Error control coding using MATLAB
51
9 Design of BPSK, QPSK, QAM using MATLAB
53
10 Design of FSK, PSK DPSK using MATLAB
55
11 Communication link simulation using MATLAB
57
12 Zero forcing LMS equalization algorithms using MATLAB
59
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
13 Pulse amplitude modulation 61
14 Amplitude modulation demodulation using LabVIEW 64





7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
Expt. No. 1 SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION
Aim:
To study the process of sampling and reconstruction of signals using analog sampling trainer kit
Apparatus required:
1. Analog signal sampling and reconstruction trainer kit ? 1 No.
2. Dual Power Supply ? 1 No.
3. Patch cords ? 6 Nos.
4. CRO (30 MHz) ? 1 No.
Theory:
Sampling is defined as measuring the value of an information signal at predetermined time interval. The rate at
which the signal is sampled is known as the sampling rate or sampling frequency. The types of sampling are
natural sampling and flat top sampling.
A continuous time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete time system. For
reconstructing the continuous time signal from its discrete time samples without any error, the signal should be
sampled at a sufficient rate that is determined by the sampling theorem.
Sampling theorem
If a signal is band limited and its samples are taken at sufficient rate than those samples uniquely specify the
signal and the signal can be reconstructed from those samples. The condition in which this is possible is known
as Nyquist sampling theorem.
A signal whose spectrum is band limited to D Hz [X(f) = 0 for | f | >D] can be reconstructed from its samples
taken uniformly at a rate fs > 2D samples/sec. The minimum sampling frequency is fs = 2D Hz.
Reconstruction of Signals
The process of reconstructing a continuous time signal x(t) from its samples is known as interpolation. In the
sampling theorem a signal x(t) band limited to D Hz can be reconstructed from its samples. This reconstruction is
accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal low pass filter of bandwidth D