Download Anna University B.Tech (Bachelor of Technology) ECE (Electronics And Communications Engineering) 5th Sem Digital Signal Processing DSP Lab Manual Question Paper.

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.6 MULTIRATE FILTERS

Aim

To design multirate FIR filters using interpolation and decimation and to plot the impulse responses and

the magnitude responses for all designs.

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the multirate filters was designed using interpolation and decimation for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design linear-phase FIR multirate filters and do

interpolation and decimation of the signals

Applications:

1. Sampling rate conversion systems

2. Communication systems

3. Design of phase shifters

4. Antenna arrays

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.6 MULTIRATE FILTERS

Aim

To design multirate FIR filters using interpolation and decimation and to plot the impulse responses and

the magnitude responses for all designs.

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the multirate filters was designed using interpolation and decimation for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design linear-phase FIR multirate filters and do

interpolation and decimation of the signals

Applications:

1. Sampling rate conversion systems

2. Communication systems

3. Design of phase shifters

4. Antenna arrays

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. What is the importance of decimation for a given signal/sequence?

2. What is aliasing? What is the condition to avoid aliasing for sampling?

3. Define ? Decimation

4. Define ? Interpolation

5. What is multirate signal processing?

6. Name the process of converting a signal from a given rate to a different rate

7. State the formula for poly phase interpolation using z-transform.

8. List the applications of multirate signal processing.

9. List the methods used in sampling for converting a digital signal

10. List the advantages of multirate processing.

11. What is up sampling?

12. List the applications of multirate DSP.

13. What is the need for antialiasing filter prior to down sampling?

14. List the applications of adaptive filters

15. What are the sections in Quadrature mirror filter bank?

16. What is down sampling?

17. What is the need for anti-imaging filter after up sampling a signal?

18. State the formula for poly phase decimation using z-transform.

19. What is anti-aliasing filter?

20. Define ? Sampling theorem

Viva ?voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.6 MULTIRATE FILTERS

Aim

To design multirate FIR filters using interpolation and decimation and to plot the impulse responses and

the magnitude responses for all designs.

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the multirate filters was designed using interpolation and decimation for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design linear-phase FIR multirate filters and do

interpolation and decimation of the signals

Applications:

1. Sampling rate conversion systems

2. Communication systems

3. Design of phase shifters

4. Antenna arrays

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. What is the importance of decimation for a given signal/sequence?

2. What is aliasing? What is the condition to avoid aliasing for sampling?

3. Define ? Decimation

4. Define ? Interpolation

5. What is multirate signal processing?

6. Name the process of converting a signal from a given rate to a different rate

7. State the formula for poly phase interpolation using z-transform.

8. List the applications of multirate signal processing.

9. List the methods used in sampling for converting a digital signal

10. List the advantages of multirate processing.

11. What is up sampling?

12. List the applications of multirate DSP.

13. What is the need for antialiasing filter prior to down sampling?

14. List the applications of adaptive filters

15. What are the sections in Quadrature mirror filter bank?

16. What is down sampling?

17. What is the need for anti-imaging filter after up sampling a signal?

18. State the formula for poly phase decimation using z-transform.

19. What is anti-aliasing filter?

20. Define ? Sampling theorem

Viva ?voce

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.7 EQUALIZATION

Aim

To write MATLAB program to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS algorithm

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the adaptive channel equalization was designed using LMS algorithm.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS

algorithm.

Applications:

1. Echo cancellation in telecommunication systems

2. Digital radio communication systems

3. Channel equalization for dispersive channels

4. Signal processing and control applications

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.6 MULTIRATE FILTERS

Aim

To design multirate FIR filters using interpolation and decimation and to plot the impulse responses and

the magnitude responses for all designs.

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the multirate filters was designed using interpolation and decimation for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design linear-phase FIR multirate filters and do

interpolation and decimation of the signals

Applications:

1. Sampling rate conversion systems

2. Communication systems

3. Design of phase shifters

4. Antenna arrays

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. What is the importance of decimation for a given signal/sequence?

2. What is aliasing? What is the condition to avoid aliasing for sampling?

3. Define ? Decimation

4. Define ? Interpolation

5. What is multirate signal processing?

6. Name the process of converting a signal from a given rate to a different rate

7. State the formula for poly phase interpolation using z-transform.

8. List the applications of multirate signal processing.

9. List the methods used in sampling for converting a digital signal

10. List the advantages of multirate processing.

11. What is up sampling?

12. List the applications of multirate DSP.

13. What is the need for antialiasing filter prior to down sampling?

14. List the applications of adaptive filters

15. What are the sections in Quadrature mirror filter bank?

16. What is down sampling?

17. What is the need for anti-imaging filter after up sampling a signal?

18. State the formula for poly phase decimation using z-transform.

19. What is anti-aliasing filter?

20. Define ? Sampling theorem

Viva ?voce

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.7 EQUALIZATION

Aim

To write MATLAB program to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS algorithm

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the adaptive channel equalization was designed using LMS algorithm.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS

algorithm.

Applications:

1. Echo cancellation in telecommunication systems

2. Digital radio communication systems

3. Channel equalization for dispersive channels

4. Signal processing and control applications

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. Define ? Equalization

2. What is recursive algorithm?

3. List the steps in the process of Adaptive equalization.

4. What is decision directed mode?

5. What are the uses of adaptive filters?

6. Define ? Rate of Convergence

7. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

8. Name the algorithm used in Adaptive Equalization.

9. What is the impact of LMS algorithm?

10. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

11. What is the factor for designing an equalizer?

12. What is non-recursive algorithm?

13. What is the purpose of receiver decision?

14. What is difference between recursive and non-recursive algorithm?

15. What is the maximum expected time delay spread in the channel?

Viva ?voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.6 MULTIRATE FILTERS

Aim

To design multirate FIR filters using interpolation and decimation and to plot the impulse responses and

the magnitude responses for all designs.

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the multirate filters was designed using interpolation and decimation for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design linear-phase FIR multirate filters and do

interpolation and decimation of the signals

Applications:

1. Sampling rate conversion systems

2. Communication systems

3. Design of phase shifters

4. Antenna arrays

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. What is the importance of decimation for a given signal/sequence?

2. What is aliasing? What is the condition to avoid aliasing for sampling?

3. Define ? Decimation

4. Define ? Interpolation

5. What is multirate signal processing?

6. Name the process of converting a signal from a given rate to a different rate

7. State the formula for poly phase interpolation using z-transform.

8. List the applications of multirate signal processing.

9. List the methods used in sampling for converting a digital signal

10. List the advantages of multirate processing.

11. What is up sampling?

12. List the applications of multirate DSP.

13. What is the need for antialiasing filter prior to down sampling?

14. List the applications of adaptive filters

15. What are the sections in Quadrature mirror filter bank?

16. What is down sampling?

17. What is the need for anti-imaging filter after up sampling a signal?

18. State the formula for poly phase decimation using z-transform.

19. What is anti-aliasing filter?

20. Define ? Sampling theorem

Viva ?voce

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.7 EQUALIZATION

Aim

To write MATLAB program to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS algorithm

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the adaptive channel equalization was designed using LMS algorithm.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS

algorithm.

Applications:

1. Echo cancellation in telecommunication systems

2. Digital radio communication systems

3. Channel equalization for dispersive channels

4. Signal processing and control applications

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. Define ? Equalization

2. What is recursive algorithm?

3. List the steps in the process of Adaptive equalization.

4. What is decision directed mode?

5. What are the uses of adaptive filters?

6. Define ? Rate of Convergence

7. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

8. Name the algorithm used in Adaptive Equalization.

9. What is the impact of LMS algorithm?

10. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

11. What is the factor for designing an equalizer?

12. What is non-recursive algorithm?

13. What is the purpose of receiver decision?

14. What is difference between recursive and non-recursive algorithm?

15. What is the maximum expected time delay spread in the channel?

Viva ?voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 8 STUDY OF DSP PROCESSOR TMS320C50

Aim:

To study the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50

Introduction:

It is needless to say that in order to utilize the full feature of the DSP chip TMS320C50, the DSP

engineer must have a complete knowledge of the DSP device. This chapter is an introduction to the

hardware aspects of the TMS320C50. The important units of TMS320C50 are discussed.

The DSP Chip TMS320C50:

The TMS320C50 is a 16-bit fixed point digital signal processor that combines the flexibility of a high

speed controller with the numerical capability of an array processor, thereby offering an inexpensive

alternative to multichip bit-slice processors. The highly paralleled architecture and efficient instruction

set, provide speed and flexibility capable of executing 10 MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second). The

TMS320C50 optimizes speed by implementing functions in hardware that other processors implement

through microcode or software. This hardware intensive approach provides the design engineer with

processing power previously unavailable on a single chip.

The TMS320C50 is the third generation digital signal processor in the TMS320 family. Its powerful

instruction set, inherent flexibility, high-speed number-crunching capabilities, and innovative

architecture have made this high-performance, cost-effective processor the ideal solution to many

telecommunications, computer, commercial, industrial, and military applications.

Key Features of TMS320C50:

The key features of the Digital Signal Processor TMS320C50 are:

? 35-/50-ns single-cycle fixed-point instruction execution time (28.6/20 MIPS)

? Upward source-code compatible with all C1X and C2x devices

? RAM-based memory operation (C50)

? 9K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip program/data RAM (C50)

? 2K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip boot ROM (C50)

? 1056 x 16-bit dual-access on-chip data RAM

? 224K x 16-bit maximum addressable external memory space (64K program, 64K data, 64K I/O)

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.6 MULTIRATE FILTERS

Aim

To design multirate FIR filters using interpolation and decimation and to plot the impulse responses and

the magnitude responses for all designs.

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the multirate filters was designed using interpolation and decimation for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design linear-phase FIR multirate filters and do

interpolation and decimation of the signals

Applications:

1. Sampling rate conversion systems

2. Communication systems

3. Design of phase shifters

4. Antenna arrays

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. What is the importance of decimation for a given signal/sequence?

2. What is aliasing? What is the condition to avoid aliasing for sampling?

3. Define ? Decimation

4. Define ? Interpolation

5. What is multirate signal processing?

6. Name the process of converting a signal from a given rate to a different rate

7. State the formula for poly phase interpolation using z-transform.

8. List the applications of multirate signal processing.

9. List the methods used in sampling for converting a digital signal

10. List the advantages of multirate processing.

11. What is up sampling?

12. List the applications of multirate DSP.

13. What is the need for antialiasing filter prior to down sampling?

14. List the applications of adaptive filters

15. What are the sections in Quadrature mirror filter bank?

16. What is down sampling?

17. What is the need for anti-imaging filter after up sampling a signal?

18. State the formula for poly phase decimation using z-transform.

19. What is anti-aliasing filter?

20. Define ? Sampling theorem

Viva ?voce

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.7 EQUALIZATION

Aim

To write MATLAB program to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS algorithm

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the adaptive channel equalization was designed using LMS algorithm.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS

algorithm.

Applications:

1. Echo cancellation in telecommunication systems

2. Digital radio communication systems

3. Channel equalization for dispersive channels

4. Signal processing and control applications

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. Define ? Equalization

2. What is recursive algorithm?

3. List the steps in the process of Adaptive equalization.

4. What is decision directed mode?

5. What are the uses of adaptive filters?

6. Define ? Rate of Convergence

7. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

8. Name the algorithm used in Adaptive Equalization.

9. What is the impact of LMS algorithm?

10. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

11. What is the factor for designing an equalizer?

12. What is non-recursive algorithm?

13. What is the purpose of receiver decision?

14. What is difference between recursive and non-recursive algorithm?

15. What is the maximum expected time delay spread in the channel?

Viva ?voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 8 STUDY OF DSP PROCESSOR TMS320C50

Aim:

To study the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50

Introduction:

It is needless to say that in order to utilize the full feature of the DSP chip TMS320C50, the DSP

engineer must have a complete knowledge of the DSP device. This chapter is an introduction to the

hardware aspects of the TMS320C50. The important units of TMS320C50 are discussed.

The DSP Chip TMS320C50:

The TMS320C50 is a 16-bit fixed point digital signal processor that combines the flexibility of a high

speed controller with the numerical capability of an array processor, thereby offering an inexpensive

alternative to multichip bit-slice processors. The highly paralleled architecture and efficient instruction

set, provide speed and flexibility capable of executing 10 MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second). The

TMS320C50 optimizes speed by implementing functions in hardware that other processors implement

through microcode or software. This hardware intensive approach provides the design engineer with

processing power previously unavailable on a single chip.

The TMS320C50 is the third generation digital signal processor in the TMS320 family. Its powerful

instruction set, inherent flexibility, high-speed number-crunching capabilities, and innovative

architecture have made this high-performance, cost-effective processor the ideal solution to many

telecommunications, computer, commercial, industrial, and military applications.

Key Features of TMS320C50:

The key features of the Digital Signal Processor TMS320C50 are:

? 35-/50-ns single-cycle fixed-point instruction execution time (28.6/20 MIPS)

? Upward source-code compatible with all C1X and C2x devices

? RAM-based memory operation (C50)

? 9K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip program/data RAM (C50)

? 2K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip boot ROM (C50)

? 1056 x 16-bit dual-access on-chip data RAM

? 224K x 16-bit maximum addressable external memory space (64K program, 64K data, 64K I/O)

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? 32-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU), 32-bit accumulator (ACC), and 32-bit accumulator buffer

(ACCB)

? 16-bit parallel logic unit (PLU)

? 16 x 16-bit parallel multiplier with a 32-bit product capability.

? Single-cycle multiply/accumulate instructions

? Eight auxiliary registers with a dedicated auxiliary register arithmetic unit for indirect

addressing.

? Eleven context-switch registers (shadow registers) for storing strategic CPU controlled registers

during an interrupt service routine

? Eight-level hardware stack

? 0- to 16-bit left and right data barrel-shifters and a 64-bit incremental data shifter

? Two indirectly addressed circular buffers for circular addressing

? Single-instruction repeat and block repeat operations for program code

? Block memory move instructions for better program/data management

? Full-duplex synchronous serial port for direct communication between the C5x and another

serial device

? Time-division multiple-access (TDM) serial port

? Interval timer with period, control, and counter registers for software stop, start, and reset

? 64K parallel I/O ports, 16 of which are memory mapped

? Sixteen software programmable wait-state generators for program, data, and I/O

memory spaces.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

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5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.6 MULTIRATE FILTERS

Aim

To design multirate FIR filters using interpolation and decimation and to plot the impulse responses and

the magnitude responses for all designs.

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the multirate filters was designed using interpolation and decimation for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design linear-phase FIR multirate filters and do

interpolation and decimation of the signals

Applications:

1. Sampling rate conversion systems

2. Communication systems

3. Design of phase shifters

4. Antenna arrays

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. What is the importance of decimation for a given signal/sequence?

2. What is aliasing? What is the condition to avoid aliasing for sampling?

3. Define ? Decimation

4. Define ? Interpolation

5. What is multirate signal processing?

6. Name the process of converting a signal from a given rate to a different rate

7. State the formula for poly phase interpolation using z-transform.

8. List the applications of multirate signal processing.

9. List the methods used in sampling for converting a digital signal

10. List the advantages of multirate processing.

11. What is up sampling?

12. List the applications of multirate DSP.

13. What is the need for antialiasing filter prior to down sampling?

14. List the applications of adaptive filters

15. What are the sections in Quadrature mirror filter bank?

16. What is down sampling?

17. What is the need for anti-imaging filter after up sampling a signal?

18. State the formula for poly phase decimation using z-transform.

19. What is anti-aliasing filter?

20. Define ? Sampling theorem

Viva ?voce

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.7 EQUALIZATION

Aim

To write MATLAB program to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS algorithm

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the adaptive channel equalization was designed using LMS algorithm.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS

algorithm.

Applications:

1. Echo cancellation in telecommunication systems

2. Digital radio communication systems

3. Channel equalization for dispersive channels

4. Signal processing and control applications

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. Define ? Equalization

2. What is recursive algorithm?

3. List the steps in the process of Adaptive equalization.

4. What is decision directed mode?

5. What are the uses of adaptive filters?

6. Define ? Rate of Convergence

7. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

8. Name the algorithm used in Adaptive Equalization.

9. What is the impact of LMS algorithm?

10. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

11. What is the factor for designing an equalizer?

12. What is non-recursive algorithm?

13. What is the purpose of receiver decision?

14. What is difference between recursive and non-recursive algorithm?

15. What is the maximum expected time delay spread in the channel?

Viva ?voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 8 STUDY OF DSP PROCESSOR TMS320C50

Aim:

To study the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50

Introduction:

It is needless to say that in order to utilize the full feature of the DSP chip TMS320C50, the DSP

engineer must have a complete knowledge of the DSP device. This chapter is an introduction to the

hardware aspects of the TMS320C50. The important units of TMS320C50 are discussed.

The DSP Chip TMS320C50:

The TMS320C50 is a 16-bit fixed point digital signal processor that combines the flexibility of a high

speed controller with the numerical capability of an array processor, thereby offering an inexpensive

alternative to multichip bit-slice processors. The highly paralleled architecture and efficient instruction

set, provide speed and flexibility capable of executing 10 MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second). The

TMS320C50 optimizes speed by implementing functions in hardware that other processors implement

through microcode or software. This hardware intensive approach provides the design engineer with

processing power previously unavailable on a single chip.

The TMS320C50 is the third generation digital signal processor in the TMS320 family. Its powerful

instruction set, inherent flexibility, high-speed number-crunching capabilities, and innovative

architecture have made this high-performance, cost-effective processor the ideal solution to many

telecommunications, computer, commercial, industrial, and military applications.

Key Features of TMS320C50:

The key features of the Digital Signal Processor TMS320C50 are:

? 35-/50-ns single-cycle fixed-point instruction execution time (28.6/20 MIPS)

? Upward source-code compatible with all C1X and C2x devices

? RAM-based memory operation (C50)

? 9K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip program/data RAM (C50)

? 2K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip boot ROM (C50)

? 1056 x 16-bit dual-access on-chip data RAM

? 224K x 16-bit maximum addressable external memory space (64K program, 64K data, 64K I/O)

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? 32-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU), 32-bit accumulator (ACC), and 32-bit accumulator buffer

(ACCB)

? 16-bit parallel logic unit (PLU)

? 16 x 16-bit parallel multiplier with a 32-bit product capability.

? Single-cycle multiply/accumulate instructions

? Eight auxiliary registers with a dedicated auxiliary register arithmetic unit for indirect

addressing.

? Eleven context-switch registers (shadow registers) for storing strategic CPU controlled registers

during an interrupt service routine

? Eight-level hardware stack

? 0- to 16-bit left and right data barrel-shifters and a 64-bit incremental data shifter

? Two indirectly addressed circular buffers for circular addressing

? Single-instruction repeat and block repeat operations for program code

? Block memory move instructions for better program/data management

? Full-duplex synchronous serial port for direct communication between the C5x and another

serial device

? Time-division multiple-access (TDM) serial port

? Interval timer with period, control, and counter registers for software stop, start, and reset

? 64K parallel I/O ports, 16 of which are memory mapped

? Sixteen software programmable wait-state generators for program, data, and I/O

memory spaces.

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Theory:

A detailed architectural block diagram of TMS320C50 is illustrated in Figure. The TMS320C50

utilizes a modified Harvard architecture for speed and flexibility. In a strict Harvard architecture,

program and data memory are in two separate spaces, permitting a full overlap of instruction fetch and

execution. The TMS320 family's modification of the Harvard architecture allows transfer between

program and data spaces, thereby increasing the flexibility of the device. This modification permits

coefficients stored in program memory to be read into the data RAM, eliminating the need for a

separate coefficient ROM. It also makes available immediate instructions and subroutines based on

computed values.

32-bit Accumulator:

The TMS320C50 contains a 32-bit ALU and accumulator for support of double- precision, two's

complement arithmetic. The ALU is a general purpose arithmetic unit that operates on 16-bit words

taken from the data RAM or derived from immediate instructions. In addition to the usual arithmetic

instructions, the ALU can perform Boolean operations, providing the bit manipulation ability required of

a high-speed controller. The accumulator stores the output from the ALU and is often an input to the

ALU. Its word length is 32-bit. The accumulator is divided into a high order word (bits 31 through 16)

and a low-order word (bits 15 through 0). Instructions are provided for storing and loading the high and

lower order accumulator words to memory.

16 X 16-bit Parallel Multiplier:

The multiplier performs a 16 x 16-bit two's complement multiplication with a 32- bit result in a single

instruction cycle. The multiplier consists of three units: the T- Register, P-Register, and multiplier array.

The 16-bit T-Register temporarily stores the multiplicand and the P-Register stores the 32-bit product.

Multiplier values either come from the data memory or are derived immediately from the MPY (multiply

immediate) instruction word. The fast on-chip multiplier allows the device to perform fundamental

operations such as convolution, correlation, and filtering. Two multiply/accumulate instructions in the

instruction set fully utilize the computational bandwidth of the multiplier, allowing both operands to be

processed simultaneously.

Shifters:

A 16-bit scaling shifter is available at the accumulator input. This shifter produces a left shift of 0 to

16-bits on the input data to accumulator. TMS320C50 also contains a shifter at the accumulator output.

This shifter provide a left shift of 0 to 7, on the data from either the ACCH or ACCL register. In addition

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?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

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5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

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Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

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Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

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Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

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6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

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4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

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4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

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5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

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Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

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Expt.No.6 MULTIRATE FILTERS

Aim

To design multirate FIR filters using interpolation and decimation and to plot the impulse responses and

the magnitude responses for all designs.

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the multirate filters was designed using interpolation and decimation for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design linear-phase FIR multirate filters and do

interpolation and decimation of the signals

Applications:

1. Sampling rate conversion systems

2. Communication systems

3. Design of phase shifters

4. Antenna arrays

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. What is the importance of decimation for a given signal/sequence?

2. What is aliasing? What is the condition to avoid aliasing for sampling?

3. Define ? Decimation

4. Define ? Interpolation

5. What is multirate signal processing?

6. Name the process of converting a signal from a given rate to a different rate

7. State the formula for poly phase interpolation using z-transform.

8. List the applications of multirate signal processing.

9. List the methods used in sampling for converting a digital signal

10. List the advantages of multirate processing.

11. What is up sampling?

12. List the applications of multirate DSP.

13. What is the need for antialiasing filter prior to down sampling?

14. List the applications of adaptive filters

15. What are the sections in Quadrature mirror filter bank?

16. What is down sampling?

17. What is the need for anti-imaging filter after up sampling a signal?

18. State the formula for poly phase decimation using z-transform.

19. What is anti-aliasing filter?

20. Define ? Sampling theorem

Viva ?voce

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.7 EQUALIZATION

Aim

To write MATLAB program to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS algorithm

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the adaptive channel equalization was designed using LMS algorithm.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS

algorithm.

Applications:

1. Echo cancellation in telecommunication systems

2. Digital radio communication systems

3. Channel equalization for dispersive channels

4. Signal processing and control applications

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1. Define ? Equalization

2. What is recursive algorithm?

3. List the steps in the process of Adaptive equalization.

4. What is decision directed mode?

5. What are the uses of adaptive filters?

6. Define ? Rate of Convergence

7. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

8. Name the algorithm used in Adaptive Equalization.

9. What is the impact of LMS algorithm?

10. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

11. What is the factor for designing an equalizer?

12. What is non-recursive algorithm?

13. What is the purpose of receiver decision?

14. What is difference between recursive and non-recursive algorithm?

15. What is the maximum expected time delay spread in the channel?

Viva ?voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 8 STUDY OF DSP PROCESSOR TMS320C50

Aim:

To study the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50

Introduction:

It is needless to say that in order to utilize the full feature of the DSP chip TMS320C50, the DSP

engineer must have a complete knowledge of the DSP device. This chapter is an introduction to the

hardware aspects of the TMS320C50. The important units of TMS320C50 are discussed.

The DSP Chip TMS320C50:

The TMS320C50 is a 16-bit fixed point digital signal processor that combines the flexibility of a high

speed controller with the numerical capability of an array processor, thereby offering an inexpensive

alternative to multichip bit-slice processors. The highly paralleled architecture and efficient instruction

set, provide speed and flexibility capable of executing 10 MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second). The

TMS320C50 optimizes speed by implementing functions in hardware that other processors implement

through microcode or software. This hardware intensive approach provides the design engineer with

processing power previously unavailable on a single chip.

The TMS320C50 is the third generation digital signal processor in the TMS320 family. Its powerful

instruction set, inherent flexibility, high-speed number-crunching capabilities, and innovative

architecture have made this high-performance, cost-effective processor the ideal solution to many

telecommunications, computer, commercial, industrial, and military applications.

Key Features of TMS320C50:

The key features of the Digital Signal Processor TMS320C50 are:

? 35-/50-ns single-cycle fixed-point instruction execution time (28.6/20 MIPS)

? Upward source-code compatible with all C1X and C2x devices

? RAM-based memory operation (C50)

? 9K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip program/data RAM (C50)

? 2K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip boot ROM (C50)

? 1056 x 16-bit dual-access on-chip data RAM

? 224K x 16-bit maximum addressable external memory space (64K program, 64K data, 64K I/O)

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? 32-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU), 32-bit accumulator (ACC), and 32-bit accumulator buffer

(ACCB)

? 16-bit parallel logic unit (PLU)

? 16 x 16-bit parallel multiplier with a 32-bit product capability.

? Single-cycle multiply/accumulate instructions

? Eight auxiliary registers with a dedicated auxiliary register arithmetic unit for indirect

addressing.

? Eleven context-switch registers (shadow registers) for storing strategic CPU controlled registers

during an interrupt service routine

? Eight-level hardware stack

? 0- to 16-bit left and right data barrel-shifters and a 64-bit incremental data shifter

? Two indirectly addressed circular buffers for circular addressing

? Single-instruction repeat and block repeat operations for program code

? Block memory move instructions for better program/data management

? Full-duplex synchronous serial port for direct communication between the C5x and another

serial device

? Time-division multiple-access (TDM) serial port

? Interval timer with period, control, and counter registers for software stop, start, and reset

? 64K parallel I/O ports, 16 of which are memory mapped

? Sixteen software programmable wait-state generators for program, data, and I/O

memory spaces.

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Theory:

A detailed architectural block diagram of TMS320C50 is illustrated in Figure. The TMS320C50

utilizes a modified Harvard architecture for speed and flexibility. In a strict Harvard architecture,

program and data memory are in two separate spaces, permitting a full overlap of instruction fetch and

execution. The TMS320 family's modification of the Harvard architecture allows transfer between

program and data spaces, thereby increasing the flexibility of the device. This modification permits

coefficients stored in program memory to be read into the data RAM, eliminating the need for a

separate coefficient ROM. It also makes available immediate instructions and subroutines based on

computed values.

32-bit Accumulator:

The TMS320C50 contains a 32-bit ALU and accumulator for support of double- precision, two's

complement arithmetic. The ALU is a general purpose arithmetic unit that operates on 16-bit words

taken from the data RAM or derived from immediate instructions. In addition to the usual arithmetic

instructions, the ALU can perform Boolean operations, providing the bit manipulation ability required of

a high-speed controller. The accumulator stores the output from the ALU and is often an input to the

ALU. Its word length is 32-bit. The accumulator is divided into a high order word (bits 31 through 16)

and a low-order word (bits 15 through 0). Instructions are provided for storing and loading the high and

lower order accumulator words to memory.

16 X 16-bit Parallel Multiplier:

The multiplier performs a 16 x 16-bit two's complement multiplication with a 32- bit result in a single

instruction cycle. The multiplier consists of three units: the T- Register, P-Register, and multiplier array.

The 16-bit T-Register temporarily stores the multiplicand and the P-Register stores the 32-bit product.

Multiplier values either come from the data memory or are derived immediately from the MPY (multiply

immediate) instruction word. The fast on-chip multiplier allows the device to perform fundamental

operations such as convolution, correlation, and filtering. Two multiply/accumulate instructions in the

instruction set fully utilize the computational bandwidth of the multiplier, allowing both operands to be

processed simultaneously.

Shifters:

A 16-bit scaling shifter is available at the accumulator input. This shifter produces a left shift of 0 to

16-bits on the input data to accumulator. TMS320C50 also contains a shifter at the accumulator output.

This shifter provide a left shift of 0 to 7, on the data from either the ACCH or ACCL register. In addition

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

one shifter at the output of P- register, can shift the product by 1 or 4-bits left or 6-bits right, before

transferring the product to accumulator.

Interrupts and Subroutines:

The TMS320C50 has three external maskable user interrupts available for external devices that

interrupt the processor. The TMS320C50 contains a eight-level hardware stack for saving the contents

of the program counter during interrupts and subroutine calls. Instructions are available for saving the

device's complete context. PUSH and POP instructions permit a level of nesting restricted only by the

amount of available RAM.

Serial Port:

A full-duplex on-chip serial port provides direct communication with serial devices such as codec?s,

serial A/D converters and other serial systems. The interface signals are compatible with codec?s and

many others serial devices with a minimum of external hardware.

Input and Output:

The 16-bit parallel data bus can be utilized to perform I/O functions in two cycles. The I/O ports are

addressed by the four LSBs on the address lines, allowing 16 input and 16 output ports. In addition,

polling input for bit test and jump operations (BIO) and three interrupt pins (INT0 - INT2) have been

incorporated for multitasking.

Result:

Thus the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50 was studied.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to know the architecture of DSP processor

TMS320C50.

Applications:

1. Audio signal processing

2. Speech recognition

3. Biomedicine

4. Seismology

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

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5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.6 MULTIRATE FILTERS

Aim

To design multirate FIR filters using interpolation and decimation and to plot the impulse responses and

the magnitude responses for all designs.

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the multirate filters was designed using interpolation and decimation for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design linear-phase FIR multirate filters and do

interpolation and decimation of the signals

Applications:

1. Sampling rate conversion systems

2. Communication systems

3. Design of phase shifters

4. Antenna arrays

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. What is the importance of decimation for a given signal/sequence?

2. What is aliasing? What is the condition to avoid aliasing for sampling?

3. Define ? Decimation

4. Define ? Interpolation

5. What is multirate signal processing?

6. Name the process of converting a signal from a given rate to a different rate

7. State the formula for poly phase interpolation using z-transform.

8. List the applications of multirate signal processing.

9. List the methods used in sampling for converting a digital signal

10. List the advantages of multirate processing.

11. What is up sampling?

12. List the applications of multirate DSP.

13. What is the need for antialiasing filter prior to down sampling?

14. List the applications of adaptive filters

15. What are the sections in Quadrature mirror filter bank?

16. What is down sampling?

17. What is the need for anti-imaging filter after up sampling a signal?

18. State the formula for poly phase decimation using z-transform.

19. What is anti-aliasing filter?

20. Define ? Sampling theorem

Viva ?voce

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.7 EQUALIZATION

Aim

To write MATLAB program to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS algorithm

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the adaptive channel equalization was designed using LMS algorithm.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS

algorithm.

Applications:

1. Echo cancellation in telecommunication systems

2. Digital radio communication systems

3. Channel equalization for dispersive channels

4. Signal processing and control applications

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. Define ? Equalization

2. What is recursive algorithm?

3. List the steps in the process of Adaptive equalization.

4. What is decision directed mode?

5. What are the uses of adaptive filters?

6. Define ? Rate of Convergence

7. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

8. Name the algorithm used in Adaptive Equalization.

9. What is the impact of LMS algorithm?

10. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

11. What is the factor for designing an equalizer?

12. What is non-recursive algorithm?

13. What is the purpose of receiver decision?

14. What is difference between recursive and non-recursive algorithm?

15. What is the maximum expected time delay spread in the channel?

Viva ?voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 8 STUDY OF DSP PROCESSOR TMS320C50

Aim:

To study the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50

Introduction:

It is needless to say that in order to utilize the full feature of the DSP chip TMS320C50, the DSP

engineer must have a complete knowledge of the DSP device. This chapter is an introduction to the

hardware aspects of the TMS320C50. The important units of TMS320C50 are discussed.

The DSP Chip TMS320C50:

The TMS320C50 is a 16-bit fixed point digital signal processor that combines the flexibility of a high

speed controller with the numerical capability of an array processor, thereby offering an inexpensive

alternative to multichip bit-slice processors. The highly paralleled architecture and efficient instruction

set, provide speed and flexibility capable of executing 10 MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second). The

TMS320C50 optimizes speed by implementing functions in hardware that other processors implement

through microcode or software. This hardware intensive approach provides the design engineer with

processing power previously unavailable on a single chip.

The TMS320C50 is the third generation digital signal processor in the TMS320 family. Its powerful

instruction set, inherent flexibility, high-speed number-crunching capabilities, and innovative

architecture have made this high-performance, cost-effective processor the ideal solution to many

telecommunications, computer, commercial, industrial, and military applications.

Key Features of TMS320C50:

The key features of the Digital Signal Processor TMS320C50 are:

? 35-/50-ns single-cycle fixed-point instruction execution time (28.6/20 MIPS)

? Upward source-code compatible with all C1X and C2x devices

? RAM-based memory operation (C50)

? 9K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip program/data RAM (C50)

? 2K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip boot ROM (C50)

? 1056 x 16-bit dual-access on-chip data RAM

? 224K x 16-bit maximum addressable external memory space (64K program, 64K data, 64K I/O)

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? 32-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU), 32-bit accumulator (ACC), and 32-bit accumulator buffer

(ACCB)

? 16-bit parallel logic unit (PLU)

? 16 x 16-bit parallel multiplier with a 32-bit product capability.

? Single-cycle multiply/accumulate instructions

? Eight auxiliary registers with a dedicated auxiliary register arithmetic unit for indirect

addressing.

? Eleven context-switch registers (shadow registers) for storing strategic CPU controlled registers

during an interrupt service routine

? Eight-level hardware stack

? 0- to 16-bit left and right data barrel-shifters and a 64-bit incremental data shifter

? Two indirectly addressed circular buffers for circular addressing

? Single-instruction repeat and block repeat operations for program code

? Block memory move instructions for better program/data management

? Full-duplex synchronous serial port for direct communication between the C5x and another

serial device

? Time-division multiple-access (TDM) serial port

? Interval timer with period, control, and counter registers for software stop, start, and reset

? 64K parallel I/O ports, 16 of which are memory mapped

? Sixteen software programmable wait-state generators for program, data, and I/O

memory spaces.

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Theory:

A detailed architectural block diagram of TMS320C50 is illustrated in Figure. The TMS320C50

utilizes a modified Harvard architecture for speed and flexibility. In a strict Harvard architecture,

program and data memory are in two separate spaces, permitting a full overlap of instruction fetch and

execution. The TMS320 family's modification of the Harvard architecture allows transfer between

program and data spaces, thereby increasing the flexibility of the device. This modification permits

coefficients stored in program memory to be read into the data RAM, eliminating the need for a

separate coefficient ROM. It also makes available immediate instructions and subroutines based on

computed values.

32-bit Accumulator:

The TMS320C50 contains a 32-bit ALU and accumulator for support of double- precision, two's

complement arithmetic. The ALU is a general purpose arithmetic unit that operates on 16-bit words

taken from the data RAM or derived from immediate instructions. In addition to the usual arithmetic

instructions, the ALU can perform Boolean operations, providing the bit manipulation ability required of

a high-speed controller. The accumulator stores the output from the ALU and is often an input to the

ALU. Its word length is 32-bit. The accumulator is divided into a high order word (bits 31 through 16)

and a low-order word (bits 15 through 0). Instructions are provided for storing and loading the high and

lower order accumulator words to memory.

16 X 16-bit Parallel Multiplier:

The multiplier performs a 16 x 16-bit two's complement multiplication with a 32- bit result in a single

instruction cycle. The multiplier consists of three units: the T- Register, P-Register, and multiplier array.

The 16-bit T-Register temporarily stores the multiplicand and the P-Register stores the 32-bit product.

Multiplier values either come from the data memory or are derived immediately from the MPY (multiply

immediate) instruction word. The fast on-chip multiplier allows the device to perform fundamental

operations such as convolution, correlation, and filtering. Two multiply/accumulate instructions in the

instruction set fully utilize the computational bandwidth of the multiplier, allowing both operands to be

processed simultaneously.

Shifters:

A 16-bit scaling shifter is available at the accumulator input. This shifter produces a left shift of 0 to

16-bits on the input data to accumulator. TMS320C50 also contains a shifter at the accumulator output.

This shifter provide a left shift of 0 to 7, on the data from either the ACCH or ACCL register. In addition

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one shifter at the output of P- register, can shift the product by 1 or 4-bits left or 6-bits right, before

transferring the product to accumulator.

Interrupts and Subroutines:

The TMS320C50 has three external maskable user interrupts available for external devices that

interrupt the processor. The TMS320C50 contains a eight-level hardware stack for saving the contents

of the program counter during interrupts and subroutine calls. Instructions are available for saving the

device's complete context. PUSH and POP instructions permit a level of nesting restricted only by the

amount of available RAM.

Serial Port:

A full-duplex on-chip serial port provides direct communication with serial devices such as codec?s,

serial A/D converters and other serial systems. The interface signals are compatible with codec?s and

many others serial devices with a minimum of external hardware.

Input and Output:

The 16-bit parallel data bus can be utilized to perform I/O functions in two cycles. The I/O ports are

addressed by the four LSBs on the address lines, allowing 16 input and 16 output ports. In addition,

polling input for bit test and jump operations (BIO) and three interrupt pins (INT0 - INT2) have been

incorporated for multitasking.

Result:

Thus the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50 was studied.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to know the architecture of DSP processor

TMS320C50.

Applications:

1. Audio signal processing

2. Speech recognition

3. Biomedicine

4. Seismology

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5. RADAR

6. Digital communication

1. List the types of DSP processors.

2. List the features of TMS 320C6X processor.

3. Differentiate Von Neumann architecture and Harvard architecture.

4. Name the architecture used in DSP processor

5. How many instructions can be executed per cycle in TMS320C6X DSP processor?

6. Name the register that stores the result of multiplication in DSP processor.

7. How many instruction cycles are used for 16 x 16 multiplication in TMS320C6X DSP processor?

8. What are the applications for the TMS320 DSP?s?

9. Name the software tool required to compile and run the DSP assembly program.

10. What is the functional unit adapted for transferring the data from the register in TMS 320 C6x

processor?

11. What are the difference buses of TMS320C5X and their functions?

12. What are the different stages in pipelining?

13. What is pipeline depth of TMS320C50 and TMS320C54x?

14. What is the function of parallel logic unit?

15. How many functional units are in TMS 320C6X DSP processor?

16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of VLIW architecture?

17. What is pipeline depth?

18. List the on chip peripheral in C5x.

19. What is the logical instruction of c5x?

20. What are the factors that influence selection of DSP?

Viva ?voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

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4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

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4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.6 MULTIRATE FILTERS

Aim

To design multirate FIR filters using interpolation and decimation and to plot the impulse responses and

the magnitude responses for all designs.

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the multirate filters was designed using interpolation and decimation for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design linear-phase FIR multirate filters and do

interpolation and decimation of the signals

Applications:

1. Sampling rate conversion systems

2. Communication systems

3. Design of phase shifters

4. Antenna arrays

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. What is the importance of decimation for a given signal/sequence?

2. What is aliasing? What is the condition to avoid aliasing for sampling?

3. Define ? Decimation

4. Define ? Interpolation

5. What is multirate signal processing?

6. Name the process of converting a signal from a given rate to a different rate

7. State the formula for poly phase interpolation using z-transform.

8. List the applications of multirate signal processing.

9. List the methods used in sampling for converting a digital signal

10. List the advantages of multirate processing.

11. What is up sampling?

12. List the applications of multirate DSP.

13. What is the need for antialiasing filter prior to down sampling?

14. List the applications of adaptive filters

15. What are the sections in Quadrature mirror filter bank?

16. What is down sampling?

17. What is the need for anti-imaging filter after up sampling a signal?

18. State the formula for poly phase decimation using z-transform.

19. What is anti-aliasing filter?

20. Define ? Sampling theorem

Viva ?voce

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.7 EQUALIZATION

Aim

To write MATLAB program to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS algorithm

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the adaptive channel equalization was designed using LMS algorithm.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS

algorithm.

Applications:

1. Echo cancellation in telecommunication systems

2. Digital radio communication systems

3. Channel equalization for dispersive channels

4. Signal processing and control applications

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. Define ? Equalization

2. What is recursive algorithm?

3. List the steps in the process of Adaptive equalization.

4. What is decision directed mode?

5. What are the uses of adaptive filters?

6. Define ? Rate of Convergence

7. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

8. Name the algorithm used in Adaptive Equalization.

9. What is the impact of LMS algorithm?

10. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

11. What is the factor for designing an equalizer?

12. What is non-recursive algorithm?

13. What is the purpose of receiver decision?

14. What is difference between recursive and non-recursive algorithm?

15. What is the maximum expected time delay spread in the channel?

Viva ?voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 8 STUDY OF DSP PROCESSOR TMS320C50

Aim:

To study the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50

Introduction:

It is needless to say that in order to utilize the full feature of the DSP chip TMS320C50, the DSP

engineer must have a complete knowledge of the DSP device. This chapter is an introduction to the

hardware aspects of the TMS320C50. The important units of TMS320C50 are discussed.

The DSP Chip TMS320C50:

The TMS320C50 is a 16-bit fixed point digital signal processor that combines the flexibility of a high

speed controller with the numerical capability of an array processor, thereby offering an inexpensive

alternative to multichip bit-slice processors. The highly paralleled architecture and efficient instruction

set, provide speed and flexibility capable of executing 10 MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second). The

TMS320C50 optimizes speed by implementing functions in hardware that other processors implement

through microcode or software. This hardware intensive approach provides the design engineer with

processing power previously unavailable on a single chip.

The TMS320C50 is the third generation digital signal processor in the TMS320 family. Its powerful

instruction set, inherent flexibility, high-speed number-crunching capabilities, and innovative

architecture have made this high-performance, cost-effective processor the ideal solution to many

telecommunications, computer, commercial, industrial, and military applications.

Key Features of TMS320C50:

The key features of the Digital Signal Processor TMS320C50 are:

? 35-/50-ns single-cycle fixed-point instruction execution time (28.6/20 MIPS)

? Upward source-code compatible with all C1X and C2x devices

? RAM-based memory operation (C50)

? 9K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip program/data RAM (C50)

? 2K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip boot ROM (C50)

? 1056 x 16-bit dual-access on-chip data RAM

? 224K x 16-bit maximum addressable external memory space (64K program, 64K data, 64K I/O)

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? 32-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU), 32-bit accumulator (ACC), and 32-bit accumulator buffer

(ACCB)

? 16-bit parallel logic unit (PLU)

? 16 x 16-bit parallel multiplier with a 32-bit product capability.

? Single-cycle multiply/accumulate instructions

? Eight auxiliary registers with a dedicated auxiliary register arithmetic unit for indirect

addressing.

? Eleven context-switch registers (shadow registers) for storing strategic CPU controlled registers

during an interrupt service routine

? Eight-level hardware stack

? 0- to 16-bit left and right data barrel-shifters and a 64-bit incremental data shifter

? Two indirectly addressed circular buffers for circular addressing

? Single-instruction repeat and block repeat operations for program code

? Block memory move instructions for better program/data management

? Full-duplex synchronous serial port for direct communication between the C5x and another

serial device

? Time-division multiple-access (TDM) serial port

? Interval timer with period, control, and counter registers for software stop, start, and reset

? 64K parallel I/O ports, 16 of which are memory mapped

? Sixteen software programmable wait-state generators for program, data, and I/O

memory spaces.

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Theory:

A detailed architectural block diagram of TMS320C50 is illustrated in Figure. The TMS320C50

utilizes a modified Harvard architecture for speed and flexibility. In a strict Harvard architecture,

program and data memory are in two separate spaces, permitting a full overlap of instruction fetch and

execution. The TMS320 family's modification of the Harvard architecture allows transfer between

program and data spaces, thereby increasing the flexibility of the device. This modification permits

coefficients stored in program memory to be read into the data RAM, eliminating the need for a

separate coefficient ROM. It also makes available immediate instructions and subroutines based on

computed values.

32-bit Accumulator:

The TMS320C50 contains a 32-bit ALU and accumulator for support of double- precision, two's

complement arithmetic. The ALU is a general purpose arithmetic unit that operates on 16-bit words

taken from the data RAM or derived from immediate instructions. In addition to the usual arithmetic

instructions, the ALU can perform Boolean operations, providing the bit manipulation ability required of

a high-speed controller. The accumulator stores the output from the ALU and is often an input to the

ALU. Its word length is 32-bit. The accumulator is divided into a high order word (bits 31 through 16)

and a low-order word (bits 15 through 0). Instructions are provided for storing and loading the high and

lower order accumulator words to memory.

16 X 16-bit Parallel Multiplier:

The multiplier performs a 16 x 16-bit two's complement multiplication with a 32- bit result in a single

instruction cycle. The multiplier consists of three units: the T- Register, P-Register, and multiplier array.

The 16-bit T-Register temporarily stores the multiplicand and the P-Register stores the 32-bit product.

Multiplier values either come from the data memory or are derived immediately from the MPY (multiply

immediate) instruction word. The fast on-chip multiplier allows the device to perform fundamental

operations such as convolution, correlation, and filtering. Two multiply/accumulate instructions in the

instruction set fully utilize the computational bandwidth of the multiplier, allowing both operands to be

processed simultaneously.

Shifters:

A 16-bit scaling shifter is available at the accumulator input. This shifter produces a left shift of 0 to

16-bits on the input data to accumulator. TMS320C50 also contains a shifter at the accumulator output.

This shifter provide a left shift of 0 to 7, on the data from either the ACCH or ACCL register. In addition

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

one shifter at the output of P- register, can shift the product by 1 or 4-bits left or 6-bits right, before

transferring the product to accumulator.

Interrupts and Subroutines:

The TMS320C50 has three external maskable user interrupts available for external devices that

interrupt the processor. The TMS320C50 contains a eight-level hardware stack for saving the contents

of the program counter during interrupts and subroutine calls. Instructions are available for saving the

device's complete context. PUSH and POP instructions permit a level of nesting restricted only by the

amount of available RAM.

Serial Port:

A full-duplex on-chip serial port provides direct communication with serial devices such as codec?s,

serial A/D converters and other serial systems. The interface signals are compatible with codec?s and

many others serial devices with a minimum of external hardware.

Input and Output:

The 16-bit parallel data bus can be utilized to perform I/O functions in two cycles. The I/O ports are

addressed by the four LSBs on the address lines, allowing 16 input and 16 output ports. In addition,

polling input for bit test and jump operations (BIO) and three interrupt pins (INT0 - INT2) have been

incorporated for multitasking.

Result:

Thus the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50 was studied.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to know the architecture of DSP processor

TMS320C50.

Applications:

1. Audio signal processing

2. Speech recognition

3. Biomedicine

4. Seismology

32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. RADAR

6. Digital communication

1. List the types of DSP processors.

2. List the features of TMS 320C6X processor.

3. Differentiate Von Neumann architecture and Harvard architecture.

4. Name the architecture used in DSP processor

5. How many instructions can be executed per cycle in TMS320C6X DSP processor?

6. Name the register that stores the result of multiplication in DSP processor.

7. How many instruction cycles are used for 16 x 16 multiplication in TMS320C6X DSP processor?

8. What are the applications for the TMS320 DSP?s?

9. Name the software tool required to compile and run the DSP assembly program.

10. What is the functional unit adapted for transferring the data from the register in TMS 320 C6x

processor?

11. What are the difference buses of TMS320C5X and their functions?

12. What are the different stages in pipelining?

13. What is pipeline depth of TMS320C50 and TMS320C54x?

14. What is the function of parallel logic unit?

15. How many functional units are in TMS 320C6X DSP processor?

16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of VLIW architecture?

17. What is pipeline depth?

18. List the on chip peripheral in C5x.

19. What is the logical instruction of c5x?

20. What are the factors that influence selection of DSP?

Viva ?voce

33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.9 MAC OPERATIONS USING VARIOUS

ADDRESSING MODES

Aim:

To study the various addressing modes of TMS320C50 processor using the following programs:

1. Addition of two data

2. Subtraction of two data

3. Multiplication of two data

Apparatus Required:

1. Digital signal processor - TMS320C50 Trainer kit

2. PC with C50 debugger

Algorithm:

Addition of two data:

1. Start

2. Initialize the memory mapped registers.

3. Load the data pointer with address 100H.

4. Load the first data in accumulator.

5. Add the second data with accumulator.

6. Store the result in memory.

7. Check the result in various addressing modes.

8. Stop

Subtraction of two data:

1. Start

2. Initialize the memory mapped registers.

3. Load the data pointer with address 100H.

4. Load the first data in accumulator.

5. Subtract the second data from the accumulator.

6. Store the result in memory.

7. Check the result in various addressing modes.

8. Stop

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EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

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Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

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To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

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2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

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To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

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3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

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constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

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5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

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Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.6 MULTIRATE FILTERS

Aim

To design multirate FIR filters using interpolation and decimation and to plot the impulse responses and

the magnitude responses for all designs.

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the multirate filters was designed using interpolation and decimation for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design linear-phase FIR multirate filters and do

interpolation and decimation of the signals

Applications:

1. Sampling rate conversion systems

2. Communication systems

3. Design of phase shifters

4. Antenna arrays

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. What is the importance of decimation for a given signal/sequence?

2. What is aliasing? What is the condition to avoid aliasing for sampling?

3. Define ? Decimation

4. Define ? Interpolation

5. What is multirate signal processing?

6. Name the process of converting a signal from a given rate to a different rate

7. State the formula for poly phase interpolation using z-transform.

8. List the applications of multirate signal processing.

9. List the methods used in sampling for converting a digital signal

10. List the advantages of multirate processing.

11. What is up sampling?

12. List the applications of multirate DSP.

13. What is the need for antialiasing filter prior to down sampling?

14. List the applications of adaptive filters

15. What are the sections in Quadrature mirror filter bank?

16. What is down sampling?

17. What is the need for anti-imaging filter after up sampling a signal?

18. State the formula for poly phase decimation using z-transform.

19. What is anti-aliasing filter?

20. Define ? Sampling theorem

Viva ?voce

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.7 EQUALIZATION

Aim

To write MATLAB program to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS algorithm

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the adaptive channel equalization was designed using LMS algorithm.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS

algorithm.

Applications:

1. Echo cancellation in telecommunication systems

2. Digital radio communication systems

3. Channel equalization for dispersive channels

4. Signal processing and control applications

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. Define ? Equalization

2. What is recursive algorithm?

3. List the steps in the process of Adaptive equalization.

4. What is decision directed mode?

5. What are the uses of adaptive filters?

6. Define ? Rate of Convergence

7. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

8. Name the algorithm used in Adaptive Equalization.

9. What is the impact of LMS algorithm?

10. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

11. What is the factor for designing an equalizer?

12. What is non-recursive algorithm?

13. What is the purpose of receiver decision?

14. What is difference between recursive and non-recursive algorithm?

15. What is the maximum expected time delay spread in the channel?

Viva ?voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 8 STUDY OF DSP PROCESSOR TMS320C50

Aim:

To study the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50

Introduction:

It is needless to say that in order to utilize the full feature of the DSP chip TMS320C50, the DSP

engineer must have a complete knowledge of the DSP device. This chapter is an introduction to the

hardware aspects of the TMS320C50. The important units of TMS320C50 are discussed.

The DSP Chip TMS320C50:

The TMS320C50 is a 16-bit fixed point digital signal processor that combines the flexibility of a high

speed controller with the numerical capability of an array processor, thereby offering an inexpensive

alternative to multichip bit-slice processors. The highly paralleled architecture and efficient instruction

set, provide speed and flexibility capable of executing 10 MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second). The

TMS320C50 optimizes speed by implementing functions in hardware that other processors implement

through microcode or software. This hardware intensive approach provides the design engineer with

processing power previously unavailable on a single chip.

The TMS320C50 is the third generation digital signal processor in the TMS320 family. Its powerful

instruction set, inherent flexibility, high-speed number-crunching capabilities, and innovative

architecture have made this high-performance, cost-effective processor the ideal solution to many

telecommunications, computer, commercial, industrial, and military applications.

Key Features of TMS320C50:

The key features of the Digital Signal Processor TMS320C50 are:

? 35-/50-ns single-cycle fixed-point instruction execution time (28.6/20 MIPS)

? Upward source-code compatible with all C1X and C2x devices

? RAM-based memory operation (C50)

? 9K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip program/data RAM (C50)

? 2K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip boot ROM (C50)

? 1056 x 16-bit dual-access on-chip data RAM

? 224K x 16-bit maximum addressable external memory space (64K program, 64K data, 64K I/O)

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? 32-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU), 32-bit accumulator (ACC), and 32-bit accumulator buffer

(ACCB)

? 16-bit parallel logic unit (PLU)

? 16 x 16-bit parallel multiplier with a 32-bit product capability.

? Single-cycle multiply/accumulate instructions

? Eight auxiliary registers with a dedicated auxiliary register arithmetic unit for indirect

addressing.

? Eleven context-switch registers (shadow registers) for storing strategic CPU controlled registers

during an interrupt service routine

? Eight-level hardware stack

? 0- to 16-bit left and right data barrel-shifters and a 64-bit incremental data shifter

? Two indirectly addressed circular buffers for circular addressing

? Single-instruction repeat and block repeat operations for program code

? Block memory move instructions for better program/data management

? Full-duplex synchronous serial port for direct communication between the C5x and another

serial device

? Time-division multiple-access (TDM) serial port

? Interval timer with period, control, and counter registers for software stop, start, and reset

? 64K parallel I/O ports, 16 of which are memory mapped

? Sixteen software programmable wait-state generators for program, data, and I/O

memory spaces.

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Theory:

A detailed architectural block diagram of TMS320C50 is illustrated in Figure. The TMS320C50

utilizes a modified Harvard architecture for speed and flexibility. In a strict Harvard architecture,

program and data memory are in two separate spaces, permitting a full overlap of instruction fetch and

execution. The TMS320 family's modification of the Harvard architecture allows transfer between

program and data spaces, thereby increasing the flexibility of the device. This modification permits

coefficients stored in program memory to be read into the data RAM, eliminating the need for a

separate coefficient ROM. It also makes available immediate instructions and subroutines based on

computed values.

32-bit Accumulator:

The TMS320C50 contains a 32-bit ALU and accumulator for support of double- precision, two's

complement arithmetic. The ALU is a general purpose arithmetic unit that operates on 16-bit words

taken from the data RAM or derived from immediate instructions. In addition to the usual arithmetic

instructions, the ALU can perform Boolean operations, providing the bit manipulation ability required of

a high-speed controller. The accumulator stores the output from the ALU and is often an input to the

ALU. Its word length is 32-bit. The accumulator is divided into a high order word (bits 31 through 16)

and a low-order word (bits 15 through 0). Instructions are provided for storing and loading the high and

lower order accumulator words to memory.

16 X 16-bit Parallel Multiplier:

The multiplier performs a 16 x 16-bit two's complement multiplication with a 32- bit result in a single

instruction cycle. The multiplier consists of three units: the T- Register, P-Register, and multiplier array.

The 16-bit T-Register temporarily stores the multiplicand and the P-Register stores the 32-bit product.

Multiplier values either come from the data memory or are derived immediately from the MPY (multiply

immediate) instruction word. The fast on-chip multiplier allows the device to perform fundamental

operations such as convolution, correlation, and filtering. Two multiply/accumulate instructions in the

instruction set fully utilize the computational bandwidth of the multiplier, allowing both operands to be

processed simultaneously.

Shifters:

A 16-bit scaling shifter is available at the accumulator input. This shifter produces a left shift of 0 to

16-bits on the input data to accumulator. TMS320C50 also contains a shifter at the accumulator output.

This shifter provide a left shift of 0 to 7, on the data from either the ACCH or ACCL register. In addition

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one shifter at the output of P- register, can shift the product by 1 or 4-bits left or 6-bits right, before

transferring the product to accumulator.

Interrupts and Subroutines:

The TMS320C50 has three external maskable user interrupts available for external devices that

interrupt the processor. The TMS320C50 contains a eight-level hardware stack for saving the contents

of the program counter during interrupts and subroutine calls. Instructions are available for saving the

device's complete context. PUSH and POP instructions permit a level of nesting restricted only by the

amount of available RAM.

Serial Port:

A full-duplex on-chip serial port provides direct communication with serial devices such as codec?s,

serial A/D converters and other serial systems. The interface signals are compatible with codec?s and

many others serial devices with a minimum of external hardware.

Input and Output:

The 16-bit parallel data bus can be utilized to perform I/O functions in two cycles. The I/O ports are

addressed by the four LSBs on the address lines, allowing 16 input and 16 output ports. In addition,

polling input for bit test and jump operations (BIO) and three interrupt pins (INT0 - INT2) have been

incorporated for multitasking.

Result:

Thus the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50 was studied.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to know the architecture of DSP processor

TMS320C50.

Applications:

1. Audio signal processing

2. Speech recognition

3. Biomedicine

4. Seismology

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5. RADAR

6. Digital communication

1. List the types of DSP processors.

2. List the features of TMS 320C6X processor.

3. Differentiate Von Neumann architecture and Harvard architecture.

4. Name the architecture used in DSP processor

5. How many instructions can be executed per cycle in TMS320C6X DSP processor?

6. Name the register that stores the result of multiplication in DSP processor.

7. How many instruction cycles are used for 16 x 16 multiplication in TMS320C6X DSP processor?

8. What are the applications for the TMS320 DSP?s?

9. Name the software tool required to compile and run the DSP assembly program.

10. What is the functional unit adapted for transferring the data from the register in TMS 320 C6x

processor?

11. What are the difference buses of TMS320C5X and their functions?

12. What are the different stages in pipelining?

13. What is pipeline depth of TMS320C50 and TMS320C54x?

14. What is the function of parallel logic unit?

15. How many functional units are in TMS 320C6X DSP processor?

16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of VLIW architecture?

17. What is pipeline depth?

18. List the on chip peripheral in C5x.

19. What is the logical instruction of c5x?

20. What are the factors that influence selection of DSP?

Viva ?voce

33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.9 MAC OPERATIONS USING VARIOUS

ADDRESSING MODES

Aim:

To study the various addressing modes of TMS320C50 processor using the following programs:

1. Addition of two data

2. Subtraction of two data

3. Multiplication of two data

Apparatus Required:

1. Digital signal processor - TMS320C50 Trainer kit

2. PC with C50 debugger

Algorithm:

Addition of two data:

1. Start

2. Initialize the memory mapped registers.

3. Load the data pointer with address 100H.

4. Load the first data in accumulator.

5. Add the second data with accumulator.

6. Store the result in memory.

7. Check the result in various addressing modes.

8. Stop

Subtraction of two data:

1. Start

2. Initialize the memory mapped registers.

3. Load the data pointer with address 100H.

4. Load the first data in accumulator.

5. Subtract the second data from the accumulator.

6. Store the result in memory.

7. Check the result in various addressing modes.

8. Stop

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Multiplication of two data:

1. Start.

2. Initialize the memory mapped registers.

3. Load the data pointer with address 100H.

4. Load the first data in accumulator.

5. Multiply the second data with accumulator.

6. Store the result in memory.

7. Check the result in various addressing modes.

8. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in work space.

2. Save and compile the program to generate ASCII codes.

3. Download the ASCII codes to micro 50 trainer kit.

4. Execute the program.

5. Observe the output in memory.

Result:

Thus the various addressing modes of TMS320C50 are studied and the outputs are verified.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to perform arithmetic operations using various

addressing modes in TMS320C50 Processor.

Applications:

1. Implementation of digital filters for speech and music processing

2. Correlation of signals in RADAR

3. Computing the output of LTI systems for various input sequences

4. Study of system behaviour

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

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5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

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4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

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5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter?

20. Write the expression of the order of the Chebyshev filter.

Viva ?voce

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.6 MULTIRATE FILTERS

Aim

To design multirate FIR filters using interpolation and decimation and to plot the impulse responses and

the magnitude responses for all designs.

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the multirate filters was designed using interpolation and decimation for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design linear-phase FIR multirate filters and do

interpolation and decimation of the signals

Applications:

1. Sampling rate conversion systems

2. Communication systems

3. Design of phase shifters

4. Antenna arrays

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. What is the importance of decimation for a given signal/sequence?

2. What is aliasing? What is the condition to avoid aliasing for sampling?

3. Define ? Decimation

4. Define ? Interpolation

5. What is multirate signal processing?

6. Name the process of converting a signal from a given rate to a different rate

7. State the formula for poly phase interpolation using z-transform.

8. List the applications of multirate signal processing.

9. List the methods used in sampling for converting a digital signal

10. List the advantages of multirate processing.

11. What is up sampling?

12. List the applications of multirate DSP.

13. What is the need for antialiasing filter prior to down sampling?

14. List the applications of adaptive filters

15. What are the sections in Quadrature mirror filter bank?

16. What is down sampling?

17. What is the need for anti-imaging filter after up sampling a signal?

18. State the formula for poly phase decimation using z-transform.

19. What is anti-aliasing filter?

20. Define ? Sampling theorem

Viva ?voce

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.7 EQUALIZATION

Aim

To write MATLAB program to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS algorithm

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the adaptive channel equalization was designed using LMS algorithm.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to design adaptive channel equalization using LMS

algorithm.

Applications:

1. Echo cancellation in telecommunication systems

2. Digital radio communication systems

3. Channel equalization for dispersive channels

4. Signal processing and control applications

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. Define ? Equalization

2. What is recursive algorithm?

3. List the steps in the process of Adaptive equalization.

4. What is decision directed mode?

5. What are the uses of adaptive filters?

6. Define ? Rate of Convergence

7. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

8. Name the algorithm used in Adaptive Equalization.

9. What is the impact of LMS algorithm?

10. What is the relation between analog and digital filter?

11. What is the factor for designing an equalizer?

12. What is non-recursive algorithm?

13. What is the purpose of receiver decision?

14. What is difference between recursive and non-recursive algorithm?

15. What is the maximum expected time delay spread in the channel?

Viva ?voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 8 STUDY OF DSP PROCESSOR TMS320C50

Aim:

To study the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50

Introduction:

It is needless to say that in order to utilize the full feature of the DSP chip TMS320C50, the DSP

engineer must have a complete knowledge of the DSP device. This chapter is an introduction to the

hardware aspects of the TMS320C50. The important units of TMS320C50 are discussed.

The DSP Chip TMS320C50:

The TMS320C50 is a 16-bit fixed point digital signal processor that combines the flexibility of a high

speed controller with the numerical capability of an array processor, thereby offering an inexpensive

alternative to multichip bit-slice processors. The highly paralleled architecture and efficient instruction

set, provide speed and flexibility capable of executing 10 MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second). The

TMS320C50 optimizes speed by implementing functions in hardware that other processors implement

through microcode or software. This hardware intensive approach provides the design engineer with

processing power previously unavailable on a single chip.

The TMS320C50 is the third generation digital signal processor in the TMS320 family. Its powerful

instruction set, inherent flexibility, high-speed number-crunching capabilities, and innovative

architecture have made this high-performance, cost-effective processor the ideal solution to many

telecommunications, computer, commercial, industrial, and military applications.

Key Features of TMS320C50:

The key features of the Digital Signal Processor TMS320C50 are:

? 35-/50-ns single-cycle fixed-point instruction execution time (28.6/20 MIPS)

? Upward source-code compatible with all C1X and C2x devices

? RAM-based memory operation (C50)

? 9K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip program/data RAM (C50)

? 2K x 16-bit single-cycle on-chip boot ROM (C50)

? 1056 x 16-bit dual-access on-chip data RAM

? 224K x 16-bit maximum addressable external memory space (64K program, 64K data, 64K I/O)

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? 32-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU), 32-bit accumulator (ACC), and 32-bit accumulator buffer

(ACCB)

? 16-bit parallel logic unit (PLU)

? 16 x 16-bit parallel multiplier with a 32-bit product capability.

? Single-cycle multiply/accumulate instructions

? Eight auxiliary registers with a dedicated auxiliary register arithmetic unit for indirect

addressing.

? Eleven context-switch registers (shadow registers) for storing strategic CPU controlled registers

during an interrupt service routine

? Eight-level hardware stack

? 0- to 16-bit left and right data barrel-shifters and a 64-bit incremental data shifter

? Two indirectly addressed circular buffers for circular addressing

? Single-instruction repeat and block repeat operations for program code

? Block memory move instructions for better program/data management

? Full-duplex synchronous serial port for direct communication between the C5x and another

serial device

? Time-division multiple-access (TDM) serial port

? Interval timer with period, control, and counter registers for software stop, start, and reset

? 64K parallel I/O ports, 16 of which are memory mapped

? Sixteen software programmable wait-state generators for program, data, and I/O

memory spaces.

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Theory:

A detailed architectural block diagram of TMS320C50 is illustrated in Figure. The TMS320C50

utilizes a modified Harvard architecture for speed and flexibility. In a strict Harvard architecture,

program and data memory are in two separate spaces, permitting a full overlap of instruction fetch and

execution. The TMS320 family's modification of the Harvard architecture allows transfer between

program and data spaces, thereby increasing the flexibility of the device. This modification permits

coefficients stored in program memory to be read into the data RAM, eliminating the need for a

separate coefficient ROM. It also makes available immediate instructions and subroutines based on

computed values.

32-bit Accumulator:

The TMS320C50 contains a 32-bit ALU and accumulator for support of double- precision, two's

complement arithmetic. The ALU is a general purpose arithmetic unit that operates on 16-bit words

taken from the data RAM or derived from immediate instructions. In addition to the usual arithmetic

instructions, the ALU can perform Boolean operations, providing the bit manipulation ability required of

a high-speed controller. The accumulator stores the output from the ALU and is often an input to the

ALU. Its word length is 32-bit. The accumulator is divided into a high order word (bits 31 through 16)

and a low-order word (bits 15 through 0). Instructions are provided for storing and loading the high and

lower order accumulator words to memory.

16 X 16-bit Parallel Multiplier:

The multiplier performs a 16 x 16-bit two's complement multiplication with a 32- bit result in a single

instruction cycle. The multiplier consists of three units: the T- Register, P-Register, and multiplier array.

The 16-bit T-Register temporarily stores the multiplicand and the P-Register stores the 32-bit product.

Multiplier values either come from the data memory or are derived immediately from the MPY (multiply

immediate) instruction word. The fast on-chip multiplier allows the device to perform fundamental

operations such as convolution, correlation, and filtering. Two multiply/accumulate instructions in the

instruction set fully utilize the computational bandwidth of the multiplier, allowing both operands to be

processed simultaneously.

Shifters:

A 16-bit scaling shifter is available at the accumulator input. This shifter produces a left shift of 0 to

16-bits on the input data to accumulator. TMS320C50 also contains a shifter at the accumulator output.

This shifter provide a left shift of 0 to 7, on the data from either the ACCH or ACCL register. In addition

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one shifter at the output of P- register, can shift the product by 1 or 4-bits left or 6-bits right, before

transferring the product to accumulator.

Interrupts and Subroutines:

The TMS320C50 has three external maskable user interrupts available for external devices that

interrupt the processor. The TMS320C50 contains a eight-level hardware stack for saving the contents

of the program counter during interrupts and subroutine calls. Instructions are available for saving the

device's complete context. PUSH and POP instructions permit a level of nesting restricted only by the

amount of available RAM.

Serial Port:

A full-duplex on-chip serial port provides direct communication with serial devices such as codec?s,

serial A/D converters and other serial systems. The interface signals are compatible with codec?s and

many others serial devices with a minimum of external hardware.

Input and Output:

The 16-bit parallel data bus can be utilized to perform I/O functions in two cycles. The I/O ports are

addressed by the four LSBs on the address lines, allowing 16 input and 16 output ports. In addition,

polling input for bit test and jump operations (BIO) and three interrupt pins (INT0 - INT2) have been

incorporated for multitasking.

Result:

Thus the architecture overview of DSP processor TMS320C50 was studied.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to know the architecture of DSP processor

TMS320C50.

Applications:

1. Audio signal processing

2. Speech recognition

3. Biomedicine

4. Seismology

32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. RADAR

6. Digital communication

1. List the types of DSP processors.

2. List the features of TMS 320C6X processor.

3. Differentiate Von Neumann architecture and Harvard architecture.

4. Name the architecture used in DSP processor

5. How many instructions can be executed per cycle in TMS320C6X DSP processor?

6. Name the register that stores the result of multiplication in DSP processor.

7. How many instruction cycles are used for 16 x 16 multiplication in TMS320C6X DSP processor?

8. What are the applications for the TMS320 DSP?s?

9. Name the software tool required to compile and run the DSP assembly program.

10. What is the functional unit adapted for transferring the data from the register in TMS 320 C6x

processor?

11. What are the difference buses of TMS320C5X and their functions?

12. What are the different stages in pipelining?

13. What is pipeline depth of TMS320C50 and TMS320C54x?

14. What is the function of parallel logic unit?

15. How many functional units are in TMS 320C6X DSP processor?

16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of VLIW architecture?

17. What is pipeline depth?

18. List the on chip peripheral in C5x.

19. What is the logical instruction of c5x?

20. What are the factors that influence selection of DSP?

Viva ?voce

33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.9 MAC OPERATIONS USING VARIOUS

ADDRESSING MODES

Aim:

To study the various addressing modes of TMS320C50 processor using the following programs:

1. Addition of two data

2. Subtraction of two data

3. Multiplication of two data

Apparatus Required:

1. Digital signal processor - TMS320C50 Trainer kit

2. PC with C50 debugger

Algorithm:

Addition of two data:

1. Start

2. Initialize the memory mapped registers.

3. Load the data pointer with address 100H.

4. Load the first data in accumulator.

5. Add the second data with accumulator.

6. Store the result in memory.

7. Check the result in various addressing modes.

8. Stop

Subtraction of two data:

1. Start

2. Initialize the memory mapped registers.

3. Load the data pointer with address 100H.

4. Load the first data in accumulator.

5. Subtract the second data from the accumulator.

6. Store the result in memory.

7. Check the result in various addressing modes.

8. Stop

34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Multiplication of two data:

1. Start.

2. Initialize the memory mapped registers.

3. Load the data pointer with address 100H.

4. Load the first data in accumulator.

5. Multiply the second data with accumulator.

6. Store the result in memory.

7. Check the result in various addressing modes.

8. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in work space.

2. Save and compile the program to generate ASCII codes.

3. Download the ASCII codes to micro 50 trainer kit.

4. Execute the program.

5. Observe the output in memory.

Result:

Thus the various addressing modes of TMS320C50 are studied and the outputs are verified.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to perform arithmetic operations using various

addressing modes in TMS320C50 Processor.

Applications:

1. Implementation of digital filters for speech and music processing

2. Correlation of signals in RADAR

3. Computing the output of LTI systems for various input sequences

4. Study of system behaviour

35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

1. List the addressing modes supported by C5X processors.

2. List the on-chip peripherals in C5X.

3. What are the features of TMS320C50 processor?

4. What are the different stages in pipelining?

5. What is parallel processing?

6. What is pipelining?

7. What are the classification digital signal processors?

8. What is MAC?

9. What is barrel shifter? List its advantages in DSP processors

10. What is digital signal processor?

11. What is the expansion of MAC in TMS320C50?

12. What is the purpose of shadow registers in TMS320C50 processor?

13. Differentiate between RISC and CISC architectures.

14. What is the general purpose of I/O pins?

15. List the different quantization methods

Viva ?voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice

?

DEPARTMENT OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013

Name : _______________________________________

Register No. : _______________________________________

Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and

enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and

training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry

? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different

levels

? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on

heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

To impart professional education integrated with human values to the younger generation, so as to

shape them as proficient and dedicated engineers, capable of providing comprehensive solutions to the

challenges in deploying technology for the service of humanity

? To educate the students with the state-of-art technologies to meet the growing challenges of the

electronics industry

? To carry out research through continuous interaction with research institutes and industry, on

advances in communication systems

? To provide the students with strong ground rules to facilitate them for systematic learning,

innovation and ethical practices

VISION

VISION

MISSION

MISSION

2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals

To provide students with a solid foundation in Mathematics, Science and fundamentals of

engineering, enabling them to apply, to find solutions for engineering problems and use this knowledge

to acquire higher education

2. Core Competence

To train the students in Electronics and Communication technologies so that they apply their

knowledge and training to compare, and to analyze various engineering industrial problems to find

solutions

3. Breadth

To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which

enables them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry, and to design products

4. Professionalism

To inculcate professional and effective communication skills, leadership qualities and team spirit in

the students to make them multi-faceted personalities and develop their ability to relate engineering

issues to broader social context

5. Lifelong Learning/Ethics

To demonstrate and practice ethical and professional responsibilities in the industry and society in

the large, through commitment and lifelong learning needed for successful professional career

3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOME (POs)

a) To demonstrate and apply knowledge of Mathematics, Science and engineering fundamentals in

Electronics and Communication Engineering field

b) To design a component, a system or a process to meet the specific needs within the realistic

constraints such as economics, environment, ethics, health, safety and manufacturability

c) To demonstrate the competency to use software tools for computation, simulation and testing of

electronics and communication engineering circuits

d) To identify, formulate and solve electronic and communication engineering problems

e) To demonstrate an ability to visualize and work on laboratory and multidisciplinary tasks

f) To function as a member or a leader in multidisciplinary activities

g) To communicate in verbal and written form with fellow engineers and society at large

h) To understand the impact of Electronics and Communication Engineering in the society and

demonstrate awareness of contemporary issues and commitment to give solutions exhibiting

social responsibility

i) To demonstrate professional & ethical responsibilities

j) To exhibit confidence in self-education and ability for lifelong learning

k) To participate and succeed in competitive exams

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

SYLLABUS

? To implement linear and circular convolution

? To implement FIR and IIR filters

? To study the architecture of DSP processor

? To demonstrate finite word length effect

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Generation of sequences (functional & random) & correlation

2. Linear and circular convolutions

3. Spectrum analysis using DFT

4. FIR filter design

5. IIR filter design

6. Multirate filters

7. Equalization

DSP PROCESSOR BASED IMPLEMENTATION

1. Study of architecture of digital signal processor

2. MAC operation using various addressing modes

3. Linear convolution

4. Circular convolution

5. FFT Implementation

6. Waveform generation

7. IIR and FIR implementation

8. Finite word length effect

1. Carry out simulation of DSP systems

2. Demonstrate their abilities towards DSP processor based implementation of DSP system

3. Analyze finite word length effect on DSP systems

4. Demonstrate the applications of FFT to DSP

COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOME

5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

EC6511 ? DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LABORATORY

CONTENTS

Sl.No. Name of the Experiment Page No.

CYCLE 1 ? EXPERIMENTS

1 Generation of signals 6

2 Linear and Circular Convolution of two sequences 11

3 Spectrum analysis using DFT 15

4 Design of FIR filters 17

5 Design of IIR filters 21

6 Multirate filters 24

7 Equalization 26

CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS

8 Study of DSP processor TMS320C50 28

9 MAC operations using various addressing modes 33

10 Implementation of Linear Convolution 36

11 Implementation of Circular Convolution 38

12 Calculation of FFT 40

13 Waveform Generation 43

14 Implementation of IIR and FIR filters 48

15 Analysis of Finite Word Length Effects in fixed point DSP systems 50

ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS

16 Decimation by Polyphase Decomposition 53

17 Sampling of signals 55

6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.1 GENERATION OF SIGNALS

Aim:

To write a program to generate the following sequences and to verify using MATLAB

1. Sine wave

2. Cosine wave

3. Ramp signal

4. Exponential signal

5. Impulse signal

6. Step signal

7. Saw tooth signal

8. Rectangular signal

9. Random sequence

10. Auto correlation

11. Cross correlation

Apparatus required:

PC with MATLAB software

Theory:

A signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any other independent

variable or variables. Mathematically, we describe a signal as a function of one or more independent

variables.

A system may be defined as a physical device that performs an operation on a signal. It can also be

regarded as a process that transforms one signal into another. The input to a system and the output from a

system are signals.

Algorithm:

Sine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the sine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

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5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Cosine Wave Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the frequency and range of time ?t?

3. Determine the values of the cosine function.

4. Plot the graph for obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Ramp Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and range of time ?t?.

3. Assign the ramp signal output equal to input time.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Exponential Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the exponential function.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in continuous and discrete forms.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Unit Impulse Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit impulse signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

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Step Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the unit step signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Saw tooth Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the saw tooth signal.

4. Plot the graph for the obtained values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

Rectangular Signal Generation:

1. Start

2. Get the amplitude and ranges of time ?t?.

3. Determine the values of the rectangular signal.

4. Multiply the unit step signal with given amplitude.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in continuous and discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Random Sequence:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate random signals of the specified length

4. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete form.

5. Label the x and y axes.

6. Stop

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Auto Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate a rectangular signal of given length.

4. Calculate auto correlation of the rectangular signal.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Cross Correlation:

1. Start

2. Get the length of input sequence.

3. Generate sinusoidal and cosine waveforms of given length.

4. Calculate cross correlation of the two signals.

5. Plot the graph for the resultant values in discrete forms.

6. Label the x and y axes.

7. Stop

Procedure:

1. Click on the MATLAB Icon on the desktop.

2. Click on the ?FILE? Menu on menu bar.

3. Click on NEW M-File from the file Menu.

4. Save the file in directory.

5. Click on DEBUG from Menu bar and Click Run.

6. Open the command window\ Figure window for the output.

Result:

Thus the signal waveforms were analyzed for the given input.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to

1. Generate elementary signals/ waveforms.

2. Perform arithmetic operations on signals.

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Applications:

1. Aerospace and avionics

2. Defence applications

3. Wireless communication

4. Radar

5. GPS

1. Expand MATLAB

2. What is MATLAB? Where is MATLAB applicable?

3. What is MATLAB API?

4. What is M-file and MEX files in MATLAB?

5. List the operators of MATLAB.

6. Name the graphic system used in MATLAB.

7. What is disp() and input()?

8. What is the syntax to find the rank of the matrix?

9. What is the function of clear all and close all?

10. Define ? Continuous time signal

11. Define ? Discrete time signal

12. Define ? Impulse function

13. Define ? Unit step function

14. What is a ramp function?

15. Define ? Delta function

16. What are the basic operations that can be performed over the signals?

17. List the types of discrete time signals.

18. List the types of continuous time signals.

19. What is an exponential function?

20. What are the types of program files that MATLAB allows to write?

Viva-voce

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 2 LINEAR AND CIRCULAR CONVOLUTION OF

TWO SEQUENCES

Aim:

To write a program to perform the following convolutions and to verify using MATLAB

1. Linear convolution

2. Circular convolution

3. Linear convolution using circular convolution

4. Linear convolution using DFT

5. Circular convolution using DFT

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Linear Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Obtain the linear convolution of two sequences.

4. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

5. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence (L) + length of

second sequence (M) ? 1 (N = L + M ? 1).

6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Check the maximum length (N) of two sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate circular convolution of equal length sequences.

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6. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to their lengths.

7. Label the x and y axes.

8. Display the resultant sequence values.

9. Stop

Linear Convolution using Circular Convolution:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L)+

length of second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Obtain the circular convolution of two sequences.

7. Plot the input sequences and output sequence in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

8. Label the x and y axes.

9. Display the resultant sequence values.

10. Stop

Linear Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start.

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. Assign the length of resultant sequence(N) equal to length of first sequence(L) +b length of

second sequence(M) ? 1 (N = L + M - 1)

5. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

6. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

7. Multiply the two FFTs.

8. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

9. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

10. Label the x and y axes.

11. Display the resultant sequence values.

12. Stop.

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Circular Convolution using DFT method:

1. Start

2. Get the two input sequences.

3. Calculate the lengths of input sequences.

4. By zero padding, make both the two sequences with equal length (N).

5. Calculate the N-point FFT of two sequences.

6. Multiply the two FFTs.

7. Calculate the N-point IFFT of the sequence.

8. Plot the input sequences and output sequences FFT and IFFT in discrete form corresponding to

their lengths.

9. Label the x and y axes.

10. Display the resultant sequence values.

11. Stop.

Procedure:

1. Get two signals x(n) and h(n) in matrix form.

2. The convolute signal is denoted as y(n).

3. y(n) is given by the formula

y(n) = ?x(k)h(n-k)

4. n = length(X) returns the size of the longest dimension of X. If X is a vector, this is

the same as its length.

5. w = conv(u,v) convolves vectors u and v. Algebraically, convolution is the same

operation as multiplying the polynomials whose coefficients are the elements of u

and v. [subplot divides the current figure into rectangular panes that are numbered

row wise]

6. Stop the program

Result:

Thus the linear and circular convolution of the given two sequences was performed using MATLAB.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to implement convolution of given sequences

using linear, circular, linear using circular, linear convolution using DFT method, circular convolution

using DFT method.

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Applications:

1. Finding the response of LTI systems

2. Spectral analysis

3. Study of system behavior

4. Frequency response of systems

1. What is the difference between linear convolution and circular convolution?

2. List the methods of linear convolution.

3. List the steps to perform linear convolution using circular convolution.

4. Define ? Convolution

5. What are the properties of convolution?

6. What is zero padding in convolution?

7. What is the difference between convolution & correlation?

8. What is half wave symmetry?

9. What is Dirchlet condition?

10. How to compute maximum length N for a circular convolution using DFT and IDFT.

11. What is sectioned convolution?

12. What is the advantage of sectioned convolution?

13. How to perform linear convolution using circular convolution?

14. What is the difference between linear shifting and circular shifting of signal?

15. What is the length of output sequence after circular convolution?

16. State the circular convolution property of DFT

17. What is circular convolution?

18. What is the length of output sequence after linear convolution?

19. List the properties of linear and circular convolution.

20. What is linear convolution?

Viva ?voce

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Expt.No.3 SPECTRUM ANALYSIS USING DFT

Aim:

To write a program to analyze the spectrum of a signal using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Get the input sequence.

3. Obtain the DFT of input sequence.

4. Find the magnitude and phase response of the DFT.

5. Plot the magnitude and phase in continuous and in discrete forms.

6. Stop

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in command window or in figure window.

Result:

Thus the spectrum of a signal was analyzed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT).

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to analyze the spectrum of the signal using Discrete

Fourier Transform (DFT)

Applications:

1. Spectral analysis of biomedical signals, RF signals, speech and seismic signals

2. Implementation of filters using circuits

3. Correlation of sequences in RADAR

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4. Digital communication systems for TV broadcasting

1. What is the difference between DFT and IDFT?

2. Differentiate DIT from DIF algorithm.

3. What is decimation in frequency?

4. What is decimation in time?

5. How many multiplication terms are required to perform DFT by expressional method and FFT

method?

6. How many stages are required for 8 point DFT?

7. Compute inverse DFT of X(k) = {3,4,5,6}.

8. How to calculate output of DFT using MATLAB?

9. List the properties of FFT.

10. List the properties of DFT

11. What is the difference between FFT and IFFT?

12. What is "Bit reversal"?

13. List the advantages of FFT.

14. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is imaginary?

15. What?s the difference between FFT and DFT?

16. Define ? Discrete Fourier series

17. When the DFT X(k) of a sequence x(n) is real?

18. What is the importance of FFT in OFDMA technology?

19. What is the advantage of Fourier transform in DSP?

20. What is twiddle factor?

Viva ?voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.4 DESIGN OF FIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the magnitude and phase responses for the given FIR filter

using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

Low pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using rectangular window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

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4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function boxcar (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using hamming window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function hamming (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Low pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

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5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

High pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band pass filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Band stop filter using Hanning window

1. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

2. Get the sampling frequency

3. Get the order of the filter (N)

4. Find the window co-efficient using the MATLAB function Hanning (N)

5. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the FIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Able to Implement Low pass, High pass and Band pass FIR filter for a given sequence

2. Calculate the filter coefficients.

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Applications:

1. Implementation of circuits for filtering operations

2. Study of frequency response of filters

3. Audio applications

4. Image processing and music processing

1. What are the specifications required to design a filter?

2. List the design techniques for linear phase FIR filter design.

3. Distinguish between FIR and IIR filter.

4. What is window method? List the steps to design FIR filter using window method.

5. What is the MATLAB command for Hamming window?

6. What are the advantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

7. What are the disadvantages of FIR Filters (compared to IIR filters)?

8. What are the desirable characteristics of the window?

9. What are the difference types of filters based on impulse response?

10. What are the difference types of filters based on frequency response?

11. What are the desirable and undesirable features of FIR filters?

12. Write the expression for Hamming and Blackman windows?

13. What is the necessary and sufficient condition for linear phase characteristic in FIR filter?

14. Write the expression for Bartlett and Hamming windows?

15. What is the principle of designing FIR filter using frequency sampling method?

16. What is the need for employing window technique for FIR filter design?

17. What are the advantages of Kaiser window?

18. What is Gibbs phenomenon?

19. What are the specifications required to design filter?

20. Name the window function which has less peak amplitude of side lobe.

Viva ?voce

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Expt.No.5 DESIGN OF IIR FILTERS

Aim:

To write a program to design and obtain the response of the given IIR filter using MATLAB

Apparatus Required:

PC with MATLAB software

Algorithm:

A digital filter, the derivation of the digital filter transfer function requires three steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specification into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog transfer function for the analog prototype.

The various parameters in the figure are,

?p = Pass band frequency in radians

?s = Stop band frequency in radians

?c = 3-db cutoff frequency in radians

? = Parameter specifying allowable pass band

? = Parameter specifying allowable stop band

Design of IIR filters from analog filters:

There are several methods that can be used to design digital filters having an infinite duration unit

sample response. The techniques described are all based on converting an analog filter into digital filter. If

the conversion technique is to be effective, it should posses the following desirable properties.

The j ?-axes in the s-plane should map into the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus there will be a

direct relationship between the two frequency variables in the two domains.

The left-half plane of the s-plane should map into inside of the unit circle in the z-plane. Thus a

stable analog filter will be converted to a stable digital filter.

Algorithm:

Butterworth low pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

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Butterworth high pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band pass filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples.

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies.

3. Get the sampling frequency.

4. Calculate the order the filter

5. Find the filter coefficients.

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response.

Butterworth band stop filter

1. Get the pass band and stop band ripples

2. Get the pass band and stop band edge frequencies

3. Get the sampling frequencies

4. Calculate the order of the filter

5. Find the filter co-efficient

6. Draw the magnitude and phase response

Procedure:

1. Enter the program in workspace.

2. Save and Run it in .m files.

3. Observe the output in figure window.

Result:

Thus the IIR filter was designed for the given specifications and its magnitude and phase responses

were observed.

Outcome:

After finishing this experiment the students are able to:

1. Implement IIR filter for given specifications

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2. Plot the response of the same.

Applications:

1. Implementation of filter circuits

2. Speech processing and video processing

3. Radio transmission

4. Filters in various industrial applications

1. Define ? IIR Filter

2. List the steps to design a digital filter using impulse invariant method.

3. What are the disadvantages of impulse invariant method?

4. Differentiate recursive & non-recursive systems.

5. List the parameters obtained from the Chebyshev filter specifications.

6. What is warping effect? Where we found this effect? How can we eliminate warping effect

7. What is the difference between type I & type II Chebyshev filters?

8. Define ? Cut-off frequency

9. Compare direct form I and direct form II realization of IIR filter.

10. List the digital techniques used to convert analog filter to digital filter.

11. List the properties of Butterworth low pass filter.

12. What is the role of delay element in filter design?

13. List the properties of Chebyshev low pass filter.

14. What are the properties of bilinear transformations?

15. Distinguish between the frequency responses of Chebyshev type I filter for N odd and N even.

16. Write the expression of the order of the Butterworth filter.

17. Define ? Prewarping

18. List the steps to design digital filter from analog filter.

19. How many number of additions, multiplications and memory locations are required to realize a

digital system in IIR filter? <