Download Anna University B-Tech ME 5th Sem Thermal Engineering TE Lab Manual Question Paper

Download Anna University B.Tech (Bachelor of Technology) Mech Engg.(Mechnical Engineering) 5th Sem Thermal Engineering TE Lab Manual Question Paper.

1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood





FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers


















FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average







FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers













FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.








FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6
















FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder





FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.















FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm









FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Pr = Cp? / k
Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k
? = Viscosity Ns/m
2

k = Thermal conductivity of fluid W/m
2
K
Nu = 0.023 (Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.4
Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)/2

Results:
Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection
apparatus.
hactual = -------------- W/m
2
K
htheoritical = -------------- W/m
2
K

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers,
Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.














FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Pr = Cp? / k
Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k
? = Viscosity Ns/m
2

k = Thermal conductivity of fluid W/m
2
K
Nu = 0.023 (Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.4
Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)/2

Results:
Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection
apparatus.
hactual = -------------- W/m
2
K
htheoritical = -------------- W/m
2
K

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers,
Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is meant by boiling and condensation?
2. What is meant by pool boiling?
3. What is the scope of this experiment?
4. List the apparatus required to conduct this experiment.
5. State the purpose of blower fitted in this test set-up.
6. How many thermocouples were located in this experimental set-up?
7. What is the need of orifice provided in this set-up?
8. What is meant by LMTD?
9. Write about the applications of boiling and condensation.
10. How is the air flow measured in this experiment?
11. What are the various types of heat exchangers?
12. Define ? Forced Convection
13. Distinguish between forced and free convection.
14. What are the dimensional parameters used in forced convection?
15. Define ? Momentum Thickness












Viva ? voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Pr = Cp? / k
Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k
? = Viscosity Ns/m
2

k = Thermal conductivity of fluid W/m
2
K
Nu = 0.023 (Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.4
Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)/2

Results:
Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection
apparatus.
hactual = -------------- W/m
2
K
htheoritical = -------------- W/m
2
K

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers,
Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is meant by boiling and condensation?
2. What is meant by pool boiling?
3. What is the scope of this experiment?
4. List the apparatus required to conduct this experiment.
5. State the purpose of blower fitted in this test set-up.
6. How many thermocouples were located in this experimental set-up?
7. What is the need of orifice provided in this set-up?
8. What is meant by LMTD?
9. Write about the applications of boiling and condensation.
10. How is the air flow measured in this experiment?
11. What are the various types of heat exchangers?
12. Define ? Forced Convection
13. Distinguish between forced and free convection.
14. What are the dimensional parameters used in forced convection?
15. Define ? Momentum Thickness












Viva ? voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.5 HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS

Aim:
To conduct and determine the rate of heat transfer through different layers of composite wall
Description of apparatus:
When heat conduction takes place through two or more solid materials of different thermal conductivities,
the temperature drop across each material depends on the resistance offered to heat conduction and the
thermal conductivity of each material. The experimental set-up consists of test specimen made of different
materials aligned together on both sides of the heater unit. The first test disc is next to a controlled heater. The
temperatures at the interface between the heater and the disc is measured by a thermocouple, similarly
temperatures at the interface between discs are measured. Similar arrangement is made to measure
temperatures on the other side of the heater. The whole set-up is kept in a convection free environment. The
temperature is measured using thermocouples (Iron-Cons) with multi point digital temperature indicator. A
channel frame with a screw rod arrangement is provided for proper alignment of the plates. The apparatus
uses a known insulating material, of large area of heat transfer to enable unidirectional heat flow. The
apparatus is used mainly to study the resistance offered by different slab materials and to establish the heat
flow is similar to that of current flow in an electrical circuit. The steady state heat flow Q = ?t/R Where, ?t = is
the overall temperature drop and R is the overall resistance to heat conduction. Since the resistance are in
series R = R1 + R2 Where R1, R2 are resistance of each of the discs.
Specification:
1. Thermal conductivity Of sheet asbestos = 0.116 W/mK : Thickness = 6mm
2. Thermal conductivity of wood = 0.052 W/mK Thickness = 10mm
3. Dia. of plates = 300mm
4. The temperatures are measured from bottom to top plate T1, T2,????.T8.
Procedure:
1. Turn the screw rod handle clockwise to tighten the plates.
2. Switch on the unit and turn the regulator clockwise to provide any desired heat
input.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Wait till steady state temperature is reached.
5. (The steady state condition is defined as the temperature gradient across the
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Pr = Cp? / k
Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k
? = Viscosity Ns/m
2

k = Thermal conductivity of fluid W/m
2
K
Nu = 0.023 (Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.4
Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)/2

Results:
Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection
apparatus.
hactual = -------------- W/m
2
K
htheoritical = -------------- W/m
2
K

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers,
Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is meant by boiling and condensation?
2. What is meant by pool boiling?
3. What is the scope of this experiment?
4. List the apparatus required to conduct this experiment.
5. State the purpose of blower fitted in this test set-up.
6. How many thermocouples were located in this experimental set-up?
7. What is the need of orifice provided in this set-up?
8. What is meant by LMTD?
9. Write about the applications of boiling and condensation.
10. How is the air flow measured in this experiment?
11. What are the various types of heat exchangers?
12. Define ? Forced Convection
13. Distinguish between forced and free convection.
14. What are the dimensional parameters used in forced convection?
15. Define ? Momentum Thickness












Viva ? voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.5 HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS

Aim:
To conduct and determine the rate of heat transfer through different layers of composite wall
Description of apparatus:
When heat conduction takes place through two or more solid materials of different thermal conductivities,
the temperature drop across each material depends on the resistance offered to heat conduction and the
thermal conductivity of each material. The experimental set-up consists of test specimen made of different
materials aligned together on both sides of the heater unit. The first test disc is next to a controlled heater. The
temperatures at the interface between the heater and the disc is measured by a thermocouple, similarly
temperatures at the interface between discs are measured. Similar arrangement is made to measure
temperatures on the other side of the heater. The whole set-up is kept in a convection free environment. The
temperature is measured using thermocouples (Iron-Cons) with multi point digital temperature indicator. A
channel frame with a screw rod arrangement is provided for proper alignment of the plates. The apparatus
uses a known insulating material, of large area of heat transfer to enable unidirectional heat flow. The
apparatus is used mainly to study the resistance offered by different slab materials and to establish the heat
flow is similar to that of current flow in an electrical circuit. The steady state heat flow Q = ?t/R Where, ?t = is
the overall temperature drop and R is the overall resistance to heat conduction. Since the resistance are in
series R = R1 + R2 Where R1, R2 are resistance of each of the discs.
Specification:
1. Thermal conductivity Of sheet asbestos = 0.116 W/mK : Thickness = 6mm
2. Thermal conductivity of wood = 0.052 W/mK Thickness = 10mm
3. Dia. of plates = 300mm
4. The temperatures are measured from bottom to top plate T1, T2,????.T8.
Procedure:
1. Turn the screw rod handle clockwise to tighten the plates.
2. Switch on the unit and turn the regulator clockwise to provide any desired heat
input.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Wait till steady state temperature is reached.
5. (The steady state condition is defined as the temperature gradient across the

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

plates that does not change with time.)
6. When steady state is reached note temperatures and find the temperature
gradient across each slab.
7. Since heat flows from the bottom to top of the heater, the heat input is taken as
Q/2 and the average temperature gradient between top and bottom slabs from
the heater is to be taken for calculations. Different readings are tabulated as follows.
Calculation:
Now the resistance (R ) offered by individual plates for heat flow
R1 = L1/AK1 R2 = L2 / AK2 R3 = L3/AK3
Where, A=Area of the plate K=Thermal Conductivity L=Thickness of the plate
Knowing the thermal conductivities
Q = (T4?T1)/R = (T2?T1)/R1 = (T3?T2)/R2 = (T4?T3)/R
Tabulation:
Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading
(V)
Ammeter
reading
(A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)
T5
(
0
C)
T6
(
0
C)
T7
(
0
C)
T8
(
0
C)






FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Pr = Cp? / k
Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k
? = Viscosity Ns/m
2

k = Thermal conductivity of fluid W/m
2
K
Nu = 0.023 (Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.4
Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)/2

Results:
Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection
apparatus.
hactual = -------------- W/m
2
K
htheoritical = -------------- W/m
2
K

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers,
Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is meant by boiling and condensation?
2. What is meant by pool boiling?
3. What is the scope of this experiment?
4. List the apparatus required to conduct this experiment.
5. State the purpose of blower fitted in this test set-up.
6. How many thermocouples were located in this experimental set-up?
7. What is the need of orifice provided in this set-up?
8. What is meant by LMTD?
9. Write about the applications of boiling and condensation.
10. How is the air flow measured in this experiment?
11. What are the various types of heat exchangers?
12. Define ? Forced Convection
13. Distinguish between forced and free convection.
14. What are the dimensional parameters used in forced convection?
15. Define ? Momentum Thickness












Viva ? voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.5 HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS

Aim:
To conduct and determine the rate of heat transfer through different layers of composite wall
Description of apparatus:
When heat conduction takes place through two or more solid materials of different thermal conductivities,
the temperature drop across each material depends on the resistance offered to heat conduction and the
thermal conductivity of each material. The experimental set-up consists of test specimen made of different
materials aligned together on both sides of the heater unit. The first test disc is next to a controlled heater. The
temperatures at the interface between the heater and the disc is measured by a thermocouple, similarly
temperatures at the interface between discs are measured. Similar arrangement is made to measure
temperatures on the other side of the heater. The whole set-up is kept in a convection free environment. The
temperature is measured using thermocouples (Iron-Cons) with multi point digital temperature indicator. A
channel frame with a screw rod arrangement is provided for proper alignment of the plates. The apparatus
uses a known insulating material, of large area of heat transfer to enable unidirectional heat flow. The
apparatus is used mainly to study the resistance offered by different slab materials and to establish the heat
flow is similar to that of current flow in an electrical circuit. The steady state heat flow Q = ?t/R Where, ?t = is
the overall temperature drop and R is the overall resistance to heat conduction. Since the resistance are in
series R = R1 + R2 Where R1, R2 are resistance of each of the discs.
Specification:
1. Thermal conductivity Of sheet asbestos = 0.116 W/mK : Thickness = 6mm
2. Thermal conductivity of wood = 0.052 W/mK Thickness = 10mm
3. Dia. of plates = 300mm
4. The temperatures are measured from bottom to top plate T1, T2,????.T8.
Procedure:
1. Turn the screw rod handle clockwise to tighten the plates.
2. Switch on the unit and turn the regulator clockwise to provide any desired heat
input.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Wait till steady state temperature is reached.
5. (The steady state condition is defined as the temperature gradient across the

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

plates that does not change with time.)
6. When steady state is reached note temperatures and find the temperature
gradient across each slab.
7. Since heat flows from the bottom to top of the heater, the heat input is taken as
Q/2 and the average temperature gradient between top and bottom slabs from
the heater is to be taken for calculations. Different readings are tabulated as follows.
Calculation:
Now the resistance (R ) offered by individual plates for heat flow
R1 = L1/AK1 R2 = L2 / AK2 R3 = L3/AK3
Where, A=Area of the plate K=Thermal Conductivity L=Thickness of the plate
Knowing the thermal conductivities
Q = (T4?T1)/R = (T2?T1)/R1 = (T3?T2)/R2 = (T4?T3)/R
Tabulation:
Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading
(V)
Ammeter
reading
(A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)
T5
(
0
C)
T6
(
0
C)
T7
(
0
C)
T8
(
0
C)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Composite wall apparatus set-up

Result:
The rate of heat transfer through different materials are found to be
a. MS section = ------------------W
b. Wood section = ---------------W
c. Asbestos section = ------------W

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the rate of heat transfer through different materials is learnt
and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure
Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where rate of heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Pr = Cp? / k
Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k
? = Viscosity Ns/m
2

k = Thermal conductivity of fluid W/m
2
K
Nu = 0.023 (Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.4
Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)/2

Results:
Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection
apparatus.
hactual = -------------- W/m
2
K
htheoritical = -------------- W/m
2
K

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers,
Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is meant by boiling and condensation?
2. What is meant by pool boiling?
3. What is the scope of this experiment?
4. List the apparatus required to conduct this experiment.
5. State the purpose of blower fitted in this test set-up.
6. How many thermocouples were located in this experimental set-up?
7. What is the need of orifice provided in this set-up?
8. What is meant by LMTD?
9. Write about the applications of boiling and condensation.
10. How is the air flow measured in this experiment?
11. What are the various types of heat exchangers?
12. Define ? Forced Convection
13. Distinguish between forced and free convection.
14. What are the dimensional parameters used in forced convection?
15. Define ? Momentum Thickness












Viva ? voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.5 HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS

Aim:
To conduct and determine the rate of heat transfer through different layers of composite wall
Description of apparatus:
When heat conduction takes place through two or more solid materials of different thermal conductivities,
the temperature drop across each material depends on the resistance offered to heat conduction and the
thermal conductivity of each material. The experimental set-up consists of test specimen made of different
materials aligned together on both sides of the heater unit. The first test disc is next to a controlled heater. The
temperatures at the interface between the heater and the disc is measured by a thermocouple, similarly
temperatures at the interface between discs are measured. Similar arrangement is made to measure
temperatures on the other side of the heater. The whole set-up is kept in a convection free environment. The
temperature is measured using thermocouples (Iron-Cons) with multi point digital temperature indicator. A
channel frame with a screw rod arrangement is provided for proper alignment of the plates. The apparatus
uses a known insulating material, of large area of heat transfer to enable unidirectional heat flow. The
apparatus is used mainly to study the resistance offered by different slab materials and to establish the heat
flow is similar to that of current flow in an electrical circuit. The steady state heat flow Q = ?t/R Where, ?t = is
the overall temperature drop and R is the overall resistance to heat conduction. Since the resistance are in
series R = R1 + R2 Where R1, R2 are resistance of each of the discs.
Specification:
1. Thermal conductivity Of sheet asbestos = 0.116 W/mK : Thickness = 6mm
2. Thermal conductivity of wood = 0.052 W/mK Thickness = 10mm
3. Dia. of plates = 300mm
4. The temperatures are measured from bottom to top plate T1, T2,????.T8.
Procedure:
1. Turn the screw rod handle clockwise to tighten the plates.
2. Switch on the unit and turn the regulator clockwise to provide any desired heat
input.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Wait till steady state temperature is reached.
5. (The steady state condition is defined as the temperature gradient across the

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

plates that does not change with time.)
6. When steady state is reached note temperatures and find the temperature
gradient across each slab.
7. Since heat flows from the bottom to top of the heater, the heat input is taken as
Q/2 and the average temperature gradient between top and bottom slabs from
the heater is to be taken for calculations. Different readings are tabulated as follows.
Calculation:
Now the resistance (R ) offered by individual plates for heat flow
R1 = L1/AK1 R2 = L2 / AK2 R3 = L3/AK3
Where, A=Area of the plate K=Thermal Conductivity L=Thickness of the plate
Knowing the thermal conductivities
Q = (T4?T1)/R = (T2?T1)/R1 = (T3?T2)/R2 = (T4?T3)/R
Tabulation:
Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading
(V)
Ammeter
reading
(A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)
T5
(
0
C)
T6
(
0
C)
T7
(
0
C)
T8
(
0
C)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Composite wall apparatus set-up

Result:
The rate of heat transfer through different materials are found to be
a. MS section = ------------------W
b. Wood section = ---------------W
c. Asbestos section = ------------W

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the rate of heat transfer through different materials is learnt
and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure
Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where rate of heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.



32 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Heat Transfer
2. How does heat transfer occur through composite walls?
3. Write about the merits of drop wise condensation.
4. What is meant by film wise and drop wise condensation?
5. What happens when heat conduction takes place through two or more solids of different thermal
conductivities?
6. Give the expression for heat transfer through a composite pipes or cylinder.
7. State Newton's law of cooling.
8. Explain the significance of Fourier number.
9. What is meant by effectiveness?
10. Define ? Heat Exchanger
11. What is meant by fouling factor?
12. Give the expression for heat transfer through a composite plane wall.

























Viva ? voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Pr = Cp? / k
Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k
? = Viscosity Ns/m
2

k = Thermal conductivity of fluid W/m
2
K
Nu = 0.023 (Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.4
Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)/2

Results:
Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection
apparatus.
hactual = -------------- W/m
2
K
htheoritical = -------------- W/m
2
K

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers,
Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is meant by boiling and condensation?
2. What is meant by pool boiling?
3. What is the scope of this experiment?
4. List the apparatus required to conduct this experiment.
5. State the purpose of blower fitted in this test set-up.
6. How many thermocouples were located in this experimental set-up?
7. What is the need of orifice provided in this set-up?
8. What is meant by LMTD?
9. Write about the applications of boiling and condensation.
10. How is the air flow measured in this experiment?
11. What are the various types of heat exchangers?
12. Define ? Forced Convection
13. Distinguish between forced and free convection.
14. What are the dimensional parameters used in forced convection?
15. Define ? Momentum Thickness












Viva ? voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.5 HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS

Aim:
To conduct and determine the rate of heat transfer through different layers of composite wall
Description of apparatus:
When heat conduction takes place through two or more solid materials of different thermal conductivities,
the temperature drop across each material depends on the resistance offered to heat conduction and the
thermal conductivity of each material. The experimental set-up consists of test specimen made of different
materials aligned together on both sides of the heater unit. The first test disc is next to a controlled heater. The
temperatures at the interface between the heater and the disc is measured by a thermocouple, similarly
temperatures at the interface between discs are measured. Similar arrangement is made to measure
temperatures on the other side of the heater. The whole set-up is kept in a convection free environment. The
temperature is measured using thermocouples (Iron-Cons) with multi point digital temperature indicator. A
channel frame with a screw rod arrangement is provided for proper alignment of the plates. The apparatus
uses a known insulating material, of large area of heat transfer to enable unidirectional heat flow. The
apparatus is used mainly to study the resistance offered by different slab materials and to establish the heat
flow is similar to that of current flow in an electrical circuit. The steady state heat flow Q = ?t/R Where, ?t = is
the overall temperature drop and R is the overall resistance to heat conduction. Since the resistance are in
series R = R1 + R2 Where R1, R2 are resistance of each of the discs.
Specification:
1. Thermal conductivity Of sheet asbestos = 0.116 W/mK : Thickness = 6mm
2. Thermal conductivity of wood = 0.052 W/mK Thickness = 10mm
3. Dia. of plates = 300mm
4. The temperatures are measured from bottom to top plate T1, T2,????.T8.
Procedure:
1. Turn the screw rod handle clockwise to tighten the plates.
2. Switch on the unit and turn the regulator clockwise to provide any desired heat
input.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Wait till steady state temperature is reached.
5. (The steady state condition is defined as the temperature gradient across the

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

plates that does not change with time.)
6. When steady state is reached note temperatures and find the temperature
gradient across each slab.
7. Since heat flows from the bottom to top of the heater, the heat input is taken as
Q/2 and the average temperature gradient between top and bottom slabs from
the heater is to be taken for calculations. Different readings are tabulated as follows.
Calculation:
Now the resistance (R ) offered by individual plates for heat flow
R1 = L1/AK1 R2 = L2 / AK2 R3 = L3/AK3
Where, A=Area of the plate K=Thermal Conductivity L=Thickness of the plate
Knowing the thermal conductivities
Q = (T4?T1)/R = (T2?T1)/R1 = (T3?T2)/R2 = (T4?T3)/R
Tabulation:
Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading
(V)
Ammeter
reading
(A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)
T5
(
0
C)
T6
(
0
C)
T7
(
0
C)
T8
(
0
C)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Composite wall apparatus set-up

Result:
The rate of heat transfer through different materials are found to be
a. MS section = ------------------W
b. Wood section = ---------------W
c. Asbestos section = ------------W

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the rate of heat transfer through different materials is learnt
and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure
Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where rate of heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.



32 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Heat Transfer
2. How does heat transfer occur through composite walls?
3. Write about the merits of drop wise condensation.
4. What is meant by film wise and drop wise condensation?
5. What happens when heat conduction takes place through two or more solids of different thermal
conductivities?
6. Give the expression for heat transfer through a composite pipes or cylinder.
7. State Newton's law of cooling.
8. Explain the significance of Fourier number.
9. What is meant by effectiveness?
10. Define ? Heat Exchanger
11. What is meant by fouling factor?
12. Give the expression for heat transfer through a composite plane wall.

























Viva ? voce

33 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.6

DETERMINATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
OF INSULATING POWDER

Aim:
To find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
Apparatus required:

The apparatus consists of concentric spheres made of copper. The inner sphere is a heater, and in between
the spheres insulating powder (magnesium oxide) is filled and sealed. There are two thermo couples, T1 and
T2, fixed to the heater, and two thermocouples, T3 and T4, fixed on the inner wall of the outer sphere. A
multiunit digital temperature indicator is provided to measure temperature at different locations. The whole unit
is mounted on a laminated work bench with panel. An ammeter - voltmeter is provided to measure the input
power and dimmer stat is provided to vary the input power.

Procedure:

1. Switch on the unit and adjust the input power to the required extent.
2. Allow the temperature to stabilize.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Note the temperature at different locations from T1 to T4.
5. Repeat the experiments for different power inputs.


The readings are tabulated below

Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading( V)
Ammeter
reading (A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)







Calculations:
The radius of the inner sphere (r1) - 38 mm
The radius of the outer sphere (r2) - 75mm
The power input Q =V x A=4?(t1-t2)kr2-r1/r2-r1
Where K is the thermal conductivity of the insulating powder t1 and t2 are the average temperature of the
inner sphere, and the outer sphere respectively.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Pr = Cp? / k
Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k
? = Viscosity Ns/m
2

k = Thermal conductivity of fluid W/m
2
K
Nu = 0.023 (Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.4
Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)/2

Results:
Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection
apparatus.
hactual = -------------- W/m
2
K
htheoritical = -------------- W/m
2
K

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers,
Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is meant by boiling and condensation?
2. What is meant by pool boiling?
3. What is the scope of this experiment?
4. List the apparatus required to conduct this experiment.
5. State the purpose of blower fitted in this test set-up.
6. How many thermocouples were located in this experimental set-up?
7. What is the need of orifice provided in this set-up?
8. What is meant by LMTD?
9. Write about the applications of boiling and condensation.
10. How is the air flow measured in this experiment?
11. What are the various types of heat exchangers?
12. Define ? Forced Convection
13. Distinguish between forced and free convection.
14. What are the dimensional parameters used in forced convection?
15. Define ? Momentum Thickness












Viva ? voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.5 HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS

Aim:
To conduct and determine the rate of heat transfer through different layers of composite wall
Description of apparatus:
When heat conduction takes place through two or more solid materials of different thermal conductivities,
the temperature drop across each material depends on the resistance offered to heat conduction and the
thermal conductivity of each material. The experimental set-up consists of test specimen made of different
materials aligned together on both sides of the heater unit. The first test disc is next to a controlled heater. The
temperatures at the interface between the heater and the disc is measured by a thermocouple, similarly
temperatures at the interface between discs are measured. Similar arrangement is made to measure
temperatures on the other side of the heater. The whole set-up is kept in a convection free environment. The
temperature is measured using thermocouples (Iron-Cons) with multi point digital temperature indicator. A
channel frame with a screw rod arrangement is provided for proper alignment of the plates. The apparatus
uses a known insulating material, of large area of heat transfer to enable unidirectional heat flow. The
apparatus is used mainly to study the resistance offered by different slab materials and to establish the heat
flow is similar to that of current flow in an electrical circuit. The steady state heat flow Q = ?t/R Where, ?t = is
the overall temperature drop and R is the overall resistance to heat conduction. Since the resistance are in
series R = R1 + R2 Where R1, R2 are resistance of each of the discs.
Specification:
1. Thermal conductivity Of sheet asbestos = 0.116 W/mK : Thickness = 6mm
2. Thermal conductivity of wood = 0.052 W/mK Thickness = 10mm
3. Dia. of plates = 300mm
4. The temperatures are measured from bottom to top plate T1, T2,????.T8.
Procedure:
1. Turn the screw rod handle clockwise to tighten the plates.
2. Switch on the unit and turn the regulator clockwise to provide any desired heat
input.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Wait till steady state temperature is reached.
5. (The steady state condition is defined as the temperature gradient across the

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

plates that does not change with time.)
6. When steady state is reached note temperatures and find the temperature
gradient across each slab.
7. Since heat flows from the bottom to top of the heater, the heat input is taken as
Q/2 and the average temperature gradient between top and bottom slabs from
the heater is to be taken for calculations. Different readings are tabulated as follows.
Calculation:
Now the resistance (R ) offered by individual plates for heat flow
R1 = L1/AK1 R2 = L2 / AK2 R3 = L3/AK3
Where, A=Area of the plate K=Thermal Conductivity L=Thickness of the plate
Knowing the thermal conductivities
Q = (T4?T1)/R = (T2?T1)/R1 = (T3?T2)/R2 = (T4?T3)/R
Tabulation:
Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading
(V)
Ammeter
reading
(A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)
T5
(
0
C)
T6
(
0
C)
T7
(
0
C)
T8
(
0
C)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Composite wall apparatus set-up

Result:
The rate of heat transfer through different materials are found to be
a. MS section = ------------------W
b. Wood section = ---------------W
c. Asbestos section = ------------W

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the rate of heat transfer through different materials is learnt
and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure
Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where rate of heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.



32 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Heat Transfer
2. How does heat transfer occur through composite walls?
3. Write about the merits of drop wise condensation.
4. What is meant by film wise and drop wise condensation?
5. What happens when heat conduction takes place through two or more solids of different thermal
conductivities?
6. Give the expression for heat transfer through a composite pipes or cylinder.
7. State Newton's law of cooling.
8. Explain the significance of Fourier number.
9. What is meant by effectiveness?
10. Define ? Heat Exchanger
11. What is meant by fouling factor?
12. Give the expression for heat transfer through a composite plane wall.

























Viva ? voce

33 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.6

DETERMINATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
OF INSULATING POWDER

Aim:
To find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
Apparatus required:

The apparatus consists of concentric spheres made of copper. The inner sphere is a heater, and in between
the spheres insulating powder (magnesium oxide) is filled and sealed. There are two thermo couples, T1 and
T2, fixed to the heater, and two thermocouples, T3 and T4, fixed on the inner wall of the outer sphere. A
multiunit digital temperature indicator is provided to measure temperature at different locations. The whole unit
is mounted on a laminated work bench with panel. An ammeter - voltmeter is provided to measure the input
power and dimmer stat is provided to vary the input power.

Procedure:

1. Switch on the unit and adjust the input power to the required extent.
2. Allow the temperature to stabilize.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Note the temperature at different locations from T1 to T4.
5. Repeat the experiments for different power inputs.


The readings are tabulated below

Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading( V)
Ammeter
reading (A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)







Calculations:
The radius of the inner sphere (r1) - 38 mm
The radius of the outer sphere (r2) - 75mm
The power input Q =V x A=4?(t1-t2)kr2-r1/r2-r1
Where K is the thermal conductivity of the insulating powder t1 and t2 are the average temperature of the
inner sphere, and the outer sphere respectively.


34 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Fig. 1 Apparatus of thermal conductivity of insulating powder

[1. Shell, 2.Voltmeter, 3.Ammeter, 4.Temperature indicator, 5.Selector switch, 6.Main switch & 7.Heater
control]

Result:
The thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction is found and the result is, ___________

Outcome:

From this experiment, evaluating the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction is
analyzed and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam
boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where the thermal conductivity of insulating material is to
be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.








FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Pr = Cp? / k
Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k
? = Viscosity Ns/m
2

k = Thermal conductivity of fluid W/m
2
K
Nu = 0.023 (Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.4
Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)/2

Results:
Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection
apparatus.
hactual = -------------- W/m
2
K
htheoritical = -------------- W/m
2
K

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers,
Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is meant by boiling and condensation?
2. What is meant by pool boiling?
3. What is the scope of this experiment?
4. List the apparatus required to conduct this experiment.
5. State the purpose of blower fitted in this test set-up.
6. How many thermocouples were located in this experimental set-up?
7. What is the need of orifice provided in this set-up?
8. What is meant by LMTD?
9. Write about the applications of boiling and condensation.
10. How is the air flow measured in this experiment?
11. What are the various types of heat exchangers?
12. Define ? Forced Convection
13. Distinguish between forced and free convection.
14. What are the dimensional parameters used in forced convection?
15. Define ? Momentum Thickness












Viva ? voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.5 HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS

Aim:
To conduct and determine the rate of heat transfer through different layers of composite wall
Description of apparatus:
When heat conduction takes place through two or more solid materials of different thermal conductivities,
the temperature drop across each material depends on the resistance offered to heat conduction and the
thermal conductivity of each material. The experimental set-up consists of test specimen made of different
materials aligned together on both sides of the heater unit. The first test disc is next to a controlled heater. The
temperatures at the interface between the heater and the disc is measured by a thermocouple, similarly
temperatures at the interface between discs are measured. Similar arrangement is made to measure
temperatures on the other side of the heater. The whole set-up is kept in a convection free environment. The
temperature is measured using thermocouples (Iron-Cons) with multi point digital temperature indicator. A
channel frame with a screw rod arrangement is provided for proper alignment of the plates. The apparatus
uses a known insulating material, of large area of heat transfer to enable unidirectional heat flow. The
apparatus is used mainly to study the resistance offered by different slab materials and to establish the heat
flow is similar to that of current flow in an electrical circuit. The steady state heat flow Q = ?t/R Where, ?t = is
the overall temperature drop and R is the overall resistance to heat conduction. Since the resistance are in
series R = R1 + R2 Where R1, R2 are resistance of each of the discs.
Specification:
1. Thermal conductivity Of sheet asbestos = 0.116 W/mK : Thickness = 6mm
2. Thermal conductivity of wood = 0.052 W/mK Thickness = 10mm
3. Dia. of plates = 300mm
4. The temperatures are measured from bottom to top plate T1, T2,????.T8.
Procedure:
1. Turn the screw rod handle clockwise to tighten the plates.
2. Switch on the unit and turn the regulator clockwise to provide any desired heat
input.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Wait till steady state temperature is reached.
5. (The steady state condition is defined as the temperature gradient across the

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

plates that does not change with time.)
6. When steady state is reached note temperatures and find the temperature
gradient across each slab.
7. Since heat flows from the bottom to top of the heater, the heat input is taken as
Q/2 and the average temperature gradient between top and bottom slabs from
the heater is to be taken for calculations. Different readings are tabulated as follows.
Calculation:
Now the resistance (R ) offered by individual plates for heat flow
R1 = L1/AK1 R2 = L2 / AK2 R3 = L3/AK3
Where, A=Area of the plate K=Thermal Conductivity L=Thickness of the plate
Knowing the thermal conductivities
Q = (T4?T1)/R = (T2?T1)/R1 = (T3?T2)/R2 = (T4?T3)/R
Tabulation:
Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading
(V)
Ammeter
reading
(A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)
T5
(
0
C)
T6
(
0
C)
T7
(
0
C)
T8
(
0
C)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Composite wall apparatus set-up

Result:
The rate of heat transfer through different materials are found to be
a. MS section = ------------------W
b. Wood section = ---------------W
c. Asbestos section = ------------W

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the rate of heat transfer through different materials is learnt
and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure
Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where rate of heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.



32 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Heat Transfer
2. How does heat transfer occur through composite walls?
3. Write about the merits of drop wise condensation.
4. What is meant by film wise and drop wise condensation?
5. What happens when heat conduction takes place through two or more solids of different thermal
conductivities?
6. Give the expression for heat transfer through a composite pipes or cylinder.
7. State Newton's law of cooling.
8. Explain the significance of Fourier number.
9. What is meant by effectiveness?
10. Define ? Heat Exchanger
11. What is meant by fouling factor?
12. Give the expression for heat transfer through a composite plane wall.

























Viva ? voce

33 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.6

DETERMINATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
OF INSULATING POWDER

Aim:
To find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
Apparatus required:

The apparatus consists of concentric spheres made of copper. The inner sphere is a heater, and in between
the spheres insulating powder (magnesium oxide) is filled and sealed. There are two thermo couples, T1 and
T2, fixed to the heater, and two thermocouples, T3 and T4, fixed on the inner wall of the outer sphere. A
multiunit digital temperature indicator is provided to measure temperature at different locations. The whole unit
is mounted on a laminated work bench with panel. An ammeter - voltmeter is provided to measure the input
power and dimmer stat is provided to vary the input power.

Procedure:

1. Switch on the unit and adjust the input power to the required extent.
2. Allow the temperature to stabilize.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Note the temperature at different locations from T1 to T4.
5. Repeat the experiments for different power inputs.


The readings are tabulated below

Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading( V)
Ammeter
reading (A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)







Calculations:
The radius of the inner sphere (r1) - 38 mm
The radius of the outer sphere (r2) - 75mm
The power input Q =V x A=4?(t1-t2)kr2-r1/r2-r1
Where K is the thermal conductivity of the insulating powder t1 and t2 are the average temperature of the
inner sphere, and the outer sphere respectively.


34 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Fig. 1 Apparatus of thermal conductivity of insulating powder

[1. Shell, 2.Voltmeter, 3.Ammeter, 4.Temperature indicator, 5.Selector switch, 6.Main switch & 7.Heater
control]

Result:
The thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction is found and the result is, ___________

Outcome:

From this experiment, evaluating the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction is
analyzed and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam
boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where the thermal conductivity of insulating material is to
be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.









35 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is the need for conducting this experiment?
2. Define - Thermal Conductivity
3. What is the unit for thermal conductivity?
4. What is meant by mass transfer?
5. What are the factors which affect the thermal conductivity?
6. Write the examples of mass transfer.
7. Mention the insulating powder used in this experiment.
8. What are the different modes of mass transfer?
9. How many thermocouples were mounted in this test rig?
10. What is meant by molecular diffusion?
11. What is meant by Eddy diffusion?
12. What was the material selected for constructing sphere?
13. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
14. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
15. Define ? Convection
16. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
17. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
18. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
19. In which location the saw dust were filled in this experimental set up?
20. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?







Viva ? voce
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Pr = Cp? / k
Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k
? = Viscosity Ns/m
2

k = Thermal conductivity of fluid W/m
2
K
Nu = 0.023 (Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.4
Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)/2

Results:
Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection
apparatus.
hactual = -------------- W/m
2
K
htheoritical = -------------- W/m
2
K

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers,
Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is meant by boiling and condensation?
2. What is meant by pool boiling?
3. What is the scope of this experiment?
4. List the apparatus required to conduct this experiment.
5. State the purpose of blower fitted in this test set-up.
6. How many thermocouples were located in this experimental set-up?
7. What is the need of orifice provided in this set-up?
8. What is meant by LMTD?
9. Write about the applications of boiling and condensation.
10. How is the air flow measured in this experiment?
11. What are the various types of heat exchangers?
12. Define ? Forced Convection
13. Distinguish between forced and free convection.
14. What are the dimensional parameters used in forced convection?
15. Define ? Momentum Thickness












Viva ? voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.5 HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS

Aim:
To conduct and determine the rate of heat transfer through different layers of composite wall
Description of apparatus:
When heat conduction takes place through two or more solid materials of different thermal conductivities,
the temperature drop across each material depends on the resistance offered to heat conduction and the
thermal conductivity of each material. The experimental set-up consists of test specimen made of different
materials aligned together on both sides of the heater unit. The first test disc is next to a controlled heater. The
temperatures at the interface between the heater and the disc is measured by a thermocouple, similarly
temperatures at the interface between discs are measured. Similar arrangement is made to measure
temperatures on the other side of the heater. The whole set-up is kept in a convection free environment. The
temperature is measured using thermocouples (Iron-Cons) with multi point digital temperature indicator. A
channel frame with a screw rod arrangement is provided for proper alignment of the plates. The apparatus
uses a known insulating material, of large area of heat transfer to enable unidirectional heat flow. The
apparatus is used mainly to study the resistance offered by different slab materials and to establish the heat
flow is similar to that of current flow in an electrical circuit. The steady state heat flow Q = ?t/R Where, ?t = is
the overall temperature drop and R is the overall resistance to heat conduction. Since the resistance are in
series R = R1 + R2 Where R1, R2 are resistance of each of the discs.
Specification:
1. Thermal conductivity Of sheet asbestos = 0.116 W/mK : Thickness = 6mm
2. Thermal conductivity of wood = 0.052 W/mK Thickness = 10mm
3. Dia. of plates = 300mm
4. The temperatures are measured from bottom to top plate T1, T2,????.T8.
Procedure:
1. Turn the screw rod handle clockwise to tighten the plates.
2. Switch on the unit and turn the regulator clockwise to provide any desired heat
input.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Wait till steady state temperature is reached.
5. (The steady state condition is defined as the temperature gradient across the

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

plates that does not change with time.)
6. When steady state is reached note temperatures and find the temperature
gradient across each slab.
7. Since heat flows from the bottom to top of the heater, the heat input is taken as
Q/2 and the average temperature gradient between top and bottom slabs from
the heater is to be taken for calculations. Different readings are tabulated as follows.
Calculation:
Now the resistance (R ) offered by individual plates for heat flow
R1 = L1/AK1 R2 = L2 / AK2 R3 = L3/AK3
Where, A=Area of the plate K=Thermal Conductivity L=Thickness of the plate
Knowing the thermal conductivities
Q = (T4?T1)/R = (T2?T1)/R1 = (T3?T2)/R2 = (T4?T3)/R
Tabulation:
Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading
(V)
Ammeter
reading
(A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)
T5
(
0
C)
T6
(
0
C)
T7
(
0
C)
T8
(
0
C)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Composite wall apparatus set-up

Result:
The rate of heat transfer through different materials are found to be
a. MS section = ------------------W
b. Wood section = ---------------W
c. Asbestos section = ------------W

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the rate of heat transfer through different materials is learnt
and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure
Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where rate of heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.



32 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Heat Transfer
2. How does heat transfer occur through composite walls?
3. Write about the merits of drop wise condensation.
4. What is meant by film wise and drop wise condensation?
5. What happens when heat conduction takes place through two or more solids of different thermal
conductivities?
6. Give the expression for heat transfer through a composite pipes or cylinder.
7. State Newton's law of cooling.
8. Explain the significance of Fourier number.
9. What is meant by effectiveness?
10. Define ? Heat Exchanger
11. What is meant by fouling factor?
12. Give the expression for heat transfer through a composite plane wall.

























Viva ? voce

33 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.6

DETERMINATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
OF INSULATING POWDER

Aim:
To find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
Apparatus required:

The apparatus consists of concentric spheres made of copper. The inner sphere is a heater, and in between
the spheres insulating powder (magnesium oxide) is filled and sealed. There are two thermo couples, T1 and
T2, fixed to the heater, and two thermocouples, T3 and T4, fixed on the inner wall of the outer sphere. A
multiunit digital temperature indicator is provided to measure temperature at different locations. The whole unit
is mounted on a laminated work bench with panel. An ammeter - voltmeter is provided to measure the input
power and dimmer stat is provided to vary the input power.

Procedure:

1. Switch on the unit and adjust the input power to the required extent.
2. Allow the temperature to stabilize.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Note the temperature at different locations from T1 to T4.
5. Repeat the experiments for different power inputs.


The readings are tabulated below

Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading( V)
Ammeter
reading (A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)







Calculations:
The radius of the inner sphere (r1) - 38 mm
The radius of the outer sphere (r2) - 75mm
The power input Q =V x A=4?(t1-t2)kr2-r1/r2-r1
Where K is the thermal conductivity of the insulating powder t1 and t2 are the average temperature of the
inner sphere, and the outer sphere respectively.


34 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Fig. 1 Apparatus of thermal conductivity of insulating powder

[1. Shell, 2.Voltmeter, 3.Ammeter, 4.Temperature indicator, 5.Selector switch, 6.Main switch & 7.Heater
control]

Result:
The thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction is found and the result is, ___________

Outcome:

From this experiment, evaluating the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction is
analyzed and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam
boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where the thermal conductivity of insulating material is to
be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.









35 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is the need for conducting this experiment?
2. Define - Thermal Conductivity
3. What is the unit for thermal conductivity?
4. What is meant by mass transfer?
5. What are the factors which affect the thermal conductivity?
6. Write the examples of mass transfer.
7. Mention the insulating powder used in this experiment.
8. What are the different modes of mass transfer?
9. How many thermocouples were mounted in this test rig?
10. What is meant by molecular diffusion?
11. What is meant by Eddy diffusion?
12. What was the material selected for constructing sphere?
13. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
14. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
15. Define ? Convection
16. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
17. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
18. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
19. In which location the saw dust were filled in this experimental set up?
20. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?







Viva ? voce

36 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.7

HEAT TRANSFER FROM PIN-FIN APPARATUS
(NATURAL AND FORCED CONVECTION MODES)

Aim:
To determine the pin-fin efficiency and heat flow through pin-fin by forced convection.
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer
Theory:
A brass fin of circular cross section is fitted across a long rectangular duct. The other end of the duct is
connected to the suction side of a blower and the air blows past the fin perpendicular to its axis. One end of
the fin projects outside the duct and is heated by a heater. Temperatures at five points along the length of the
fin are measured by chrome alumel thermocouples connected along the length of the fin. The air flow rate is
measured by an orifice meter fitted on the delivery side of the blower. Schematic diagram of the set up is
shown in fig. while the details of the fin are shown.
Tabulations:
Forced convection:
Sl.
No.
V I

Fin Temperatures (
0
C)
Ambient Temp
(
0
C)
Manometer
Reading
(V)

(A)

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
h1
cm
h2
cm









FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Pr = Cp? / k
Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k
? = Viscosity Ns/m
2

k = Thermal conductivity of fluid W/m
2
K
Nu = 0.023 (Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.4
Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)/2

Results:
Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection
apparatus.
hactual = -------------- W/m
2
K
htheoritical = -------------- W/m
2
K

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers,
Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is meant by boiling and condensation?
2. What is meant by pool boiling?
3. What is the scope of this experiment?
4. List the apparatus required to conduct this experiment.
5. State the purpose of blower fitted in this test set-up.
6. How many thermocouples were located in this experimental set-up?
7. What is the need of orifice provided in this set-up?
8. What is meant by LMTD?
9. Write about the applications of boiling and condensation.
10. How is the air flow measured in this experiment?
11. What are the various types of heat exchangers?
12. Define ? Forced Convection
13. Distinguish between forced and free convection.
14. What are the dimensional parameters used in forced convection?
15. Define ? Momentum Thickness












Viva ? voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.5 HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS

Aim:
To conduct and determine the rate of heat transfer through different layers of composite wall
Description of apparatus:
When heat conduction takes place through two or more solid materials of different thermal conductivities,
the temperature drop across each material depends on the resistance offered to heat conduction and the
thermal conductivity of each material. The experimental set-up consists of test specimen made of different
materials aligned together on both sides of the heater unit. The first test disc is next to a controlled heater. The
temperatures at the interface between the heater and the disc is measured by a thermocouple, similarly
temperatures at the interface between discs are measured. Similar arrangement is made to measure
temperatures on the other side of the heater. The whole set-up is kept in a convection free environment. The
temperature is measured using thermocouples (Iron-Cons) with multi point digital temperature indicator. A
channel frame with a screw rod arrangement is provided for proper alignment of the plates. The apparatus
uses a known insulating material, of large area of heat transfer to enable unidirectional heat flow. The
apparatus is used mainly to study the resistance offered by different slab materials and to establish the heat
flow is similar to that of current flow in an electrical circuit. The steady state heat flow Q = ?t/R Where, ?t = is
the overall temperature drop and R is the overall resistance to heat conduction. Since the resistance are in
series R = R1 + R2 Where R1, R2 are resistance of each of the discs.
Specification:
1. Thermal conductivity Of sheet asbestos = 0.116 W/mK : Thickness = 6mm
2. Thermal conductivity of wood = 0.052 W/mK Thickness = 10mm
3. Dia. of plates = 300mm
4. The temperatures are measured from bottom to top plate T1, T2,????.T8.
Procedure:
1. Turn the screw rod handle clockwise to tighten the plates.
2. Switch on the unit and turn the regulator clockwise to provide any desired heat
input.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Wait till steady state temperature is reached.
5. (The steady state condition is defined as the temperature gradient across the

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

plates that does not change with time.)
6. When steady state is reached note temperatures and find the temperature
gradient across each slab.
7. Since heat flows from the bottom to top of the heater, the heat input is taken as
Q/2 and the average temperature gradient between top and bottom slabs from
the heater is to be taken for calculations. Different readings are tabulated as follows.
Calculation:
Now the resistance (R ) offered by individual plates for heat flow
R1 = L1/AK1 R2 = L2 / AK2 R3 = L3/AK3
Where, A=Area of the plate K=Thermal Conductivity L=Thickness of the plate
Knowing the thermal conductivities
Q = (T4?T1)/R = (T2?T1)/R1 = (T3?T2)/R2 = (T4?T3)/R
Tabulation:
Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading
(V)
Ammeter
reading
(A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)
T5
(
0
C)
T6
(
0
C)
T7
(
0
C)
T8
(
0
C)







31 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Composite wall apparatus set-up

Result:
The rate of heat transfer through different materials are found to be
a. MS section = ------------------W
b. Wood section = ---------------W
c. Asbestos section = ------------W

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the rate of heat transfer through different materials is learnt
and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure
Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where rate of heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.



32 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Heat Transfer
2. How does heat transfer occur through composite walls?
3. Write about the merits of drop wise condensation.
4. What is meant by film wise and drop wise condensation?
5. What happens when heat conduction takes place through two or more solids of different thermal
conductivities?
6. Give the expression for heat transfer through a composite pipes or cylinder.
7. State Newton's law of cooling.
8. Explain the significance of Fourier number.
9. What is meant by effectiveness?
10. Define ? Heat Exchanger
11. What is meant by fouling factor?
12. Give the expression for heat transfer through a composite plane wall.

























Viva ? voce

33 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.6

DETERMINATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
OF INSULATING POWDER

Aim:
To find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
Apparatus required:

The apparatus consists of concentric spheres made of copper. The inner sphere is a heater, and in between
the spheres insulating powder (magnesium oxide) is filled and sealed. There are two thermo couples, T1 and
T2, fixed to the heater, and two thermocouples, T3 and T4, fixed on the inner wall of the outer sphere. A
multiunit digital temperature indicator is provided to measure temperature at different locations. The whole unit
is mounted on a laminated work bench with panel. An ammeter - voltmeter is provided to measure the input
power and dimmer stat is provided to vary the input power.

Procedure:

1. Switch on the unit and adjust the input power to the required extent.
2. Allow the temperature to stabilize.
3. Note the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
4. Note the temperature at different locations from T1 to T4.
5. Repeat the experiments for different power inputs.


The readings are tabulated below

Sl.No. Voltmeter
reading( V)
Ammeter
reading (A)
T1
(
0
C)
T2
(
0
C)
T3
(
0
C)
T4
(
0
C)







Calculations:
The radius of the inner sphere (r1) - 38 mm
The radius of the outer sphere (r2) - 75mm
The power input Q =V x A=4?(t1-t2)kr2-r1/r2-r1
Where K is the thermal conductivity of the insulating powder t1 and t2 are the average temperature of the
inner sphere, and the outer sphere respectively.


34 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Fig. 1 Apparatus of thermal conductivity of insulating powder

[1. Shell, 2.Voltmeter, 3.Ammeter, 4.Temperature indicator, 5.Selector switch, 6.Main switch & 7.Heater
control]

Result:
The thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction is found and the result is, ___________

Outcome:

From this experiment, evaluating the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction is
analyzed and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam
boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where the thermal conductivity of insulating material is to
be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.









35 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is the need for conducting this experiment?
2. Define - Thermal Conductivity
3. What is the unit for thermal conductivity?
4. What is meant by mass transfer?
5. What are the factors which affect the thermal conductivity?
6. Write the examples of mass transfer.
7. Mention the insulating powder used in this experiment.
8. What are the different modes of mass transfer?
9. How many thermocouples were mounted in this test rig?
10. What is meant by molecular diffusion?
11. What is meant by Eddy diffusion?
12. What was the material selected for constructing sphere?
13. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
14. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
15. Define ? Convection
16. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
17. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
18. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
19. In which location the saw dust were filled in this experimental set up?
20. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?







Viva ? voce

36 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.7

HEAT TRANSFER FROM PIN-FIN APPARATUS
(NATURAL AND FORCED CONVECTION MODES)

Aim:
To determine the pin-fin efficiency and heat flow through pin-fin by forced convection.
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer
Theory:
A brass fin of circular cross section is fitted across a long rectangular duct. The other end of the duct is
connected to the suction side of a blower and the air blows past the fin perpendicular to its axis. One end of
the fin projects outside the duct and is heated by a heater. Temperatures at five points along the length of the
fin are measured by chrome alumel thermocouples connected along the length of the fin. The air flow rate is
measured by an orifice meter fitted on the delivery side of the blower. Schematic diagram of the set up is
shown in fig. while the details of the fin are shown.
Tabulations:
Forced convection:
Sl.
No.
V I

Fin Temperatures (
0
C)
Ambient Temp
(
0
C)
Manometer
Reading
(V)

(A)

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
h1
cm
h2
cm










37 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Duct size = 150 mm x 100 mm.
2. Diameter of the fin = 12 mm
3. Effective length of fin = 14.5 cm
4. Diameter of the orifice = 24 mm
5. Diameter of the delivery pipe (O.D) = 46 mm

Schematic view of the test set-up:



zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz











6. Diameter of the delivery pipe (I.D) = 42 mm
7. Coefficient of the discharge (cd) = 0.64
8. Centrifugal blower = 0.56 HP, single phase motor
9. No. of thermocouples on fin = 5
10. Thermocouple (6) reads ambient temperature inside of the duct.
11. Thermal conductivity of fin material (Brass) =110 W/m.
0
C
12. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C
(With compensation of ambient temperature up-to 50
0
C)
13. Dimmer stat for heat input controls 230 V, 2 A
14. Heater suitable for mounting at the fin end outside the duct = 400 watts (Band type)
15. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
T7 T6 T5 T4 T3 T2 T1
T8
Brass Pin Fin
Heater
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

V SEMESTER - R 2013








Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________




LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and training.



? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of academic excellence in pursuit of technical education at different levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on heart
and soul


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING



Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to become
professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber



To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society









VISION
MISSION
VISION
MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)

1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will mould
them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify complex
software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to design
products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will build up
their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable them to adapt
and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical engineering
and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced degrees











5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)

On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same in the
career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as economical
environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in both
verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments

















6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6512 ? THERMAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY ? II



? To study the heat transfer phenomena predict the relevant coefficient using implementation. To study the
performance of refrigeration cycle / components

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
HEAT TRANSFER LAB:
1. Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus
2. Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a vertical cylinder
4. Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube
5. Determination of Thermal conductivity of composite wall
6. Determination of Thermal conductivity of insulating powder
7. Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes)
8. Determination of Stefan ? Boltzmann constant
9. Determination of emissivity of a grey surface
10. Effectiveness of Parallel / counter flow heat exchanger

REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING LAB:
11. Determination of COP of a refrigeration system
12. Experiments on Psychrometric processes
13. Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor
14. Performance test in a HC Refrigeration System
15. Performance test in a fluidized Bed Cooling Tower



1. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of various materials.
2. Able to determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
3. Able to find out the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection
experiment.
4. Able to conduct and find out the heat transfer coefficient by forced convection apparatus
5. Able to find out the rate of heat transfer through different materials
6. Able to find out the thermal conductivity of insulating powder by conduction
7. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
8. Have attain the practical knowledge and able to find out the pin fin efficiency and net heat transfer rate.
9. Able to find out the Stefan Boltzman constant value.
10. Able to find out the emissivity of the given test plate.
11. Able to conduct the load test on a refrigeration test rig and find out the volumetric efficiency and co-
efficient of performance for any type of refrigerant.
12. Have attain the practical knowledge on pscychrometric processes with air conditioning system
13. Able to find out the values of isothermal and volumetric efficiency by conducting the experiments at
various delivery pressures
14. Able to conduct the experiment and find out the coefficient of performance.
15. Able to conduct the experiments and to find out the performance test in cooling tower of various FBC
Boiler.



COURSE OBJECTIVES
COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

CONTENTS


Sl.No.
Name of the experiment
Page No.
CYCLE 1 - EXPERIMENTS
1 Thermal conductivity measurement using guarded plate apparatus 6
2
Thermal conductivity measurement of pipe insulation using lagged pipe
apparatus
11
3
Determination of heat transfer coefficient under natural convection from a
vertical cylinder
15
4 Determination of heat transfer coefficient under forced convection from a tube 21
5
Determination of thermal conductivity of composite wall 27
CYCLE 2 ? EXPERIMENTS
6
Determination of thermal conductivity of insulating powder 31
7
Heat transfer from pin-fin apparatus (natural & forced convection modes) 34
8 Determination of stefan ? boltzmann constant 39
9 Determination of emissivity of a grey surface 43
10 Effectiveness of parallel / counter flow heat exchanger 47
CYCLE 3 ? EXPERIMENTS
11 Determination of cop of a refrigeration system 51
12 Experiments on pscychrometric processes 58
13 Performance test on a reciprocating air compressor 63
14
Performance test in a HC refrigeration system 68
15 Performance test in a fluidized bed cooling system 72
ADDITIONAL EXPERIMENTS BEYOND THE SYLLABUS
16 Air conditioning test rig 75
PROJECT WORK 81

8 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
USING GUARDED PLATE APPARATUS

Aim:
To conduct an experiment to find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate
method
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to
prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in
which is a wound closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. These heaters
together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate
assembly.
Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater
assembly copper plates. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs.
Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus. Thermocouples
No.5 and No. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively.The
heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position by 3 vertical studs and nuts
on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing.The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved
aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet.

Formulae used:
1. Power input, Q = V ? A / 2 W
2. Thermal Conductivity, K = (Q ? dx)/(A x dt) W/mK
3. Area, A = ( ?/4) d
2
(10 + x)

cm
2

4. Average Temperature, dT = (T1+T2+T3+T4)/4 ? (T5+T6)/2
Precautions:
1. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start.
2. Increase the voltage gradually.

9 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

3. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there
is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.
4. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help
of nuts gently
5. Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do
not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heating plate = 100 mm
2. Width of the heating ring = 37 mm
3. Inside diameter of the heating ring = 106 mm
4. Outside diameter of the heating ring = 180 mm
5. Maximum thickness of the specimen = 25 mm
6. Minimum thickness of the specimen = 6 mm
7. Diameter of the specimen = 140 mm
8. Mean temperature range = 40
0
C ? 100
0
C
9. Maximum temperature of the hot plate = 170
0
C
10. Diameter of the cooling plates = 180 mm
11. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
12. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 W)
13. Dimmer stat 2 Nos. = (0 ? 2 A) ? 240 V
14. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
15. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
16. Thermocouples = 6 Nos. (Chromel Alumel)
17. Insulation Box = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx)
18. Temperature indicator = 0 ? 200
0
C
19. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) = 2.5 mm
20. Specimen thickness (L) = 12.5 mm
21. Specimen used = Press wood






10 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:
Sl. No. Voltmeter
V
Ammeter
A
Main heater (
0
C) Test Plate (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6



Schematic view of the test set-up:


Procedure:
1. Place the specimens on either side of the heating plate assembly, uniformly touching the cooling plates.
Fill the outer container with loose fill insulation such as glass wool.
2. Open the cooling water valve before switching ON the apparatus, and ensure that enough cooling water
is passed through the cooling plates.
3. Switch ON the apparatus and heat input to the central and guarded heaters through separate single
phase supply lines with dimmer stat.
4. Provide correct heat input to the central and guarded plates for adjusting the dimmer stat switch.
5. Adjust the guarded heater input in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from
thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly.

11 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

6. Observe and record the current, voltage and thermocouples readings every 10 minutes till a reasonably
steady state condition achieved.
7. Write the readings in the observation table.
8. Take the final steady state values for calculations.

Result:
Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be
k = ___________________ W /mK.

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded
hot plate method is learnt and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Pipe lines, IC engines, heat
exchangers, etc. where thermal conductivity is to be found.

Applications:
Pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers



















12 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





1. Define ? Thermal Conductivity
2. State Fourier?s law of heat conduction.
3. State the applications of fins.
4. Define ? Fins
5. State Newton?s law of cooling or convection law.
6. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?
7. What is the value of thermal conductivity for wood?
8. What are the various modes of heat transfer?
9. What is meant by conduction?
10. Define ? Heat Transfer
11. State the purpose of heating ring provided in this experiment.
12. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
13. How heat transfer occurs through insulated medium?
14. What are the material used for making the guarded plate?
15. How many thermocouples were mounted in this experiment?
16. Specify the thermocouple numbers which was used to measure the cooling plate temperature.
17. What is unit for thermal conductivity?
18. What is meant by Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids?
19. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
20. State the advantages of dimensional analysis.





Viva ? voce

13 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Expt. No.2

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT OF
PIPE INSULATION USING LAGGED PIPE
APPARATUS

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Lagged pipe apparatus
(iii) Thermocouple
(iv) Ammeter
(v) Voltmeter
Theory:
The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. Heat is
transferred through insulation by conduction, convection and radiation or by the combination of these three.
There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient.

The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in
the given apparatus. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. The assembly is inside
an MS pipe. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe, saw dust is filled.

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the heater Rod = 20 mm.
2. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 40 mm
3. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging, ie.
4. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm
5. The effective length of the above = 500 mm

14 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Precautions:
1. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw, before starting the
experiment (if needed).
2. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position and increase it slowly.
3. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter.
4. Never exceed 80W
Formulae used:
The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by
Q = k1 2?L?T/ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2?L?T/ln(r3/r2)
Where, ?T = Temperature drop across lagging
k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material
k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust.
L = Length of the cylinder, knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging
material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found
Tabulation:
Sl.
No.
Voltage
(V)
Current
(A)
Heater Temperature
(
0
C)
Asbestos Temperature
(
0
C)
Saw dust
Temperature (
0
C)
T1 T2 T3 Average T4 T5 T6 Average T7 T8 Average








15 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature.
2. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value.
3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.
4. Now note down the Ammeter, Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input.
5. Note the temperatures T1, T2 and T3 on the heater rod; T4, T5 and T6 temperatures on the asbestos
layer and T7 and T8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging.
6. Take the average temperature of each cylinder for calculation. Measure the temperatures by
thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator.
7. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.
Results:
The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ W.
The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ W /m
2
-K

Outcome:
From this experiment, finding the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as Exhaust pipe lines, IC
engines, heat exchangers, etc. where heat transfer is to be found.

Applications:
Exhaust pipe lines, IC engines, heat exchangers














16 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Define ? Nusselt Number(Nu)
2. What is meant by laminar flow and turbulent flow?
3. What is meant by free or natural convection?
4. What is meant by forced convection?
5. Define ? Reynolds Number(Re)
6. Define ? Prandtl Number(Pr)
7. Define ? Convection
8. What is meant by transient heat conduction?
9. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
10. How does the heat transfer occur through insulated medium?
11. What is the material of the pipe?
12. Where was the saw dust filled in this experimental set up?
13. What is meant by steady state heat conduction?
14. Define ? Periodic Heat Flow
15. List out the examples for periodic heat flow.
16. What is meant by thermal diffusion?
17. What are the dimensionless parameters used in forced convection?
18. Define - Dimensional Analysis
19. State the demerits of dimensional analysis.
20. What is meant by hydrodynamic boundary layer?








Viva ? voce

17 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.3

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER NATURAL CONVECTION
FROM A VERTICAL CYCLINDER

Aim:
To conduct an experiment on heat transfer and to find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical
tube losing heat by natural convection
Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouple
(iii) Ammeter
(iv) Voltmeter
Theory:
The apparatus consists of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. The duct is open at
the top and bottom, and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of
the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which
in turn heats the tube surface. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The
temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is
measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmer stat.

When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere, heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection.
The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated, rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold
fluid rushes in from bottom side. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the
relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles.









18 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Schematic view of the test set-up:
mm
mm

19 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Diameter of the tube(d) = 40 mm
2. Length of the tube (L) = 500 mm
3. Duct size = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm
4. No. of thermocouples = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch
Thermocouple No. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.
5. Temperature Indicator = 0 ? 300
0
C. Multichannel type, calibrated for chromel ? alumel
thermocouples
6. Ammeter = 0 ? 2 A
7. Voltmeter = 0 ? 100 / 200 V
8. Dimmerstat = 2 A / 230 V
9. Heater = Cartridge type (400 W)

Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Voltage Current Temperature of Thermocouple (
0
c)

V A
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

















20 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. Heat transfer coefficient is given by
h = q / {As (Ts ? Ta)}
Where, h = average surface heat transfer coefficient W/m
2
K
As = Area of heat transfer surface = ? x d x l m
2

Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7
0
C
q = heat transfer rate W
Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct (
0
C) ?
2. hL / k = A { g L
3
??T Cp ?/2v
2
}
n

Where, hL / k are called Nusselt Number.
L
3
g??T / v
2
is called Grashof number.
?Cp / k called Prandtl Number.
A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface.
Where, L = A characteristic dimension of the surface
K = Thermal conductivity of fluid
v = Kinematics viscosity of fluid
? = Dynamic viscosity of fluid
Cp = Specific heat of fluid
? = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid
G = Acceleration due to gravity
?T = Ts ? Ta
For gas, ?= 1/ (Tf + 273)
0
K
-1

Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2

For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection, the constant A and n of equation have been
determined and the following empirical correlation obtained.
hL / k = 0.56 (Gr.Pr)
0.25
for 10
4
< Gr.Pr.<10
8

hL / k = 0.13 (Gr.Pr)
1/3
for 10
8
< Gr.Pr.<10
12
Here, L = Length of the cylinder






21 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Procedure:
1. Switch ON the supply and adjust the dimmer stat to obtain the required heat input.
2. Wait till a fairly steady state is reached, which is confirmed from temperature readings (T1 to T7).
3. Note down surface temperatures at the various points.
4. Note the ambient temperature (T8).
5. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs.

Results:
The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is found as
Theoretical = ______________ W/ m
2
K
Experimental = ______________ W/ m
2
K

Outcomes:
From this experiment, finding the surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing
heat by natural convection experiment is studied and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC
engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be
found.
Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker.
















22 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00




1. Define ? Grash of Number(Gr)
2. What is meant by Newtonian and Non ? Newtonian fluids?
3. Define ? Boundary Layer Thickness.
4. What is the form of equation used to calculate heat transfer for flow through cylindrical pipes?
5. What is meant by dimensional analysis?
6. Define ? Momentum Thickness
7. What are the advantages of dimensional analysis?
8. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
9. Define ?Stanton Number(St)
10. What are the types of boundary layer available in heat transfer?
11. What is meant by thermal boundary layer?
12. Define ? Hydrodynamic Boundary Layer
13. What is meant by free convection?
14. Define ? Energy Thickness
15. Differentiate free from forced convection.
16. Explain the significance of boundary layer in heat transfer.
17. Write the expression for Newton's law of cooling.
18. Define ? Displacement Thickness
19. What is meant by critical radius of insulation?
20. Define ? Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient








Viva ? voce

23 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 4

DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER
COEFFICIENT UNDER FORCED CONVECTION
FROM A TUBE

Aim:
To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection apparatus

Apparatus required:
(i) Experimental setup
(ii) Thermocouples
(iii) U ? tube manometer

Theory:
Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band
heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air
stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to
the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmer stat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat
supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to
measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of
orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.


24 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Tabulations:

Sl. No. Voltage Current Temperature in (
0
C)
Manometer
reading of water
in h in meter

(V) (A)
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

h1
cm
h2
cm










25 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Specifications:
1. Pipe diameter outside (Do) = 40 mm
2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) = 28 mm
3. Length of test section (L) = 500 mm
4. Blower = 0.28 HP motor
5. Orifice diameter (d) = 20 mm, connected with to water manometer
6. Dimmer stat = 0 to 2 A, 260 V, A.C
7. Temperature Indicator = Range 0 to 300
0
C
(Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple)
8. Voltmeter = 0 -100/200 V
9. Ammeter = 0-2 A
10. Heater = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) (400 W)
Precautions:
1. Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
2. Start the blower unit.
3. Increase the voltmeter gradually.
4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing.
6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.
7. Do not exceed 200 W
Procedure:
1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference
in manometer level.
2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmer stat and adjust desired heat
input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.
3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady
state is reached.
4. Note down the heater input.

26 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Formulae used:
1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as
qa = m x Cp x ?T ( kJ / hr)
Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr)
Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg /K)
?T = Temperature rise in air (
o
C)
= T6 ? T1.
2. m = Q?
Where, ? = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Kg / hr
Q = Volume flow rate
Q = Cd x (?/4) di
2
?2gH x (?w / ?a) m
3
/hr
3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) W / m
2
K
qa = Rate of which air is getting heated.
A = Test section area = ? x Di x L m
2

Ta = Average temperature of air = (T1 + T6)/2
o
C
Ts = Average surface temperature = (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)/4
o
C
Cd = 0.64
H = Difference of water level in manometer m
?w Density of water = 1000 Kg/m
3

?a = Density of air = [101.3/(0.287*Ta)] Kg/m
3

d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s
2

using this procedure obtain the value of ?ha? for different air flow rate
4. Reynold?s Number:
Re = VDi/ v Dimensionless number
Where, V = velocity of air = Q/[(? x Di
2
)/4]
v = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluated at bulk mean temperature
(T1 + T6)/2
o
C
5. Nusselt Number:
Nu = (ha x Di)/ k Dimensionless number
K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)/6 W/m-K
Plot the values of Nu Vs Re on a log ? log plot for the experiment readings
6. Prandtl Number:

27 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Pr = Cp? / k
Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k
? = Viscosity Ns/m
2

k = Thermal conductivity of fluid W/m
2
K
Nu = 0.023 (Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.4
Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)/2

Results:
Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection
apparatus.
hactual = -------------- W/m
2
K
htheoritical = -------------- W/m
2
K

Outcome:
From this experiment, determining the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection
apparatus is understood and this experiment could be used in the areas such as IC engines, heat exchangers,
Steam boilers, Pressure Cookers, Fins, Motor bodies, etc. where heat transfer co. efficient is to be found.

Applications:
IC engines, heat exchangers, Steam boilers, Pressure Cooker, Fins, Motor bodies.















28 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. What is meant by boiling and condensation?
2. What is meant by pool boiling?
3. What is the scope of this experiment?
4. List the apparatus required to conduct this experiment.
5. State the purpose of blower fitted in this test set-up.
6. How many thermocouples were located in this experimental set-up?
7. What is the need of orifice provided in this set-up?
8. What is meant by LMTD?
9. Write about the applications of boiling and condensation.
10. How is the air flow measured in this experiment?
11. What are the various types of heat exchangers?
12. Define ? Forced Convection
13. Distinguish between forced and free convection.
14. What are the dimensional parameters used in forced convection?
15. Define ? Momentum Thickness












Viva ? voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/S tud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.5 HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH COMPOSITE WALLS

Aim:
To conduct and determine the rate of heat transfer through different layers of composite wall
Description of apparatus:
When heat conduction takes place through two or more solid materials of different thermal conductivities,
the temperature drop across each material depends on the resistance offered