Download Anna University B-Tech ME 5th Sem Metrology And Measurements MM Lab Manual Question Paper

Download Anna University B.Tech (Bachelor of Technology) Mech Engg.(Mechnical Engineering) 5th Sem Metrology And Measurements MM Lab Manual Question Paper.

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


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Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


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Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


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Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



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Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
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Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



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Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


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Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


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Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



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Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
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Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
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3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
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Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



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Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


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Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

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Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

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ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


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Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

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Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

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Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

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ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


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Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


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Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

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Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

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Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


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Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gaugeon the magnetic stand and place the magnetic stand on the surface plate.Check
the parallelism of the sine bar.
2. Place the given specimen above the sine bar and place the dial gauge on top of the specimen.
Adjustthe dial gauge for zero deflection.
3. Raise the front end of the sine bar with slip gauges until the work surface is parallel to the datum
surface.
4. Check the parallelism using dial gauge.
5. Measure the distance between the centres of the sine bar rollers as ?L? and note the height of the
slip gauge as ?H?.
6. Note the included angle of the specimen.
Formulae:
Sin ? = H/L where ? = Included angle of the specimen
H = Height of slip gauges
L = Distance between the centre of rollers
Tabulation:
S.No. L (mm) H (mm) Taper angle ( ?)
1.
2.
3.

Result:
The taper angle of the given specimen using sine bar was found to be =
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for angular measurements
and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a specific
requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).

Application:
1. Flat Surface
2. Granite


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
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3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

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ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


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Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


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Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


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Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

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Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

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Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gaugeon the magnetic stand and place the magnetic stand on the surface plate.Check
the parallelism of the sine bar.
2. Place the given specimen above the sine bar and place the dial gauge on top of the specimen.
Adjustthe dial gauge for zero deflection.
3. Raise the front end of the sine bar with slip gauges until the work surface is parallel to the datum
surface.
4. Check the parallelism using dial gauge.
5. Measure the distance between the centres of the sine bar rollers as ?L? and note the height of the
slip gauge as ?H?.
6. Note the included angle of the specimen.
Formulae:
Sin ? = H/L where ? = Included angle of the specimen
H = Height of slip gauges
L = Distance between the centre of rollers
Tabulation:
S.No. L (mm) H (mm) Taper angle ( ?)
1.
2.
3.

Result:
The taper angle of the given specimen using sine bar was found to be =
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for angular measurements
and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a specific
requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).

Application:
1. Flat Surface
2. Granite


30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00





1. List out the various angle measuring instruments.
2. What is the working principles sine bar?
3. How is a sine bar used to measure the angle?
4. What is the application of sine bar?
5. What is the material of sine bar?
6. Why sine bar is not preferred to use for measuring angles more than 45
0
?
7. What are the features of sine bar?
8. A 100 mm sine bar is to be set up to an angle of 33
0
, determine the slip gauges needed from 87
pieces set.
9. What are the various instruments used for measuring angles?
10. What is sine bar?
11. How sine bar is used for angle measurement?
12. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of small size component.
13. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of large size component.
14. What are the various types of sine bar?
15. What are the limitations of sine bar?
16. What is sine center?
17. What is sine table?
18. What are the possible sources of errors in angular measurement by sine bar?
19. What are angle gauges?
20. How angle gauges are used for measuring angles?




Viva-voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00
























9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


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Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

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Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

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Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

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Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


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Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gaugeon the magnetic stand and place the magnetic stand on the surface plate.Check
the parallelism of the sine bar.
2. Place the given specimen above the sine bar and place the dial gauge on top of the specimen.
Adjustthe dial gauge for zero deflection.
3. Raise the front end of the sine bar with slip gauges until the work surface is parallel to the datum
surface.
4. Check the parallelism using dial gauge.
5. Measure the distance between the centres of the sine bar rollers as ?L? and note the height of the
slip gauge as ?H?.
6. Note the included angle of the specimen.
Formulae:
Sin ? = H/L where ? = Included angle of the specimen
H = Height of slip gauges
L = Distance between the centre of rollers
Tabulation:
S.No. L (mm) H (mm) Taper angle ( ?)
1.
2.
3.

Result:
The taper angle of the given specimen using sine bar was found to be =
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for angular measurements
and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a specific
requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).

Application:
1. Flat Surface
2. Granite


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1. List out the various angle measuring instruments.
2. What is the working principles sine bar?
3. How is a sine bar used to measure the angle?
4. What is the application of sine bar?
5. What is the material of sine bar?
6. Why sine bar is not preferred to use for measuring angles more than 45
0
?
7. What are the features of sine bar?
8. A 100 mm sine bar is to be set up to an angle of 33
0
, determine the slip gauges needed from 87
pieces set.
9. What are the various instruments used for measuring angles?
10. What is sine bar?
11. How sine bar is used for angle measurement?
12. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of small size component.
13. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of large size component.
14. What are the various types of sine bar?
15. What are the limitations of sine bar?
16. What is sine center?
17. What is sine table?
18. What are the possible sources of errors in angular measurement by sine bar?
19. What are angle gauges?
20. How angle gauges are used for measuring angles?




Viva-voce

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Expt.No.06 DETERMINATION OF GEAR TOOTH THICKNESS
USING GEAR TOOTH VERNIER
Aim:
To determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen and to draw the graph between the tooth
number and the error in thickness
Apparatus required:
Gear tooth vernier, specimen, surface plate and vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The tooth thickness, in general, is measured at pitch circle since gear tooth thickness varies from the tip
to the base circle of the tooth. This is possible only when there is an arrangement to fix that position for this
measurement by the gear tooth vernier. It has two vernier scales; one is vertical and other is horizontal.
Procedure:
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
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3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

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ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


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Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


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Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



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Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
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Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



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Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


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Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

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Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

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Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


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Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gaugeon the magnetic stand and place the magnetic stand on the surface plate.Check
the parallelism of the sine bar.
2. Place the given specimen above the sine bar and place the dial gauge on top of the specimen.
Adjustthe dial gauge for zero deflection.
3. Raise the front end of the sine bar with slip gauges until the work surface is parallel to the datum
surface.
4. Check the parallelism using dial gauge.
5. Measure the distance between the centres of the sine bar rollers as ?L? and note the height of the
slip gauge as ?H?.
6. Note the included angle of the specimen.
Formulae:
Sin ? = H/L where ? = Included angle of the specimen
H = Height of slip gauges
L = Distance between the centre of rollers
Tabulation:
S.No. L (mm) H (mm) Taper angle ( ?)
1.
2.
3.

Result:
The taper angle of the given specimen using sine bar was found to be =
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for angular measurements
and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a specific
requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).

Application:
1. Flat Surface
2. Granite


30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00





1. List out the various angle measuring instruments.
2. What is the working principles sine bar?
3. How is a sine bar used to measure the angle?
4. What is the application of sine bar?
5. What is the material of sine bar?
6. Why sine bar is not preferred to use for measuring angles more than 45
0
?
7. What are the features of sine bar?
8. A 100 mm sine bar is to be set up to an angle of 33
0
, determine the slip gauges needed from 87
pieces set.
9. What are the various instruments used for measuring angles?
10. What is sine bar?
11. How sine bar is used for angle measurement?
12. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of small size component.
13. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of large size component.
14. What are the various types of sine bar?
15. What are the limitations of sine bar?
16. What is sine center?
17. What is sine table?
18. What are the possible sources of errors in angular measurement by sine bar?
19. What are angle gauges?
20. How angle gauges are used for measuring angles?




Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00



Expt.No.06 DETERMINATION OF GEAR TOOTH THICKNESS
USING GEAR TOOTH VERNIER
Aim:
To determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen and to draw the graph between the tooth
number and the error in thickness
Apparatus required:
Gear tooth vernier, specimen, surface plate and vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The tooth thickness, in general, is measured at pitch circle since gear tooth thickness varies from the tip
to the base circle of the tooth. This is possible only when there is an arrangement to fix that position for this
measurement by the gear tooth vernier. It has two vernier scales; one is vertical and other is horizontal.
Procedure:
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

1. Measure initially the outside diameter of the given gear specimen by means of a vertical calculation
of vernier caliper. Note the number of teeth. Calculate the module (m) using the formula.

M = OD/ (Z+2) where z ? number of teeth
M - Module
2. Calculate the theoretical tooth thickness (t) by t = z * m* sin (90/z).
3. Set the vernier scale for the height and tighten.
4. Measure the thickness of each tooth using the horizontal scale. This is measured thickness. It can
be positive or negative.
H = m x [1+ Z/2 (1- Cos 90/Z)]
5. Calculate the error in the tooth thickness i.e,1. measured thickness ? Theoretical thickness
6. Draw the graph between the tooth number and the error in thickness.
Tabulation:
Tooth
Number
Measured Thickness
(mm)
Theoretical Thickness (mm)
Error in tooth thickness
(mm)
1
2
3

Tooth
Number
MSR
(mm)
VSC

VSR
(mm)
TR
(mm)
1
2
3

Graph:


Error



Tooth No.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

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ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


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Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

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Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

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Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


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Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gaugeon the magnetic stand and place the magnetic stand on the surface plate.Check
the parallelism of the sine bar.
2. Place the given specimen above the sine bar and place the dial gauge on top of the specimen.
Adjustthe dial gauge for zero deflection.
3. Raise the front end of the sine bar with slip gauges until the work surface is parallel to the datum
surface.
4. Check the parallelism using dial gauge.
5. Measure the distance between the centres of the sine bar rollers as ?L? and note the height of the
slip gauge as ?H?.
6. Note the included angle of the specimen.
Formulae:
Sin ? = H/L where ? = Included angle of the specimen
H = Height of slip gauges
L = Distance between the centre of rollers
Tabulation:
S.No. L (mm) H (mm) Taper angle ( ?)
1.
2.
3.

Result:
The taper angle of the given specimen using sine bar was found to be =
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for angular measurements
and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a specific
requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).

Application:
1. Flat Surface
2. Granite


30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00





1. List out the various angle measuring instruments.
2. What is the working principles sine bar?
3. How is a sine bar used to measure the angle?
4. What is the application of sine bar?
5. What is the material of sine bar?
6. Why sine bar is not preferred to use for measuring angles more than 45
0
?
7. What are the features of sine bar?
8. A 100 mm sine bar is to be set up to an angle of 33
0
, determine the slip gauges needed from 87
pieces set.
9. What are the various instruments used for measuring angles?
10. What is sine bar?
11. How sine bar is used for angle measurement?
12. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of small size component.
13. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of large size component.
14. What are the various types of sine bar?
15. What are the limitations of sine bar?
16. What is sine center?
17. What is sine table?
18. What are the possible sources of errors in angular measurement by sine bar?
19. What are angle gauges?
20. How angle gauges are used for measuring angles?




Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00



Expt.No.06 DETERMINATION OF GEAR TOOTH THICKNESS
USING GEAR TOOTH VERNIER
Aim:
To determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen and to draw the graph between the tooth
number and the error in thickness
Apparatus required:
Gear tooth vernier, specimen, surface plate and vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The tooth thickness, in general, is measured at pitch circle since gear tooth thickness varies from the tip
to the base circle of the tooth. This is possible only when there is an arrangement to fix that position for this
measurement by the gear tooth vernier. It has two vernier scales; one is vertical and other is horizontal.
Procedure:
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

1. Measure initially the outside diameter of the given gear specimen by means of a vertical calculation
of vernier caliper. Note the number of teeth. Calculate the module (m) using the formula.

M = OD/ (Z+2) where z ? number of teeth
M - Module
2. Calculate the theoretical tooth thickness (t) by t = z * m* sin (90/z).
3. Set the vernier scale for the height and tighten.
4. Measure the thickness of each tooth using the horizontal scale. This is measured thickness. It can
be positive or negative.
H = m x [1+ Z/2 (1- Cos 90/Z)]
5. Calculate the error in the tooth thickness i.e,1. measured thickness ? Theoretical thickness
6. Draw the graph between the tooth number and the error in thickness.
Tabulation:
Tooth
Number
Measured Thickness
(mm)
Theoretical Thickness (mm)
Error in tooth thickness
(mm)
1
2
3

Tooth
Number
MSR
(mm)
VSC

VSR
(mm)
TR
(mm)
1
2
3

Graph:


Error



Tooth No.
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Result:
The theoretical experiment value of gear tooth thickness is obtained and graph is drawn between error
and tooth number in tooth thickness
Theoretical tooth thickness =
Experimental tooth thickness =
Error in tooth thickness =
Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the basic measurement units and able to calibrate various
measuring parameters of the gear.
Application:
1. Gear Component
2. Mining

1. Calculate the setting of a gear tooth vernier caliper for a straight spur gear having 40 teeth and
module 4.
2. What is the importance of chordal depth?
3. Define ? Chordal width
4. How is the actual profile of the gear tooth determined?
5. What are the manufacturing errors in gear element?
6. Define ? Addendum
7. Define ? Dedendum
8. Define ? Flank of tooth
9. Define ? Pitch
10. Define ? Pitch Circle
11. Define ? Crest of tooth
12. Define ? Root of tooth
13. Define ? Base Circle
14. Define ? Module
15. Define ? Angle of Obliquity


Viva-voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

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Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gaugeon the magnetic stand and place the magnetic stand on the surface plate.Check
the parallelism of the sine bar.
2. Place the given specimen above the sine bar and place the dial gauge on top of the specimen.
Adjustthe dial gauge for zero deflection.
3. Raise the front end of the sine bar with slip gauges until the work surface is parallel to the datum
surface.
4. Check the parallelism using dial gauge.
5. Measure the distance between the centres of the sine bar rollers as ?L? and note the height of the
slip gauge as ?H?.
6. Note the included angle of the specimen.
Formulae:
Sin ? = H/L where ? = Included angle of the specimen
H = Height of slip gauges
L = Distance between the centre of rollers
Tabulation:
S.No. L (mm) H (mm) Taper angle ( ?)
1.
2.
3.

Result:
The taper angle of the given specimen using sine bar was found to be =
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for angular measurements
and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a specific
requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).

Application:
1. Flat Surface
2. Granite


30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00





1. List out the various angle measuring instruments.
2. What is the working principles sine bar?
3. How is a sine bar used to measure the angle?
4. What is the application of sine bar?
5. What is the material of sine bar?
6. Why sine bar is not preferred to use for measuring angles more than 45
0
?
7. What are the features of sine bar?
8. A 100 mm sine bar is to be set up to an angle of 33
0
, determine the slip gauges needed from 87
pieces set.
9. What are the various instruments used for measuring angles?
10. What is sine bar?
11. How sine bar is used for angle measurement?
12. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of small size component.
13. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of large size component.
14. What are the various types of sine bar?
15. What are the limitations of sine bar?
16. What is sine center?
17. What is sine table?
18. What are the possible sources of errors in angular measurement by sine bar?
19. What are angle gauges?
20. How angle gauges are used for measuring angles?




Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00



Expt.No.06 DETERMINATION OF GEAR TOOTH THICKNESS
USING GEAR TOOTH VERNIER
Aim:
To determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen and to draw the graph between the tooth
number and the error in thickness
Apparatus required:
Gear tooth vernier, specimen, surface plate and vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The tooth thickness, in general, is measured at pitch circle since gear tooth thickness varies from the tip
to the base circle of the tooth. This is possible only when there is an arrangement to fix that position for this
measurement by the gear tooth vernier. It has two vernier scales; one is vertical and other is horizontal.
Procedure:
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

1. Measure initially the outside diameter of the given gear specimen by means of a vertical calculation
of vernier caliper. Note the number of teeth. Calculate the module (m) using the formula.

M = OD/ (Z+2) where z ? number of teeth
M - Module
2. Calculate the theoretical tooth thickness (t) by t = z * m* sin (90/z).
3. Set the vernier scale for the height and tighten.
4. Measure the thickness of each tooth using the horizontal scale. This is measured thickness. It can
be positive or negative.
H = m x [1+ Z/2 (1- Cos 90/Z)]
5. Calculate the error in the tooth thickness i.e,1. measured thickness ? Theoretical thickness
6. Draw the graph between the tooth number and the error in thickness.
Tabulation:
Tooth
Number
Measured Thickness
(mm)
Theoretical Thickness (mm)
Error in tooth thickness
(mm)
1
2
3

Tooth
Number
MSR
(mm)
VSC

VSR
(mm)
TR
(mm)
1
2
3

Graph:


Error



Tooth No.
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Result:
The theoretical experiment value of gear tooth thickness is obtained and graph is drawn between error
and tooth number in tooth thickness
Theoretical tooth thickness =
Experimental tooth thickness =
Error in tooth thickness =
Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the basic measurement units and able to calibrate various
measuring parameters of the gear.
Application:
1. Gear Component
2. Mining

1. Calculate the setting of a gear tooth vernier caliper for a straight spur gear having 40 teeth and
module 4.
2. What is the importance of chordal depth?
3. Define ? Chordal width
4. How is the actual profile of the gear tooth determined?
5. What are the manufacturing errors in gear element?
6. Define ? Addendum
7. Define ? Dedendum
8. Define ? Flank of tooth
9. Define ? Pitch
10. Define ? Pitch Circle
11. Define ? Crest of tooth
12. Define ? Root of tooth
13. Define ? Base Circle
14. Define ? Module
15. Define ? Angle of Obliquity


Viva-voce

34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.07 MEASUREMENT OF THREAD PARAMETER USING
FLOATING CARRIAGE MICROMETER
Aim:
To measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two wire
method
Apparatus required:
1. Floating carriage micrometer
2. Standard wire
3. Given specimen (screw thread)
Diagram:

Description of floating carriage micrometer:
It consists of three main units. A base casting carries a pair of centres on which threaded work piece is
to be mounted. Another carriage capable of moving towards centre is mounted exactly above. In this carriage
one head with thimble to measure up to 0.002 mm is provided and at the other side of head a fiducial indicator
is provided to indicate zero position.



FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gaugeon the magnetic stand and place the magnetic stand on the surface plate.Check
the parallelism of the sine bar.
2. Place the given specimen above the sine bar and place the dial gauge on top of the specimen.
Adjustthe dial gauge for zero deflection.
3. Raise the front end of the sine bar with slip gauges until the work surface is parallel to the datum
surface.
4. Check the parallelism using dial gauge.
5. Measure the distance between the centres of the sine bar rollers as ?L? and note the height of the
slip gauge as ?H?.
6. Note the included angle of the specimen.
Formulae:
Sin ? = H/L where ? = Included angle of the specimen
H = Height of slip gauges
L = Distance between the centre of rollers
Tabulation:
S.No. L (mm) H (mm) Taper angle ( ?)
1.
2.
3.

Result:
The taper angle of the given specimen using sine bar was found to be =
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for angular measurements
and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a specific
requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).

Application:
1. Flat Surface
2. Granite


30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00





1. List out the various angle measuring instruments.
2. What is the working principles sine bar?
3. How is a sine bar used to measure the angle?
4. What is the application of sine bar?
5. What is the material of sine bar?
6. Why sine bar is not preferred to use for measuring angles more than 45
0
?
7. What are the features of sine bar?
8. A 100 mm sine bar is to be set up to an angle of 33
0
, determine the slip gauges needed from 87
pieces set.
9. What are the various instruments used for measuring angles?
10. What is sine bar?
11. How sine bar is used for angle measurement?
12. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of small size component.
13. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of large size component.
14. What are the various types of sine bar?
15. What are the limitations of sine bar?
16. What is sine center?
17. What is sine table?
18. What are the possible sources of errors in angular measurement by sine bar?
19. What are angle gauges?
20. How angle gauges are used for measuring angles?




Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00



Expt.No.06 DETERMINATION OF GEAR TOOTH THICKNESS
USING GEAR TOOTH VERNIER
Aim:
To determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen and to draw the graph between the tooth
number and the error in thickness
Apparatus required:
Gear tooth vernier, specimen, surface plate and vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The tooth thickness, in general, is measured at pitch circle since gear tooth thickness varies from the tip
to the base circle of the tooth. This is possible only when there is an arrangement to fix that position for this
measurement by the gear tooth vernier. It has two vernier scales; one is vertical and other is horizontal.
Procedure:
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

1. Measure initially the outside diameter of the given gear specimen by means of a vertical calculation
of vernier caliper. Note the number of teeth. Calculate the module (m) using the formula.

M = OD/ (Z+2) where z ? number of teeth
M - Module
2. Calculate the theoretical tooth thickness (t) by t = z * m* sin (90/z).
3. Set the vernier scale for the height and tighten.
4. Measure the thickness of each tooth using the horizontal scale. This is measured thickness. It can
be positive or negative.
H = m x [1+ Z/2 (1- Cos 90/Z)]
5. Calculate the error in the tooth thickness i.e,1. measured thickness ? Theoretical thickness
6. Draw the graph between the tooth number and the error in thickness.
Tabulation:
Tooth
Number
Measured Thickness
(mm)
Theoretical Thickness (mm)
Error in tooth thickness
(mm)
1
2
3

Tooth
Number
MSR
(mm)
VSC

VSR
(mm)
TR
(mm)
1
2
3

Graph:


Error



Tooth No.
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Result:
The theoretical experiment value of gear tooth thickness is obtained and graph is drawn between error
and tooth number in tooth thickness
Theoretical tooth thickness =
Experimental tooth thickness =
Error in tooth thickness =
Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the basic measurement units and able to calibrate various
measuring parameters of the gear.
Application:
1. Gear Component
2. Mining

1. Calculate the setting of a gear tooth vernier caliper for a straight spur gear having 40 teeth and
module 4.
2. What is the importance of chordal depth?
3. Define ? Chordal width
4. How is the actual profile of the gear tooth determined?
5. What are the manufacturing errors in gear element?
6. Define ? Addendum
7. Define ? Dedendum
8. Define ? Flank of tooth
9. Define ? Pitch
10. Define ? Pitch Circle
11. Define ? Crest of tooth
12. Define ? Root of tooth
13. Define ? Base Circle
14. Define ? Module
15. Define ? Angle of Obliquity


Viva-voce

34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.07 MEASUREMENT OF THREAD PARAMETER USING
FLOATING CARRIAGE MICROMETER
Aim:
To measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two wire
method
Apparatus required:
1. Floating carriage micrometer
2. Standard wire
3. Given specimen (screw thread)
Diagram:

Description of floating carriage micrometer:
It consists of three main units. A base casting carries a pair of centres on which threaded work piece is
to be mounted. Another carriage capable of moving towards centre is mounted exactly above. In this carriage
one head with thimble to measure up to 0.002 mm is provided and at the other side of head a fiducial indicator
is provided to indicate zero position.



35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Procedure:
1. For two wire method, place the standard wire over a thread of the screw at opposite sides.
2. For three wire method, place two standard wires on two successive threads and the third wire
placed opposite sides of the thread.
3. Measure the diameter over wires (M) using floating carriage micrometer.
4. Repeat this procedure at various positions of the screw and take different readings.
Formulae:
1. For best wire size, d = P / 2 Cos (x/2)
Where, P = Pitch
d= wire size
x = angle between two threads
= 60
o
for metric thread
2. Actual effective diameter, E.A = M ? 3d + 0.866 p
3. Nominal effective diameter, EN = D ? 0.648 p
4. Max. wire size = 1.01 p
5. Min. wire size = 0.505 p
6. Best wire size = 0.577 p
M = Diameter over wires
P = Pitch of thread
For metric thread:
Actual effective diameter (EA) = M ? 3d + 0.866 p
Where d = actual diameter of wire
Determination of actual and nominal effective diameter of the screw thread:
Sl.No.
Nominal
Diameter (D)
(mm)
Diameter over
wire ?M?
(mm)
Actual eff.
Diameter E.A
(mm)
Nominal eff.
Diameter E.N
(mm)
Error in effective
diameter
(E.A ? E.N)
(mm)
1.
2.
3.



FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

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ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gaugeon the magnetic stand and place the magnetic stand on the surface plate.Check
the parallelism of the sine bar.
2. Place the given specimen above the sine bar and place the dial gauge on top of the specimen.
Adjustthe dial gauge for zero deflection.
3. Raise the front end of the sine bar with slip gauges until the work surface is parallel to the datum
surface.
4. Check the parallelism using dial gauge.
5. Measure the distance between the centres of the sine bar rollers as ?L? and note the height of the
slip gauge as ?H?.
6. Note the included angle of the specimen.
Formulae:
Sin ? = H/L where ? = Included angle of the specimen
H = Height of slip gauges
L = Distance between the centre of rollers
Tabulation:
S.No. L (mm) H (mm) Taper angle ( ?)
1.
2.
3.

Result:
The taper angle of the given specimen using sine bar was found to be =
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for angular measurements
and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a specific
requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).

Application:
1. Flat Surface
2. Granite


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1. List out the various angle measuring instruments.
2. What is the working principles sine bar?
3. How is a sine bar used to measure the angle?
4. What is the application of sine bar?
5. What is the material of sine bar?
6. Why sine bar is not preferred to use for measuring angles more than 45
0
?
7. What are the features of sine bar?
8. A 100 mm sine bar is to be set up to an angle of 33
0
, determine the slip gauges needed from 87
pieces set.
9. What are the various instruments used for measuring angles?
10. What is sine bar?
11. How sine bar is used for angle measurement?
12. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of small size component.
13. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of large size component.
14. What are the various types of sine bar?
15. What are the limitations of sine bar?
16. What is sine center?
17. What is sine table?
18. What are the possible sources of errors in angular measurement by sine bar?
19. What are angle gauges?
20. How angle gauges are used for measuring angles?




Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00



Expt.No.06 DETERMINATION OF GEAR TOOTH THICKNESS
USING GEAR TOOTH VERNIER
Aim:
To determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen and to draw the graph between the tooth
number and the error in thickness
Apparatus required:
Gear tooth vernier, specimen, surface plate and vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The tooth thickness, in general, is measured at pitch circle since gear tooth thickness varies from the tip
to the base circle of the tooth. This is possible only when there is an arrangement to fix that position for this
measurement by the gear tooth vernier. It has two vernier scales; one is vertical and other is horizontal.
Procedure:
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1. Measure initially the outside diameter of the given gear specimen by means of a vertical calculation
of vernier caliper. Note the number of teeth. Calculate the module (m) using the formula.

M = OD/ (Z+2) where z ? number of teeth
M - Module
2. Calculate the theoretical tooth thickness (t) by t = z * m* sin (90/z).
3. Set the vernier scale for the height and tighten.
4. Measure the thickness of each tooth using the horizontal scale. This is measured thickness. It can
be positive or negative.
H = m x [1+ Z/2 (1- Cos 90/Z)]
5. Calculate the error in the tooth thickness i.e,1. measured thickness ? Theoretical thickness
6. Draw the graph between the tooth number and the error in thickness.
Tabulation:
Tooth
Number
Measured Thickness
(mm)
Theoretical Thickness (mm)
Error in tooth thickness
(mm)
1
2
3

Tooth
Number
MSR
(mm)
VSC

VSR
(mm)
TR
(mm)
1
2
3

Graph:


Error



Tooth No.
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Result:
The theoretical experiment value of gear tooth thickness is obtained and graph is drawn between error
and tooth number in tooth thickness
Theoretical tooth thickness =
Experimental tooth thickness =
Error in tooth thickness =
Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the basic measurement units and able to calibrate various
measuring parameters of the gear.
Application:
1. Gear Component
2. Mining

1. Calculate the setting of a gear tooth vernier caliper for a straight spur gear having 40 teeth and
module 4.
2. What is the importance of chordal depth?
3. Define ? Chordal width
4. How is the actual profile of the gear tooth determined?
5. What are the manufacturing errors in gear element?
6. Define ? Addendum
7. Define ? Dedendum
8. Define ? Flank of tooth
9. Define ? Pitch
10. Define ? Pitch Circle
11. Define ? Crest of tooth
12. Define ? Root of tooth
13. Define ? Base Circle
14. Define ? Module
15. Define ? Angle of Obliquity


Viva-voce

34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.07 MEASUREMENT OF THREAD PARAMETER USING
FLOATING CARRIAGE MICROMETER
Aim:
To measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two wire
method
Apparatus required:
1. Floating carriage micrometer
2. Standard wire
3. Given specimen (screw thread)
Diagram:

Description of floating carriage micrometer:
It consists of three main units. A base casting carries a pair of centres on which threaded work piece is
to be mounted. Another carriage capable of moving towards centre is mounted exactly above. In this carriage
one head with thimble to measure up to 0.002 mm is provided and at the other side of head a fiducial indicator
is provided to indicate zero position.



35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Procedure:
1. For two wire method, place the standard wire over a thread of the screw at opposite sides.
2. For three wire method, place two standard wires on two successive threads and the third wire
placed opposite sides of the thread.
3. Measure the diameter over wires (M) using floating carriage micrometer.
4. Repeat this procedure at various positions of the screw and take different readings.
Formulae:
1. For best wire size, d = P / 2 Cos (x/2)
Where, P = Pitch
d= wire size
x = angle between two threads
= 60
o
for metric thread
2. Actual effective diameter, E.A = M ? 3d + 0.866 p
3. Nominal effective diameter, EN = D ? 0.648 p
4. Max. wire size = 1.01 p
5. Min. wire size = 0.505 p
6. Best wire size = 0.577 p
M = Diameter over wires
P = Pitch of thread
For metric thread:
Actual effective diameter (EA) = M ? 3d + 0.866 p
Where d = actual diameter of wire
Determination of actual and nominal effective diameter of the screw thread:
Sl.No.
Nominal
Diameter (D)
(mm)
Diameter over
wire ?M?
(mm)
Actual eff.
Diameter E.A
(mm)
Nominal eff.
Diameter E.N
(mm)
Error in effective
diameter
(E.A ? E.N)
(mm)
1.
2.
3.



36 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Result:
Thus the actual and nominal effective diameter is measured using three wire method and the error in
effective diameter of screw is determined.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for roundness
measurements and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a
specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Wholse
2. Maxxis Rubber India

1. Define ? Pitch
2. Define ? Flank Angle
3. What is plug gauge?
4. What is meant by micrometer?
5. What is meant by indicator?
6. What is best ? size wire?
7. Calculate the diameter of the best wire for an M 20 x 25 screws.
8. What are the different corrections to be applied in the measurement of effective diameter by the
method of wire?
9. What is floating carriage micrometer?
10. What are the uses of floating carriage micrometer?
11. What are the methods are used for measuring effective diameter?
12. Define ? Effective Diameter
13. Define ? Major Diameter
14. Define ? Minor Diameter
15. What are the effects of flank error?
16. Define ? Rake Angle
17. Define ? Pitch Cylinder
18. What are the effects of pitch error?
19. Define ? Pitch Diameter
20. What is meant by angle of thread?


Viva-voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

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ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






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1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


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Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

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Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


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Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gaugeon the magnetic stand and place the magnetic stand on the surface plate.Check
the parallelism of the sine bar.
2. Place the given specimen above the sine bar and place the dial gauge on top of the specimen.
Adjustthe dial gauge for zero deflection.
3. Raise the front end of the sine bar with slip gauges until the work surface is parallel to the datum
surface.
4. Check the parallelism using dial gauge.
5. Measure the distance between the centres of the sine bar rollers as ?L? and note the height of the
slip gauge as ?H?.
6. Note the included angle of the specimen.
Formulae:
Sin ? = H/L where ? = Included angle of the specimen
H = Height of slip gauges
L = Distance between the centre of rollers
Tabulation:
S.No. L (mm) H (mm) Taper angle ( ?)
1.
2.
3.

Result:
The taper angle of the given specimen using sine bar was found to be =
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for angular measurements
and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a specific
requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).

Application:
1. Flat Surface
2. Granite


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1. List out the various angle measuring instruments.
2. What is the working principles sine bar?
3. How is a sine bar used to measure the angle?
4. What is the application of sine bar?
5. What is the material of sine bar?
6. Why sine bar is not preferred to use for measuring angles more than 45
0
?
7. What are the features of sine bar?
8. A 100 mm sine bar is to be set up to an angle of 33
0
, determine the slip gauges needed from 87
pieces set.
9. What are the various instruments used for measuring angles?
10. What is sine bar?
11. How sine bar is used for angle measurement?
12. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of small size component.
13. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of large size component.
14. What are the various types of sine bar?
15. What are the limitations of sine bar?
16. What is sine center?
17. What is sine table?
18. What are the possible sources of errors in angular measurement by sine bar?
19. What are angle gauges?
20. How angle gauges are used for measuring angles?




Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00



Expt.No.06 DETERMINATION OF GEAR TOOTH THICKNESS
USING GEAR TOOTH VERNIER
Aim:
To determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen and to draw the graph between the tooth
number and the error in thickness
Apparatus required:
Gear tooth vernier, specimen, surface plate and vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The tooth thickness, in general, is measured at pitch circle since gear tooth thickness varies from the tip
to the base circle of the tooth. This is possible only when there is an arrangement to fix that position for this
measurement by the gear tooth vernier. It has two vernier scales; one is vertical and other is horizontal.
Procedure:
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1. Measure initially the outside diameter of the given gear specimen by means of a vertical calculation
of vernier caliper. Note the number of teeth. Calculate the module (m) using the formula.

M = OD/ (Z+2) where z ? number of teeth
M - Module
2. Calculate the theoretical tooth thickness (t) by t = z * m* sin (90/z).
3. Set the vernier scale for the height and tighten.
4. Measure the thickness of each tooth using the horizontal scale. This is measured thickness. It can
be positive or negative.
H = m x [1+ Z/2 (1- Cos 90/Z)]
5. Calculate the error in the tooth thickness i.e,1. measured thickness ? Theoretical thickness
6. Draw the graph between the tooth number and the error in thickness.
Tabulation:
Tooth
Number
Measured Thickness
(mm)
Theoretical Thickness (mm)
Error in tooth thickness
(mm)
1
2
3

Tooth
Number
MSR
(mm)
VSC

VSR
(mm)
TR
(mm)
1
2
3

Graph:


Error



Tooth No.
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Result:
The theoretical experiment value of gear tooth thickness is obtained and graph is drawn between error
and tooth number in tooth thickness
Theoretical tooth thickness =
Experimental tooth thickness =
Error in tooth thickness =
Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the basic measurement units and able to calibrate various
measuring parameters of the gear.
Application:
1. Gear Component
2. Mining

1. Calculate the setting of a gear tooth vernier caliper for a straight spur gear having 40 teeth and
module 4.
2. What is the importance of chordal depth?
3. Define ? Chordal width
4. How is the actual profile of the gear tooth determined?
5. What are the manufacturing errors in gear element?
6. Define ? Addendum
7. Define ? Dedendum
8. Define ? Flank of tooth
9. Define ? Pitch
10. Define ? Pitch Circle
11. Define ? Crest of tooth
12. Define ? Root of tooth
13. Define ? Base Circle
14. Define ? Module
15. Define ? Angle of Obliquity


Viva-voce

34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.07 MEASUREMENT OF THREAD PARAMETER USING
FLOATING CARRIAGE MICROMETER
Aim:
To measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two wire
method
Apparatus required:
1. Floating carriage micrometer
2. Standard wire
3. Given specimen (screw thread)
Diagram:

Description of floating carriage micrometer:
It consists of three main units. A base casting carries a pair of centres on which threaded work piece is
to be mounted. Another carriage capable of moving towards centre is mounted exactly above. In this carriage
one head with thimble to measure up to 0.002 mm is provided and at the other side of head a fiducial indicator
is provided to indicate zero position.



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Procedure:
1. For two wire method, place the standard wire over a thread of the screw at opposite sides.
2. For three wire method, place two standard wires on two successive threads and the third wire
placed opposite sides of the thread.
3. Measure the diameter over wires (M) using floating carriage micrometer.
4. Repeat this procedure at various positions of the screw and take different readings.
Formulae:
1. For best wire size, d = P / 2 Cos (x/2)
Where, P = Pitch
d= wire size
x = angle between two threads
= 60
o
for metric thread
2. Actual effective diameter, E.A = M ? 3d + 0.866 p
3. Nominal effective diameter, EN = D ? 0.648 p
4. Max. wire size = 1.01 p
5. Min. wire size = 0.505 p
6. Best wire size = 0.577 p
M = Diameter over wires
P = Pitch of thread
For metric thread:
Actual effective diameter (EA) = M ? 3d + 0.866 p
Where d = actual diameter of wire
Determination of actual and nominal effective diameter of the screw thread:
Sl.No.
Nominal
Diameter (D)
(mm)
Diameter over
wire ?M?
(mm)
Actual eff.
Diameter E.A
(mm)
Nominal eff.
Diameter E.N
(mm)
Error in effective
diameter
(E.A ? E.N)
(mm)
1.
2.
3.



36 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Result:
Thus the actual and nominal effective diameter is measured using three wire method and the error in
effective diameter of screw is determined.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for roundness
measurements and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a
specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Wholse
2. Maxxis Rubber India

1. Define ? Pitch
2. Define ? Flank Angle
3. What is plug gauge?
4. What is meant by micrometer?
5. What is meant by indicator?
6. What is best ? size wire?
7. Calculate the diameter of the best wire for an M 20 x 25 screws.
8. What are the different corrections to be applied in the measurement of effective diameter by the
method of wire?
9. What is floating carriage micrometer?
10. What are the uses of floating carriage micrometer?
11. What are the methods are used for measuring effective diameter?
12. Define ? Effective Diameter
13. Define ? Major Diameter
14. Define ? Minor Diameter
15. What are the effects of flank error?
16. Define ? Rake Angle
17. Define ? Pitch Cylinder
18. What are the effects of pitch error?
19. Define ? Pitch Diameter
20. What is meant by angle of thread?


Viva-voce

37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.08 MEASUREMENT OF VARIOUS DIMENSIONS USING
COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE
Aim:
1. To study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
2. To measure the specified dimensions of the given component
Instruments used:
Coordinate measuring machine, vernier calipers
Diagram:

Theory:
A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a 3D device for measuring the physical and geometrical
characteristics of an object. This machine may be manually controlled by an operator or it may be computer
controlled. Measurements are defined by a probe attached to the three moving axis of this machine X, Y and Z
axes. A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is also a device used in manufacturing and assembly
processes to test a part or assembly against the design intent. By precisely recording the X, Y and Z
coordinates of the target, points are generated which can be analyzed via regression algorithms for the
construction of features. These points are collected by using a probe that is positioned manually by an
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1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
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3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

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ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


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Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


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Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


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Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00




1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

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Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gaugeon the magnetic stand and place the magnetic stand on the surface plate.Check
the parallelism of the sine bar.
2. Place the given specimen above the sine bar and place the dial gauge on top of the specimen.
Adjustthe dial gauge for zero deflection.
3. Raise the front end of the sine bar with slip gauges until the work surface is parallel to the datum
surface.
4. Check the parallelism using dial gauge.
5. Measure the distance between the centres of the sine bar rollers as ?L? and note the height of the
slip gauge as ?H?.
6. Note the included angle of the specimen.
Formulae:
Sin ? = H/L where ? = Included angle of the specimen
H = Height of slip gauges
L = Distance between the centre of rollers
Tabulation:
S.No. L (mm) H (mm) Taper angle ( ?)
1.
2.
3.

Result:
The taper angle of the given specimen using sine bar was found to be =
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for angular measurements
and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a specific
requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).

Application:
1. Flat Surface
2. Granite


30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00





1. List out the various angle measuring instruments.
2. What is the working principles sine bar?
3. How is a sine bar used to measure the angle?
4. What is the application of sine bar?
5. What is the material of sine bar?
6. Why sine bar is not preferred to use for measuring angles more than 45
0
?
7. What are the features of sine bar?
8. A 100 mm sine bar is to be set up to an angle of 33
0
, determine the slip gauges needed from 87
pieces set.
9. What are the various instruments used for measuring angles?
10. What is sine bar?
11. How sine bar is used for angle measurement?
12. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of small size component.
13. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of large size component.
14. What are the various types of sine bar?
15. What are the limitations of sine bar?
16. What is sine center?
17. What is sine table?
18. What are the possible sources of errors in angular measurement by sine bar?
19. What are angle gauges?
20. How angle gauges are used for measuring angles?




Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00



Expt.No.06 DETERMINATION OF GEAR TOOTH THICKNESS
USING GEAR TOOTH VERNIER
Aim:
To determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen and to draw the graph between the tooth
number and the error in thickness
Apparatus required:
Gear tooth vernier, specimen, surface plate and vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The tooth thickness, in general, is measured at pitch circle since gear tooth thickness varies from the tip
to the base circle of the tooth. This is possible only when there is an arrangement to fix that position for this
measurement by the gear tooth vernier. It has two vernier scales; one is vertical and other is horizontal.
Procedure:
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

1. Measure initially the outside diameter of the given gear specimen by means of a vertical calculation
of vernier caliper. Note the number of teeth. Calculate the module (m) using the formula.

M = OD/ (Z+2) where z ? number of teeth
M - Module
2. Calculate the theoretical tooth thickness (t) by t = z * m* sin (90/z).
3. Set the vernier scale for the height and tighten.
4. Measure the thickness of each tooth using the horizontal scale. This is measured thickness. It can
be positive or negative.
H = m x [1+ Z/2 (1- Cos 90/Z)]
5. Calculate the error in the tooth thickness i.e,1. measured thickness ? Theoretical thickness
6. Draw the graph between the tooth number and the error in thickness.
Tabulation:
Tooth
Number
Measured Thickness
(mm)
Theoretical Thickness (mm)
Error in tooth thickness
(mm)
1
2
3

Tooth
Number
MSR
(mm)
VSC

VSR
(mm)
TR
(mm)
1
2
3

Graph:


Error



Tooth No.
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Result:
The theoretical experiment value of gear tooth thickness is obtained and graph is drawn between error
and tooth number in tooth thickness
Theoretical tooth thickness =
Experimental tooth thickness =
Error in tooth thickness =
Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the basic measurement units and able to calibrate various
measuring parameters of the gear.
Application:
1. Gear Component
2. Mining

1. Calculate the setting of a gear tooth vernier caliper for a straight spur gear having 40 teeth and
module 4.
2. What is the importance of chordal depth?
3. Define ? Chordal width
4. How is the actual profile of the gear tooth determined?
5. What are the manufacturing errors in gear element?
6. Define ? Addendum
7. Define ? Dedendum
8. Define ? Flank of tooth
9. Define ? Pitch
10. Define ? Pitch Circle
11. Define ? Crest of tooth
12. Define ? Root of tooth
13. Define ? Base Circle
14. Define ? Module
15. Define ? Angle of Obliquity


Viva-voce

34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.07 MEASUREMENT OF THREAD PARAMETER USING
FLOATING CARRIAGE MICROMETER
Aim:
To measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two wire
method
Apparatus required:
1. Floating carriage micrometer
2. Standard wire
3. Given specimen (screw thread)
Diagram:

Description of floating carriage micrometer:
It consists of three main units. A base casting carries a pair of centres on which threaded work piece is
to be mounted. Another carriage capable of moving towards centre is mounted exactly above. In this carriage
one head with thimble to measure up to 0.002 mm is provided and at the other side of head a fiducial indicator
is provided to indicate zero position.



35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Procedure:
1. For two wire method, place the standard wire over a thread of the screw at opposite sides.
2. For three wire method, place two standard wires on two successive threads and the third wire
placed opposite sides of the thread.
3. Measure the diameter over wires (M) using floating carriage micrometer.
4. Repeat this procedure at various positions of the screw and take different readings.
Formulae:
1. For best wire size, d = P / 2 Cos (x/2)
Where, P = Pitch
d= wire size
x = angle between two threads
= 60
o
for metric thread
2. Actual effective diameter, E.A = M ? 3d + 0.866 p
3. Nominal effective diameter, EN = D ? 0.648 p
4. Max. wire size = 1.01 p
5. Min. wire size = 0.505 p
6. Best wire size = 0.577 p
M = Diameter over wires
P = Pitch of thread
For metric thread:
Actual effective diameter (EA) = M ? 3d + 0.866 p
Where d = actual diameter of wire
Determination of actual and nominal effective diameter of the screw thread:
Sl.No.
Nominal
Diameter (D)
(mm)
Diameter over
wire ?M?
(mm)
Actual eff.
Diameter E.A
(mm)
Nominal eff.
Diameter E.N
(mm)
Error in effective
diameter
(E.A ? E.N)
(mm)
1.
2.
3.



36 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Result:
Thus the actual and nominal effective diameter is measured using three wire method and the error in
effective diameter of screw is determined.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for roundness
measurements and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a
specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Wholse
2. Maxxis Rubber India

1. Define ? Pitch
2. Define ? Flank Angle
3. What is plug gauge?
4. What is meant by micrometer?
5. What is meant by indicator?
6. What is best ? size wire?
7. Calculate the diameter of the best wire for an M 20 x 25 screws.
8. What are the different corrections to be applied in the measurement of effective diameter by the
method of wire?
9. What is floating carriage micrometer?
10. What are the uses of floating carriage micrometer?
11. What are the methods are used for measuring effective diameter?
12. Define ? Effective Diameter
13. Define ? Major Diameter
14. Define ? Minor Diameter
15. What are the effects of flank error?
16. Define ? Rake Angle
17. Define ? Pitch Cylinder
18. What are the effects of pitch error?
19. Define ? Pitch Diameter
20. What is meant by angle of thread?


Viva-voce

37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.08 MEASUREMENT OF VARIOUS DIMENSIONS USING
COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE
Aim:
1. To study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
2. To measure the specified dimensions of the given component
Instruments used:
Coordinate measuring machine, vernier calipers
Diagram:

Theory:
A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a 3D device for measuring the physical and geometrical
characteristics of an object. This machine may be manually controlled by an operator or it may be computer
controlled. Measurements are defined by a probe attached to the three moving axis of this machine X, Y and Z
axes. A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is also a device used in manufacturing and assembly
processes to test a part or assembly against the design intent. By precisely recording the X, Y and Z
coordinates of the target, points are generated which can be analyzed via regression algorithms for the
construction of features. These points are collected by using a probe that is positioned manually by an
38 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

operator or automatically via direct computer control (DCC). DCC CMMs can be programmed to repeatedly
measure identical parts, thus a CMM is a specialized form of industrial robot.
Parts:
Coordinate measuring machine include three main components:
1. The main structures which include three axes of motion.
2. Probing system
3. Data collection and reduction system ? typically includes a machine controller, desktop computer
and application software
Machine description:
1. In modern machines, the gantry type superstructure has two legs and is often called a bridge. This
moves freely along the granite table with one leg following a guide rail attached to one side of the
granite table. The opposite leg simply rests on the granite table following the vertical surface
contour.
2. Air bearings are fixed for ensuring friction free travel. Compressed air is forced through a series of
very small holes in a flat bearing surface to provide a smooth but controlled air cushion on which the
CMM can move in a frictionless manner.
3. The movement of the bridge along the granite table forms one axis of the XY plane. The bridge of
the gantry contains a carriage which traverses between the inside and outside legs and forms the
other X or Y horizontal axis.
4. The third axis of movement (Z axis) is provided by the addition of a vertical quill or spindle which
moves up and down through the center of the carriage. The touch probe forms the sensing device
on the end of the quill.
5. The movement of the X, Y and Z axes fully describes the measuring envelope. Some touch probes
are themselves powered rotary devices with the probe tip able to swivel vertically through 90
degrees and through a full 360 degrees rotation.
Uses:
They are generally used for:
1. Dimensional measurement
2. Profile measurement
3. Angularity or orientation measurement
4. Depth mapping
5. Digitizing mapping
6. Shaft measurement
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1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


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DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
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DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














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ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

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ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


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Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


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Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


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Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



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Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

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Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
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Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



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Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






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1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












Viva-voce

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Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


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Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









Viva-voce

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Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

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Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

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Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




Viva-voce

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Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


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Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gaugeon the magnetic stand and place the magnetic stand on the surface plate.Check
the parallelism of the sine bar.
2. Place the given specimen above the sine bar and place the dial gauge on top of the specimen.
Adjustthe dial gauge for zero deflection.
3. Raise the front end of the sine bar with slip gauges until the work surface is parallel to the datum
surface.
4. Check the parallelism using dial gauge.
5. Measure the distance between the centres of the sine bar rollers as ?L? and note the height of the
slip gauge as ?H?.
6. Note the included angle of the specimen.
Formulae:
Sin ? = H/L where ? = Included angle of the specimen
H = Height of slip gauges
L = Distance between the centre of rollers
Tabulation:
S.No. L (mm) H (mm) Taper angle ( ?)
1.
2.
3.

Result:
The taper angle of the given specimen using sine bar was found to be =
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for angular measurements
and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a specific
requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).

Application:
1. Flat Surface
2. Granite


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1. List out the various angle measuring instruments.
2. What is the working principles sine bar?
3. How is a sine bar used to measure the angle?
4. What is the application of sine bar?
5. What is the material of sine bar?
6. Why sine bar is not preferred to use for measuring angles more than 45
0
?
7. What are the features of sine bar?
8. A 100 mm sine bar is to be set up to an angle of 33
0
, determine the slip gauges needed from 87
pieces set.
9. What are the various instruments used for measuring angles?
10. What is sine bar?
11. How sine bar is used for angle measurement?
12. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of small size component.
13. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of large size component.
14. What are the various types of sine bar?
15. What are the limitations of sine bar?
16. What is sine center?
17. What is sine table?
18. What are the possible sources of errors in angular measurement by sine bar?
19. What are angle gauges?
20. How angle gauges are used for measuring angles?




Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00



Expt.No.06 DETERMINATION OF GEAR TOOTH THICKNESS
USING GEAR TOOTH VERNIER
Aim:
To determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen and to draw the graph between the tooth
number and the error in thickness
Apparatus required:
Gear tooth vernier, specimen, surface plate and vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The tooth thickness, in general, is measured at pitch circle since gear tooth thickness varies from the tip
to the base circle of the tooth. This is possible only when there is an arrangement to fix that position for this
measurement by the gear tooth vernier. It has two vernier scales; one is vertical and other is horizontal.
Procedure:
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1. Measure initially the outside diameter of the given gear specimen by means of a vertical calculation
of vernier caliper. Note the number of teeth. Calculate the module (m) using the formula.

M = OD/ (Z+2) where z ? number of teeth
M - Module
2. Calculate the theoretical tooth thickness (t) by t = z * m* sin (90/z).
3. Set the vernier scale for the height and tighten.
4. Measure the thickness of each tooth using the horizontal scale. This is measured thickness. It can
be positive or negative.
H = m x [1+ Z/2 (1- Cos 90/Z)]
5. Calculate the error in the tooth thickness i.e,1. measured thickness ? Theoretical thickness
6. Draw the graph between the tooth number and the error in thickness.
Tabulation:
Tooth
Number
Measured Thickness
(mm)
Theoretical Thickness (mm)
Error in tooth thickness
(mm)
1
2
3

Tooth
Number
MSR
(mm)
VSC

VSR
(mm)
TR
(mm)
1
2
3

Graph:


Error



Tooth No.
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Result:
The theoretical experiment value of gear tooth thickness is obtained and graph is drawn between error
and tooth number in tooth thickness
Theoretical tooth thickness =
Experimental tooth thickness =
Error in tooth thickness =
Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the basic measurement units and able to calibrate various
measuring parameters of the gear.
Application:
1. Gear Component
2. Mining

1. Calculate the setting of a gear tooth vernier caliper for a straight spur gear having 40 teeth and
module 4.
2. What is the importance of chordal depth?
3. Define ? Chordal width
4. How is the actual profile of the gear tooth determined?
5. What are the manufacturing errors in gear element?
6. Define ? Addendum
7. Define ? Dedendum
8. Define ? Flank of tooth
9. Define ? Pitch
10. Define ? Pitch Circle
11. Define ? Crest of tooth
12. Define ? Root of tooth
13. Define ? Base Circle
14. Define ? Module
15. Define ? Angle of Obliquity


Viva-voce

34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.07 MEASUREMENT OF THREAD PARAMETER USING
FLOATING CARRIAGE MICROMETER
Aim:
To measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two wire
method
Apparatus required:
1. Floating carriage micrometer
2. Standard wire
3. Given specimen (screw thread)
Diagram:

Description of floating carriage micrometer:
It consists of three main units. A base casting carries a pair of centres on which threaded work piece is
to be mounted. Another carriage capable of moving towards centre is mounted exactly above. In this carriage
one head with thimble to measure up to 0.002 mm is provided and at the other side of head a fiducial indicator
is provided to indicate zero position.



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Procedure:
1. For two wire method, place the standard wire over a thread of the screw at opposite sides.
2. For three wire method, place two standard wires on two successive threads and the third wire
placed opposite sides of the thread.
3. Measure the diameter over wires (M) using floating carriage micrometer.
4. Repeat this procedure at various positions of the screw and take different readings.
Formulae:
1. For best wire size, d = P / 2 Cos (x/2)
Where, P = Pitch
d= wire size
x = angle between two threads
= 60
o
for metric thread
2. Actual effective diameter, E.A = M ? 3d + 0.866 p
3. Nominal effective diameter, EN = D ? 0.648 p
4. Max. wire size = 1.01 p
5. Min. wire size = 0.505 p
6. Best wire size = 0.577 p
M = Diameter over wires
P = Pitch of thread
For metric thread:
Actual effective diameter (EA) = M ? 3d + 0.866 p
Where d = actual diameter of wire
Determination of actual and nominal effective diameter of the screw thread:
Sl.No.
Nominal
Diameter (D)
(mm)
Diameter over
wire ?M?
(mm)
Actual eff.
Diameter E.A
(mm)
Nominal eff.
Diameter E.N
(mm)
Error in effective
diameter
(E.A ? E.N)
(mm)
1.
2.
3.



36 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Result:
Thus the actual and nominal effective diameter is measured using three wire method and the error in
effective diameter of screw is determined.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for roundness
measurements and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a
specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Wholse
2. Maxxis Rubber India

1. Define ? Pitch
2. Define ? Flank Angle
3. What is plug gauge?
4. What is meant by micrometer?
5. What is meant by indicator?
6. What is best ? size wire?
7. Calculate the diameter of the best wire for an M 20 x 25 screws.
8. What are the different corrections to be applied in the measurement of effective diameter by the
method of wire?
9. What is floating carriage micrometer?
10. What are the uses of floating carriage micrometer?
11. What are the methods are used for measuring effective diameter?
12. Define ? Effective Diameter
13. Define ? Major Diameter
14. Define ? Minor Diameter
15. What are the effects of flank error?
16. Define ? Rake Angle
17. Define ? Pitch Cylinder
18. What are the effects of pitch error?
19. Define ? Pitch Diameter
20. What is meant by angle of thread?


Viva-voce

37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.08 MEASUREMENT OF VARIOUS DIMENSIONS USING
COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE
Aim:
1. To study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
2. To measure the specified dimensions of the given component
Instruments used:
Coordinate measuring machine, vernier calipers
Diagram:

Theory:
A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a 3D device for measuring the physical and geometrical
characteristics of an object. This machine may be manually controlled by an operator or it may be computer
controlled. Measurements are defined by a probe attached to the three moving axis of this machine X, Y and Z
axes. A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is also a device used in manufacturing and assembly
processes to test a part or assembly against the design intent. By precisely recording the X, Y and Z
coordinates of the target, points are generated which can be analyzed via regression algorithms for the
construction of features. These points are collected by using a probe that is positioned manually by an
38 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

operator or automatically via direct computer control (DCC). DCC CMMs can be programmed to repeatedly
measure identical parts, thus a CMM is a specialized form of industrial robot.
Parts:
Coordinate measuring machine include three main components:
1. The main structures which include three axes of motion.
2. Probing system
3. Data collection and reduction system ? typically includes a machine controller, desktop computer
and application software
Machine description:
1. In modern machines, the gantry type superstructure has two legs and is often called a bridge. This
moves freely along the granite table with one leg following a guide rail attached to one side of the
granite table. The opposite leg simply rests on the granite table following the vertical surface
contour.
2. Air bearings are fixed for ensuring friction free travel. Compressed air is forced through a series of
very small holes in a flat bearing surface to provide a smooth but controlled air cushion on which the
CMM can move in a frictionless manner.
3. The movement of the bridge along the granite table forms one axis of the XY plane. The bridge of
the gantry contains a carriage which traverses between the inside and outside legs and forms the
other X or Y horizontal axis.
4. The third axis of movement (Z axis) is provided by the addition of a vertical quill or spindle which
moves up and down through the center of the carriage. The touch probe forms the sensing device
on the end of the quill.
5. The movement of the X, Y and Z axes fully describes the measuring envelope. Some touch probes
are themselves powered rotary devices with the probe tip able to swivel vertically through 90
degrees and through a full 360 degrees rotation.
Uses:
They are generally used for:
1. Dimensional measurement
2. Profile measurement
3. Angularity or orientation measurement
4. Depth mapping
5. Digitizing mapping
6. Shaft measurement
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The machines are available in a wide range of sizes and designs with a variety of different probe
technologies. They can be operated manually or automatically through direct computer control (DCC). They
are offered in various configurations such as bench top, free ? standing, handheld and portable.
Procedure:
1. Take at least 8 points on sphere ball attached to the granite table.
2. Fix the object whose dimension needs to be measured using the jigs and fixtures.
3. Using joystick, move the probe whose tip is made of ruby slowly and carefully to the surface whose
measurements have to be taken.
4. Touch the probe at two places for measurement of a line (starting and ending point).
5. Touch the probe at two places for measurement of a circular profile and for a cylinder touch the
probe at 8 points.
6. Measure the same profiles again with vernier calipers (length of line, circle diameter, cylinder
diameter) to compare the two readings.
Comments:
1. The machine should be calibrated every time when it is being used.
2. While measuring the profiles, the probe should be moved very slowly as it may damage the ruby if
hit with a high force.
3. Care should be taken while performing experiment so that the granite table of the machines should
get any scratches.
4. ?Retract distance? should be fixed according to the space available in the near vicinity of the profile
measurement area.
Observation:
Sl.No. Feature
CMM reading
(mm)
Vernier reading
(mm)
Form error
(mm)
Difference in two
readings (mm)
1 Circle -1
2 Circle -2
3 Circle -3
4 Line
5 Arc
6
Cone - Diameter
Cone ? Vertex angle
Cone ? Height
7
Cylinder ? Diameter
Cylinder ? Height


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________


LABORATORY MANUAL
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3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

DHANALAKSHMI


College of Engineering is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.


1. To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
2. To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
3. To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society







MISSION
MISSION
VISION

VISION

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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build
up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to
adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees






5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
a) To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
b) To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in
the career or entrepreneurship
c) To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
d) To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
e) To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
f) To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
g) To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
h) To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
i) To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
j) To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
k) To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments














6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY



To familiar with different measurement equipment?s and use of this industry for quality inspection
List of Experiments
1. Tool Maker?s Microscope
2. Comparator
3. Sine Bar
4. Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper
5. Floating gauge Micrometer
6. Coordinate Measuring Machine
7. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment
8. Vernier Height Gauge
9. Bore diameter measurement using telescope gauge
10. Bore diameter measurement using micrometer
11. Force Measurement
12. Torque Measurement
13. Temperature measurement
14. Autocollimator


1. Ability to handle different measurement tools and perform measurements in quality impulsion
2. Learnt the usage of precision measuring instruments and practiced to take measurements
3. Learnt and practiced to build the required dimensions using slip gauge
4. Able to measure the various dimensions of the given specimen using the tool maker?s microscope
5. Able to find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
6. Able to measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
7. Learnt to determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen using Gear tooth vernier
8. Able to measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two
wire method
9. Learnt to study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
10. Learnt to determine the diameter of bore by using telescopic gauge and dial bore indicator
11. Able to measure the surface roughness using Talysurf instrument
12. Studied the characteristic between applied load and the output volt
13. Learnt the characteristics of developing torque and respective sensor output voltage
14. Studied the characteristics of thermocouple without compensation
15. Able to check the straightness & flatness of the given component by using Autocollimator
16. Learnt to measure the displacement using LVDT and to calibrate it with the millimeter scale reading




COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES

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ME6513 ? METROLOGY AND MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the Experiments Page No.
CYCLE ? 1 EXPERIMENTS
1
Precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab ? A Study
7
2
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension ? A Study
16
3
Thread parameters measurement using Tool Makers Microscope
20
4
Calibration of dial gauge
23
5
Determination of taper angle by sine bar method
26
6
Determination of gear tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier
29
7
Measurement of thread parameters using floating carriage micrometer
32
CYCLE ? 2 EXPERIMENTS
8
Measurement of various dimensions using Coordinate Measuring Machine
35
9
Measurement of surface roughness
39
10
Measurement of bores using dial bore indicator and telescopic gauge
42
11
Force measurement using load cell
46
12
Torque measurement using strain gauge
49
13
Temperature measurement using thermocouple
53
14
Measurement of alignment using autocollimator
56
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENT BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
15
Thread parameters measurement using profile projector
60
16
Displacement measurement ? linear variable differential transducer (LVDT)
62
PROJECT WORK
65


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9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.01 PRECISION MEASURING INSTRUMENT YSED IN
METROLOGY LAB ? A STUDY
Aim:
To study the following instruments and their usage for measuring dimensions of given specimen
1. Vernier caliper
2. Micrometer
3. Vernier height gauge
4. Depth micrometer
5. Universal bevel protractor
Apparatus required:
Surface plate, specimen and above instruments
Vernier caliper:
The principle of vernier caliper is to use the minor difference between the sizes two scales or divisions
for measurement. The difference between them can be utilized to enhance the accuracy of measurement. The
vernier caliper essentially consists of two steel rules, sliding along each other.
Parts:
Different parts of the vernier caliper are
1. Beam ? It has main scale.
2. Fixed jaw
3. Sliding or Moving jaw ? It has vernier scale and sliding jaw locking screw.
4. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw knife
edges for internal measurement.
5. Stem or depth bar for depth measurement
Least count:
Least count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least count = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm

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ID

DEPTH


OD
Measurement:
Given Vernier caliper can be used for external, internal depth, slot and step measurement.
Measurement principle:
When both jaws contact each other scale shows the zero reading. The finer adjustment of movable jaw
can be done by the fine adjustment screw. First the whole movable jaw assembly is adjusted so that the two
measuring tips just touch the part to be measured. Then the fine adjustment clamp locking screw is tightened.
Final adjustment depending upon the sense of correct feel is made by the adjusting screw. After final
adjustment has been made sliding jaw locking screw is also tightened and the reading is noted.
All the parts of the Vernier caliper are made of good quality steel and measuring faces are hardened.
Types of vernier:
Vernier caliper, electronic vernier caliper, vernier depth caliper


11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:

Main scale
reading (MSR)
(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale
reading (VSR) (mm)
Total reading (MSR
+ VSR)
(mm)

OD


ID


Depth


Vernier height gauge:
Vernier height gauge is a sort of vernier caliper equipped with a special instrument suitable for height
measurement. It is always kept on the surface plate and the use of the surfaces plates as datum surfaces is
very essential.
Least count:
Least Count = 1 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1 mm
50 VSD = 49 mm
1 VSD = 0.98 mm
Least Count (LC) = 1 ? 0.98 = 0.02 mm
Parts:
1. Base
2. Beam ? It has main scale.
3. Slider ? It has a vernier scale and slider locking screw.
4. Scriber
5. Fine adjustment clamp ? It has fine adjustment clamp locking screw and fine adjustment screw.


12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Material:
All the parts of vernier are made of good quality steel and the measuring faces hardened.
Types of vernier gauge:
1. Analog vernier height gauge
2. Digital vernier height gauge
3. Electronic vernier height gauge
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR)(mm)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR)(mm)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)(mm)
1.
2.
3.

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Outside micrometer:
The micrometer essentially consists of an accurate screw having about 10 or 20 threads per cm. The
end of the screw forms one measuring tip and other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the
base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain length and is plain afterwards. The plain portion is called
spindle and its end is the measuring surface. The spindle is advanced or retracted by turning a thimble
connected to a spindle. The spindle is a slide fit over the barrel and barrel is the fixed part attached with the
frame. The barrel & thimble are graduated. The pitch of the screw threads is 0.5 mm.

Least count:
Least Count (LC) = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale
= 0.5 / 50 = 0.01 mm
Parts:
1. Frame
2. Anvil
3. Spindle
4. Spindle lock
5. Barrel or outside sleeve
6. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions
7. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
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Measurement:
It can be used for any external measurement.
Types of micrometer:
1. Outside micrometer, 2. Inside micrometer, 3.Depth micrometer, 4. Stick micrometer, 5. Screw thread
micrometer, 6. V ? anvil micrometer, 7. Blade type micrometer, 8. Dial micrometer, 9. Bench micrometer, 10.
Tape screw operated internal micrometer, 11. Groove micrometer, 12. Digital micrometer, 13.Differential screw
micrometer, 14.Adjustable range outside micrometer.
Ratchet stop mechanism:
The object of the ratchet stop is to ensure that same level of torque is applied on the spindle while
measuring and the sense of the feel of operator is eliminated and consistent readings are obtained. By
providing this arrangement, the ratchet stop is made slip off when the torque applied to rotate the spindle
exceeds the set torque. Thus this provision ensures the application of same amount of torque during the
measurement.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)
1.
2.

Depth micrometer:
Depth micrometer is a sort of micrometer which is mainly used for measuring depth of holes, so it is
named as depth micrometer.
Parts:
1. Shoulder
2. Spindle
3. Spindle lock
4. Barrel or outside sleeve ? It has pitch scale.
5. Thimble ? It has head scale. Thimble is divided into 50 divisions.
6. Ratchet stop ? Barrel is graduated into steps of 0.5 mm.
The least count of the given micrometer is 0.01 mm.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Least count:
Least Count = Pitch / No. of divisions on the head scale = 0.50/50
= 0.01 mm
Measurements:
It can be used for measuring the depth of holes, slots and recessed areas. The pitch of the screw thread
is 0.5 mm. The least count is 0.01 mm. Shoulder acts as a reference surface and is held firmly and
perpendicular to the centre line of the hole. For large range of measurement extension rods are used. In the
barrel the scale is calibrated. The accuracy again depends upon the sense of touch.
Procedure:
First, calculate the least count of the instrument. Check the zero error. Measure the specimen note
down the main scale reading or the head scale reading. Note down the vernier or head scale coincidence with
main or pitch scale divisions.
Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Pitch Scale Reading
(PSR) (mm)
Head Scale
Coincidence (HSC)
Head scale reading
(HSR x LC) (mm)
Total Reading (PSR
+ HSR) (mm)

1.


2.


16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Universal bevel protractor:

Description:
Bevel protractor is an instrument for measuring the angle between the two faces of a specimen. It
consists of a base plate on which a circular scale is engraved. It is graduated in degrees. An adjustment plate
is attached to a circular plate containing the vernier scale. The adjustable blade can be locked in any position.
The circular plate has 360 division divided into four parts of 90 degrees each. The adjustable parts have 24
divisions of to the right and left sides of zero reading. These scales are used according to the position of the
specimen with respect to movable scale.
Procedure:
1. Place the specimen whose taper is to be measured between the adjustable plate and movable
blade with one of its face parallel to the base.
2. Lock the adjustable plate in position and note down the main scale reading depending upon the
direction of rotation of adjustable plate in clockwise or anticlockwise.
3. Note the VSC to the right of zero.
4. Multiply the VSC with the least count and add to MSR to obtain the actual reading.
Least count:
Least Count = 2 MSD ? 1 VSD
1 MSD = 1
o
24 VSD = 46
o
=> 1 VSD = 23/12
LC = 2 ? 23/12 = 1/12
o
= 5? (five minutes)



17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Sl.No.
Main scale reading
(MSR) (deg)
Vernier scale
coincidence (VSC)
Vernier scale reading
(VSR) (deg)
Total reading (MSR +
VSR)
(deg)
1.
2.
The angle of scriber of the vernier height gauge =
Result:
Thus the various precision measuring instruments used in metrology lab are studied and the specimen
dimensions are recorded.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for linear, angular,
roundness and roughness measurements they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring
instrument according to a specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Quality Department


1. Define ? Metrology
2. Define ? Inspection
3. What are the needs of inspection in industries?
4. What are the various methods involving the measurement?
5. Define ? Precision
6. Define ? Accuracy
7. Define ? Calibration
8. Define ? Repeatability
9. Define ? Magnification
10. Define ? Error
11. Define ? Systematic Error
12. Define ? Random Error
13. Define ? Parallax Error
14. Define ? Environmental Error
15. Define ? Cosine Error
Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.02 BUILD UP THE SLIP GAUGE FOR GIVEN DIMENSION
? A STUDY
Aim:
To build up the slip gauge for given dimension
Apparatus required:
1. Slip gauges set
2. Surface plate
3. Soft cloth
Diagram:

Description:
Slip gauge are universally accepted standard of length in industry. They are the working standard for
linear dimension. These were invented by a Swedish Engineer, C.E. Johansson. They are used
1. For direct precise measurement where the accuracy of the workpiece demand it.
2. For use with high- magnification comparators to establish the size of the gauge blocks in general
use.
3. Gauge blocks are also used for many other purposes such as checking the accuracy of measuring
instrument or setting up a comparator to a specific dimension, enabling a batch of component to be
quickly and accurately checked or indeed in any situation where there is need to refer to standard of
known length these blocks are rectangular.
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Most gauge blocks are produced from high grade steel, hardened and established by a heat treatment
process to give a high degree of dimensional stability. Gauge blocks are also manufactured from tungsten
carbide which is an extremely hard and wear resistant material. The measuring faces have a lapped finish.
The faces are perfectly flat and parallel to one another with a high degree of accuracy. Each block has an
extremely high dimensional accuracy at 20
o
C.
These slip gauge are available in variety of selected sets both in inch units and metric units. Letter ?E? is
used for inch units and ?M? is used for metric standard number of pieces in a set following the letter E or M. For
example EBI refers to a set whose blocks are in metric units and are 83 in number. Each block dimensions is
printed on anyone of its face itself the size of any required standard being made up by combining the
appropriate number of these different size blocks.
If two gauges are slid and twisted together under pressure they will firmly join together. This process,
known as wringing, is very useful because it enables several gauge blocks to be assembled together to
produce a required size. In fact the success of precision measurement by slip gauges depends on the
phenomenon of wringing.
First the gauge is oscillated slightly with very light pressure over other gauge so as to detect pressure at
any foreign particles between the surfaces. One gauge is placed perpendicular to other using standard
gauging pressure and rotary motion is applied until the blocks are lined up.
Procedure:
1. Build the given dimension by wringing minimum number of slip gauges.
2. Note the given dimension and choose the minimum possible slip gauge available in the set so as to
accommodate the last decimal value. The minimum slip gauge value dimension available i.e., 1.12
mm must be chosen followed by 1.5 mm thick gauge block.
3. Follow the above steps to build up the slip gauge of any dimension.
Precautions:
1. Slip gauges should be handled very carefully placed gently and should never be dropped.
2. Whenever a slip gauge is being removed from the set, its dimensions are noted and must be
replaced into the set at its appropriate place only.
3. Correct procedure must be followed in wringing and also in removing the gauge blocks.
4. They should be cleaned well before use and petroleum jelly is applied after use.



20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Tabulation:
Range (mm) Increment (mm) No. of pieces




Total = ____________ Pieces
Total length of slip gauge = ________ mm
Given diameter Slip gauges used Obtained dimensions





Result:
Slip gauge set is studied and the given dimensions are building up by wringing minimum number of slip
gauges.
Outcome:
Students will be able to select proper measuring instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors
in measurement etc. They can perform accurate measurements.
Application:
1. Quality Department






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1. Why C.I. is preferred material for surface plates and tables?
2. Why V ? blocks are generally manufactured in pairs?
3. Why micrometer is required to be tested for accuracy?
4. Define ? Linear Measurement
5. List the linear measuring instrument according to their accuracy.
6. Define ? Least Count
7. What are the uses of vernier depth gauge?
8. What are the uses of feeler gauges?
9. What are the uses of straight edge?
10. What are the uses of angle plate?
11. What are the uses of V ? block?
12. What are the uses of combination square?
13. What precautions should be taken while using slip gauges?
14. What is wringing?
15. Why the slip gauges are termed as ?End standard??












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22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Expt.No.03 THREAD PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT USING
TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE
Aim:
To study the tool makers microscope and in the process measure the various dimensions of the given
specimen
Apparatus required:
1. Tool makers microscope
2. Specimen
Diagram:

Description:
The tool maker?s microscope is designed for measurement of parts of complex forms; for example,
profile of a tool having external threads. It can also be used for measuring centre to centre distance of the
holes in any plane as well as the coordinates of the outline of a complex template gauge, using the
coordinates measuring system.
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Basically it consists of an optical head which can be adjusted vertically along the ways of supporting
column. The optical head can be clamped at any position by a screw. On the work table (which as a circular
base in which there are graduations) the part to be inspected is placed. The table has a compound slide by
means of which the part can be measured. For giving these two movements, there are two micrometer screws
having thimble scales and verniers. At the back of the base light source is arranged that provides horizontal
beam of light, reflected from a mirror by 90 degrees upwards towards the table. The beam of light passes
through the transparent glass plate on which flat plates can be checked are placed. Observations are made
through the eyepiece of the optical head.
Procedure:
1. Place the given specimen on the work table and switch on all the three light sources and adjust the
intensity of the light source until a clean image of the cross wires and specimen are seen through
the eyepiece.
2. Coincide one of the two extreme edges between which the measurement has to be taken with
vertical or horizontal cross wires and depending upon the other image coincide with the same cross
wires by moving the above device. Note the reading.The difference between the two readings gives
the value of the required measurement.
3. Note the experiment specimen and the readings.
4. Tabulate the different measurements measured from the specimen.
Determination of thread parameters
Magnification =
S.No. Parameters
Magnified value
(mm)
Actual value
(mm)
1. Outer diameter (O.D)

2. Internal diameter (I.D)

3. Pitch

4. Flank angle


Result:
Included angle of the tool was measured using tool maker?s microscope and various dimensions of the
given specimen are measured.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the various parameters of thread and select proper measuring
instrument and know requirement of calibration, errors in measurement etc. They can perform accurate
measurements.
Application:
1. Machine Shop
2. Quality Department


1. What is meant by tool maker?s microscope?
2. What is the light used in tool maker?s microscope?
3. What are the various characteristics that you would measure in a screw thread?
4. What are the instruments that are required for measuring screw thread?
5. Define ? Pitch
6. What are the causes of pitch error?
7. Define ? Flank
8. What are the effects of flank angle error?
9. What is progressive error?
10. What is periodic error?
11. What is drunken error?
12. What is erratic error?
13. What are the applications of tool maker?s microscope?
14. What are the limitations of tool maker?s microscope?
15. What are the advantages of tool maker?s microscope?









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25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.04 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE USING SLIP GAUGE
Aim:
To find the accuracy and standard error of the given dial gauge
Apparatus required:
Dial gauge, magnetic stand, slip gauge, and surface plate
Diagram:

Description:
The dial test indicator is a precision measuring instrument which can convert linear motion into angular
motion by means of transmission mechanics of rack and pinion and can be used to measure linear vibration
and errors of shape.
This instrument has the features such as good appearance, compact size, light weight, high precision,
reasonable construction, constant measuring face etc. Rigidity of all parts is excellent. Probe is tipped with
carbide balls. A shock proof mechanism is provided for those with larger measuring range.

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Types of dial indicator:
1. Plunger type
2. Lever type
Plunger type dial indicator has a resolution counter and each division in main scale is 0.01 mm. In lever
type dial test indicator is replaced by ball type stylus.
Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gauge to the stand rigidly and place the stand on the surface plate.
2. Set the plunger of dial gauge to first touch the upper surface of standard slip gauge and set indicator
to zero.
3. Raise then the plunger by pulling the screw above the dial scale.
4. Place the standard slip gauge underneath the plunger.
5. Release the plunger and let it to touch the standard slip gauge.
6. Note the reading on the dial scale.
Formulae:
The standard error of dial gauge is calculated by the formula

Tabulation:
S.No.
Slip gauge reading ?x?
(mm)
Dial gauge reading
(mm)
(x? - x)
2


x? (x? - x)
1.
2


Result:
Thus the accuracy and standard error of dial gauge is found. The standard error of given dial gauge is
__________.

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Outcome:
Students will be able to check the variation in tolerance during the inspection process of a
machined part, measure the deflection of a beam or ring under laboratory conditions, as well as many
other situations where a small measurement needs to be registered or indicated
Application:
1. Milling Machine
2. Analog versus digital/electronic readout


1. What is comparator?
2. What are the types of comparators?
3. What is the LC for comparators?
4. What are the applications of comparator?
5. What is meant by plunger?
6. What are the types of dial indicators?
7. Why a revolution counter is not provided in lever type dial test indicator?
8. Draw a line diagram of the operating mechanism of plunger type dial test indicator.
9. Explain the term magnification of a dial indicator.
10. What are the uses of dial test indicator?
11. What are the practical applications of dial test indicator?
12. What precautions should be taken while using dial test indicator?
13. What are the desirable qualities of a dial test indicator?
14. What are the advantages of dial test indicator?
15. What are the limitations of dial test indicator?
16. Distinguish between comparator and measuring instrument.
17. What are the advantages of electrical comparator?
18. What are the advantages of optical comparator?
19. What are the uses of comparator?
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical comparator?




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28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.05 DETERMINATION OF TAPER ANGLE BY SINE BAR
METHOD
Aim:
To measure taper angle of the given specimen using Sine bar method and compare
Apparatus required:
Sine bar, slip gauges, dial gauge with stand, micrometer, surface plate, bevel protractor, vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The sine bar principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle. It may be noted that
devices operating on sine principle are capable of ?self-generation?. The measurement is restricted to 45
o
from
accuracy point of view. Sine bar itself is not a measuring instrument.
Accuracy requirements of sine bar:
1. The axes of the rollers must be parallel to each other and the centre distance L must be precisely
known.
2. The sine bar must be flat and parallel to the plane connecting the axes of the rollers.
3. The rollers must be of identical diameters and must have within a close tolerance.


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Procedure:
1. Fix the dial gaugeon the magnetic stand and place the magnetic stand on the surface plate.Check
the parallelism of the sine bar.
2. Place the given specimen above the sine bar and place the dial gauge on top of the specimen.
Adjustthe dial gauge for zero deflection.
3. Raise the front end of the sine bar with slip gauges until the work surface is parallel to the datum
surface.
4. Check the parallelism using dial gauge.
5. Measure the distance between the centres of the sine bar rollers as ?L? and note the height of the
slip gauge as ?H?.
6. Note the included angle of the specimen.
Formulae:
Sin ? = H/L where ? = Included angle of the specimen
H = Height of slip gauges
L = Distance between the centre of rollers
Tabulation:
S.No. L (mm) H (mm) Taper angle ( ?)
1.
2.
3.

Result:
The taper angle of the given specimen using sine bar was found to be =
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for angular measurements
and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a specific
requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).

Application:
1. Flat Surface
2. Granite


30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00





1. List out the various angle measuring instruments.
2. What is the working principles sine bar?
3. How is a sine bar used to measure the angle?
4. What is the application of sine bar?
5. What is the material of sine bar?
6. Why sine bar is not preferred to use for measuring angles more than 45
0
?
7. What are the features of sine bar?
8. A 100 mm sine bar is to be set up to an angle of 33
0
, determine the slip gauges needed from 87
pieces set.
9. What are the various instruments used for measuring angles?
10. What is sine bar?
11. How sine bar is used for angle measurement?
12. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of small size component.
13. Explain how sine bar is used to measure angle of large size component.
14. What are the various types of sine bar?
15. What are the limitations of sine bar?
16. What is sine center?
17. What is sine table?
18. What are the possible sources of errors in angular measurement by sine bar?
19. What are angle gauges?
20. How angle gauges are used for measuring angles?




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31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00



Expt.No.06 DETERMINATION OF GEAR TOOTH THICKNESS
USING GEAR TOOTH VERNIER
Aim:
To determine the thickness of tooth of the given gear specimen and to draw the graph between the tooth
number and the error in thickness
Apparatus required:
Gear tooth vernier, specimen, surface plate and vernier caliper
Diagram:

Description:
The tooth thickness, in general, is measured at pitch circle since gear tooth thickness varies from the tip
to the base circle of the tooth. This is possible only when there is an arrangement to fix that position for this
measurement by the gear tooth vernier. It has two vernier scales; one is vertical and other is horizontal.
Procedure:
32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

1. Measure initially the outside diameter of the given gear specimen by means of a vertical calculation
of vernier caliper. Note the number of teeth. Calculate the module (m) using the formula.

M = OD/ (Z+2) where z ? number of teeth
M - Module
2. Calculate the theoretical tooth thickness (t) by t = z * m* sin (90/z).
3. Set the vernier scale for the height and tighten.
4. Measure the thickness of each tooth using the horizontal scale. This is measured thickness. It can
be positive or negative.
H = m x [1+ Z/2 (1- Cos 90/Z)]
5. Calculate the error in the tooth thickness i.e,1. measured thickness ? Theoretical thickness
6. Draw the graph between the tooth number and the error in thickness.
Tabulation:
Tooth
Number
Measured Thickness
(mm)
Theoretical Thickness (mm)
Error in tooth thickness
(mm)
1
2
3

Tooth
Number
MSR
(mm)
VSC

VSR
(mm)
TR
(mm)
1
2
3

Graph:


Error



Tooth No.
33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00


Result:
The theoretical experiment value of gear tooth thickness is obtained and graph is drawn between error
and tooth number in tooth thickness
Theoretical tooth thickness =
Experimental tooth thickness =
Error in tooth thickness =
Outcome:
Students will be able to understand the basic measurement units and able to calibrate various
measuring parameters of the gear.
Application:
1. Gear Component
2. Mining

1. Calculate the setting of a gear tooth vernier caliper for a straight spur gear having 40 teeth and
module 4.
2. What is the importance of chordal depth?
3. Define ? Chordal width
4. How is the actual profile of the gear tooth determined?
5. What are the manufacturing errors in gear element?
6. Define ? Addendum
7. Define ? Dedendum
8. Define ? Flank of tooth
9. Define ? Pitch
10. Define ? Pitch Circle
11. Define ? Crest of tooth
12. Define ? Root of tooth
13. Define ? Base Circle
14. Define ? Module
15. Define ? Angle of Obliquity


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34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.07 MEASUREMENT OF THREAD PARAMETER USING
FLOATING CARRIAGE MICROMETER
Aim:
To measure the effective diameter of a screw thread using floating carriage micrometer by two wire
method
Apparatus required:
1. Floating carriage micrometer
2. Standard wire
3. Given specimen (screw thread)
Diagram:

Description of floating carriage micrometer:
It consists of three main units. A base casting carries a pair of centres on which threaded work piece is
to be mounted. Another carriage capable of moving towards centre is mounted exactly above. In this carriage
one head with thimble to measure up to 0.002 mm is provided and at the other side of head a fiducial indicator
is provided to indicate zero position.



35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Procedure:
1. For two wire method, place the standard wire over a thread of the screw at opposite sides.
2. For three wire method, place two standard wires on two successive threads and the third wire
placed opposite sides of the thread.
3. Measure the diameter over wires (M) using floating carriage micrometer.
4. Repeat this procedure at various positions of the screw and take different readings.
Formulae:
1. For best wire size, d = P / 2 Cos (x/2)
Where, P = Pitch
d= wire size
x = angle between two threads
= 60
o
for metric thread
2. Actual effective diameter, E.A = M ? 3d + 0.866 p
3. Nominal effective diameter, EN = D ? 0.648 p
4. Max. wire size = 1.01 p
5. Min. wire size = 0.505 p
6. Best wire size = 0.577 p
M = Diameter over wires
P = Pitch of thread
For metric thread:
Actual effective diameter (EA) = M ? 3d + 0.866 p
Where d = actual diameter of wire
Determination of actual and nominal effective diameter of the screw thread:
Sl.No.
Nominal
Diameter (D)
(mm)
Diameter over
wire ?M?
(mm)
Actual eff.
Diameter E.A
(mm)
Nominal eff.
Diameter E.N
(mm)
Error in effective
diameter
(E.A ? E.N)
(mm)
1.
2.
3.



36 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Result:
Thus the actual and nominal effective diameter is measured using three wire method and the error in
effective diameter of screw is determined.
Outcome:
Student will become familiar with the different instruments that are available for roundness
measurements and they will be able to select and use the appropriate measuring instrument according to a
specific requirement (in terms of accuracy, etc).
Application:
1. Wholse
2. Maxxis Rubber India

1. Define ? Pitch
2. Define ? Flank Angle
3. What is plug gauge?
4. What is meant by micrometer?
5. What is meant by indicator?
6. What is best ? size wire?
7. Calculate the diameter of the best wire for an M 20 x 25 screws.
8. What are the different corrections to be applied in the measurement of effective diameter by the
method of wire?
9. What is floating carriage micrometer?
10. What are the uses of floating carriage micrometer?
11. What are the methods are used for measuring effective diameter?
12. Define ? Effective Diameter
13. Define ? Major Diameter
14. Define ? Minor Diameter
15. What are the effects of flank error?
16. Define ? Rake Angle
17. Define ? Pitch Cylinder
18. What are the effects of pitch error?
19. Define ? Pitch Diameter
20. What is meant by angle of thread?


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37 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Expt.No.08 MEASUREMENT OF VARIOUS DIMENSIONS USING
COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE
Aim:
1. To study the construction and operation of coordinate measuring machine
2. To measure the specified dimensions of the given component
Instruments used:
Coordinate measuring machine, vernier calipers
Diagram:

Theory:
A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a 3D device for measuring the physical and geometrical
characteristics of an object. This machine may be manually controlled by an operator or it may be computer
controlled. Measurements are defined by a probe attached to the three moving axis of this machine X, Y and Z
axes. A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is also a device used in manufacturing and assembly
processes to test a part or assembly against the design intent. By precisely recording the X, Y and Z
coordinates of the target, points are generated which can be analyzed via regression algorithms for the
construction of features. These points are collected by using a probe that is positioned manually by an
38 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

operator or automatically via direct computer control (DCC). DCC CMMs can be programmed to repeatedly
measure identical parts, thus a CMM is a specialized form of industrial robot.
Parts:
Coordinate measuring machine include three main components:
1. The main structures which include three axes of motion.
2. Probing system
3. Data collection and reduction system ? typically includes a machine controller, desktop computer
and application software
Machine description:
1. In modern machines, the gantry type superstructure has two legs and is often called a bridge. This
moves freely along the granite table with one leg following a guide rail attached to one side of the
granite table. The opposite leg simply rests on the granite table following the vertical surface
contour.
2. Air bearings are fixed for ensuring friction free travel. Compressed air is forced through a series of
very small holes in a flat bearing surface to provide a smooth but controlled air cushion on which the
CMM can move in a frictionless manner.
3. The movement of the bridge along the granite table forms one axis of the XY plane. The bridge of
the gantry contains a carriage which traverses between the inside and outside legs and forms the
other X or Y horizontal axis.
4. The third axis of movement (Z axis) is provided by the addition of a vertical quill or spindle which
moves up and down through the center of the carriage. The touch probe forms the sensing device
on the end of the quill.
5. The movement of the X, Y and Z axes fully describes the measuring envelope. Some touch probes
are themselves powered rotary devices with the probe tip able to swivel vertically through 90
degrees and through a full 360 degrees rotation.
Uses:
They are generally used for:
1. Dimensional measurement
2. Profile measurement
3. Angularity or orientation measurement
4. Depth mapping
5. Digitizing mapping
6. Shaft measurement
39 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

The machines are available in a wide range of sizes and designs with a variety of different probe
technologies. They can be operated manually or automatically through direct computer control (DCC). They
are offered in various configurations such as bench top, free ? standing, handheld and portable.
Procedure:
1. Take at least 8 points on sphere ball attached to the granite table.
2. Fix the object whose dimension needs to be measured using the jigs and fixtures.
3. Using joystick, move the probe whose tip is made of ruby slowly and carefully to the surface whose
measurements have to be taken.
4. Touch the probe at two places for measurement of a line (starting and ending point).
5. Touch the probe at two places for measurement of a circular profile and for a cylinder touch the
probe at 8 points.
6. Measure the same profiles again with vernier calipers (length of line, circle diameter, cylinder
diameter) to compare the two readings.
Comments:
1. The machine should be calibrated every time when it is being used.
2. While measuring the profiles, the probe should be moved very slowly as it may damage the ruby if
hit with a high force.
3. Care should be taken while performing experiment so that the granite table of the machines should
get any scratches.
4. ?Retract distance? should be fixed according to the space available in the near vicinity of the profile
measurement area.
Observation:
Sl.No. Feature
CMM reading
(mm)
Vernier reading
(mm)
Form error
(mm)
Difference in two
readings (mm)
1 Circle -1
2 Circle -2
3 Circle -3
4 Line
5 Arc
6
Cone - Diameter
Cone ? Vertex angle
Cone ? Height
7
Cylinder ? Diameter
Cylinder ? Height


40 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue:00/Revision:00

Result:
Thus the different profile of given object are measured using coordinate measuring machine
Outcome:
Students will be able to measures the geometry of physical objects by sensing discrete points on the
surface of the object with a probe and they will be able to know the Various types of probes are used in CMMs,
including mechanical, optical, laser, and white light.
Application:
1. Surface Measuring Equipment
2. Photo transistor





1. What are the types of measuring machine?
2. What is CMM?
3. What are the types of CMM?
4. What are the advantages of CMM?
5. What are the limitations of CMM?
6. What are the possible sources of error in CMM?
7. What is the use of universal measuring machine?
8. What are the applications of CMM?
9. What is the working principle of three axis measuring machine?
10. What is image shearing microscope?
11. What is the use of electronic inspection and measuring machine?
12. What are the types of electronic inspection and measuring machine?
13. What is CMM probe?
14. What are the three main probes are available?
15. What are the types of stylus?




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