Download Anna University B-Tech ME 5th Sem Dynamics Lab Manual Question Paper

Download Anna University B.Tech (Bachelor of Technology) Mech Engg.(Mechnical Engineering) 5th Sem Dynamics Lab Manual Question Paper.

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ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






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LABORATORY MANUAL
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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
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Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





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1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
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1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

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1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
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Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
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iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
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The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
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The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

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1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

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1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
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Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








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Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.06 STUDY OF INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR
MECHANISMS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE SLIDER
MECHANISMS
Aim:
To study the inversions of Four bar Mechanisms, Single & Double slider crank mechanisms
Apparatus Required:
Arrangement of four bar mechanisms, single and double slider crank mechanisms
Theory:
1. Definitions of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
2. Classifications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
3. Diagrams of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
4. Working & construction of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
5. Applications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanism
Grashof?s Law:
The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the shortest and longest link of a
planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or equal to the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be
continuous relative motion between two members. In other words, the condition is satisfied if S+L ?
P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest, and P and Q are the other links.
Single Slider Crank Chain
It is a modification of a basic four bar chain. It consists of one sliding and turning pair. It consists of
one sliding and turning pair. It is usually used in reciprocating engine mechanisms. This type of
mechanisms converts reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. E.g. IC Engines.


Fig. Single Slider Crank Chain
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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



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Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
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iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
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Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
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The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
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? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.06 STUDY OF INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR
MECHANISMS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE SLIDER
MECHANISMS
Aim:
To study the inversions of Four bar Mechanisms, Single & Double slider crank mechanisms
Apparatus Required:
Arrangement of four bar mechanisms, single and double slider crank mechanisms
Theory:
1. Definitions of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
2. Classifications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
3. Diagrams of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
4. Working & construction of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
5. Applications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanism
Grashof?s Law:
The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the shortest and longest link of a
planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or equal to the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be
continuous relative motion between two members. In other words, the condition is satisfied if S+L ?
P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest, and P and Q are the other links.
Single Slider Crank Chain
It is a modification of a basic four bar chain. It consists of one sliding and turning pair. It consists of
one sliding and turning pair. It is usually used in reciprocating engine mechanisms. This type of
mechanisms converts reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. E.g. IC Engines.


Fig. Single Slider Crank Chain
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Four bar mechanism:
A four bar link mechanism or linkage is the most fundamental of the plane kinematics linkages. It is a
much preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and control of motion due to its simplicity and
versatility. Basically it consists of four rigid links which are connected in the form of a quadrilateral by
four pin joints. A link that makes complete revolutions is the crank, the link opposite to the fixed link is
the coupler and the fourth link a lever or rocker if oscillates or an another crank, if rotate. By fixing the
link:-
? Shortest Link Fixed
? Link opposite to Shortest Link fixed
Fig. Four Bar Mechanism

The four links of a four bar chain are
1. Crank or Driver ? A crank is a part that makes complete revolutions.
2. Coupler ? It is a link which is opposite to the fixed link of the mechanism that is used to
connect the crank and rocker.
3. Lever or Rocker ? The link that makes a partial rotation is called as Lever or Rocker.
4. Frame ? The fixed link of a mechanism is called as Frame.
Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematics chain are known as its
inversions. A slider ?crank chain has the following inversions:-
1. First inversion (i.e; Reciprocating engine and compressor) ? this inversion is obtained when link
1 is fixed and links 2 and 4 are made the crank and the slider respectively.
2. Second inversion (i.e., Whitworth quick return mechanism and Rotary engine) ? fixing of
link 2 of a slider ? crank chain.
3. Third inversion (i.e., Oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted ? lever mechanism)
? By fixing link 3 of the slider crank mechanism.
4. Fourth inversion (Hand pump) ? I f link 4 of the slider crank mechanism is fixed, the
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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
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Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
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The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
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? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.06 STUDY OF INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR
MECHANISMS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE SLIDER
MECHANISMS
Aim:
To study the inversions of Four bar Mechanisms, Single & Double slider crank mechanisms
Apparatus Required:
Arrangement of four bar mechanisms, single and double slider crank mechanisms
Theory:
1. Definitions of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
2. Classifications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
3. Diagrams of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
4. Working & construction of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
5. Applications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanism
Grashof?s Law:
The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the shortest and longest link of a
planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or equal to the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be
continuous relative motion between two members. In other words, the condition is satisfied if S+L ?
P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest, and P and Q are the other links.
Single Slider Crank Chain
It is a modification of a basic four bar chain. It consists of one sliding and turning pair. It consists of
one sliding and turning pair. It is usually used in reciprocating engine mechanisms. This type of
mechanisms converts reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. E.g. IC Engines.


Fig. Single Slider Crank Chain
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Four bar mechanism:
A four bar link mechanism or linkage is the most fundamental of the plane kinematics linkages. It is a
much preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and control of motion due to its simplicity and
versatility. Basically it consists of four rigid links which are connected in the form of a quadrilateral by
four pin joints. A link that makes complete revolutions is the crank, the link opposite to the fixed link is
the coupler and the fourth link a lever or rocker if oscillates or an another crank, if rotate. By fixing the
link:-
? Shortest Link Fixed
? Link opposite to Shortest Link fixed
Fig. Four Bar Mechanism

The four links of a four bar chain are
1. Crank or Driver ? A crank is a part that makes complete revolutions.
2. Coupler ? It is a link which is opposite to the fixed link of the mechanism that is used to
connect the crank and rocker.
3. Lever or Rocker ? The link that makes a partial rotation is called as Lever or Rocker.
4. Frame ? The fixed link of a mechanism is called as Frame.
Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematics chain are known as its
inversions. A slider ?crank chain has the following inversions:-
1. First inversion (i.e; Reciprocating engine and compressor) ? this inversion is obtained when link
1 is fixed and links 2 and 4 are made the crank and the slider respectively.
2. Second inversion (i.e., Whitworth quick return mechanism and Rotary engine) ? fixing of
link 2 of a slider ? crank chain.
3. Third inversion (i.e., Oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted ? lever mechanism)
? By fixing link 3 of the slider crank mechanism.
4. Fourth inversion (Hand pump) ? I f link 4 of the slider crank mechanism is fixed, the
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

fourth inversion is obtained.
Double-slider crank-chain:


A four-bar chain having two turning and two sliding pairs such that two pairs of the same
kind are adjacent is known as a double-slider-crank chain. The following are its inversions:
1. First inversion (i.e., Elliptical trammel)
2. Second inversion (i.e., Scotch yoke)
3. Third inversion (i.e., Actual Oldham?s coupling)
Applications:
1. In reciprocating engine.
2. In reciprocating compressor.
3. In Whitworth quick ? return mechanism and Rotary engine.
4. In oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted-lever mechanism.
5. In hand pump.
6. In scotch yoke.
Result:
Thus the inversions of four bar mechanisms, single & double slider cranks mechanisms
and its comparison and motion to be named were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to study inversions of four bar mechanisms, single
& double slider crank mechanism which is used in shaper and planer machines.
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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
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Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
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5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
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Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.06 STUDY OF INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR
MECHANISMS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE SLIDER
MECHANISMS
Aim:
To study the inversions of Four bar Mechanisms, Single & Double slider crank mechanisms
Apparatus Required:
Arrangement of four bar mechanisms, single and double slider crank mechanisms
Theory:
1. Definitions of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
2. Classifications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
3. Diagrams of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
4. Working & construction of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
5. Applications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanism
Grashof?s Law:
The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the shortest and longest link of a
planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or equal to the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be
continuous relative motion between two members. In other words, the condition is satisfied if S+L ?
P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest, and P and Q are the other links.
Single Slider Crank Chain
It is a modification of a basic four bar chain. It consists of one sliding and turning pair. It consists of
one sliding and turning pair. It is usually used in reciprocating engine mechanisms. This type of
mechanisms converts reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. E.g. IC Engines.


Fig. Single Slider Crank Chain
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Four bar mechanism:
A four bar link mechanism or linkage is the most fundamental of the plane kinematics linkages. It is a
much preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and control of motion due to its simplicity and
versatility. Basically it consists of four rigid links which are connected in the form of a quadrilateral by
four pin joints. A link that makes complete revolutions is the crank, the link opposite to the fixed link is
the coupler and the fourth link a lever or rocker if oscillates or an another crank, if rotate. By fixing the
link:-
? Shortest Link Fixed
? Link opposite to Shortest Link fixed
Fig. Four Bar Mechanism

The four links of a four bar chain are
1. Crank or Driver ? A crank is a part that makes complete revolutions.
2. Coupler ? It is a link which is opposite to the fixed link of the mechanism that is used to
connect the crank and rocker.
3. Lever or Rocker ? The link that makes a partial rotation is called as Lever or Rocker.
4. Frame ? The fixed link of a mechanism is called as Frame.
Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematics chain are known as its
inversions. A slider ?crank chain has the following inversions:-
1. First inversion (i.e; Reciprocating engine and compressor) ? this inversion is obtained when link
1 is fixed and links 2 and 4 are made the crank and the slider respectively.
2. Second inversion (i.e., Whitworth quick return mechanism and Rotary engine) ? fixing of
link 2 of a slider ? crank chain.
3. Third inversion (i.e., Oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted ? lever mechanism)
? By fixing link 3 of the slider crank mechanism.
4. Fourth inversion (Hand pump) ? I f link 4 of the slider crank mechanism is fixed, the
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

fourth inversion is obtained.
Double-slider crank-chain:


A four-bar chain having two turning and two sliding pairs such that two pairs of the same
kind are adjacent is known as a double-slider-crank chain. The following are its inversions:
1. First inversion (i.e., Elliptical trammel)
2. Second inversion (i.e., Scotch yoke)
3. Third inversion (i.e., Actual Oldham?s coupling)
Applications:
1. In reciprocating engine.
2. In reciprocating compressor.
3. In Whitworth quick ? return mechanism and Rotary engine.
4. In oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted-lever mechanism.
5. In hand pump.
6. In scotch yoke.
Result:
Thus the inversions of four bar mechanisms, single & double slider cranks mechanisms
and its comparison and motion to be named were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to study inversions of four bar mechanisms, single
& double slider crank mechanism which is used in shaper and planer machines.
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. The four bar chain mechanism is used in deep boring machines and locomotives.
2. The slider and crank mechanism is used in lathes.


1. What is meant by mobility?
2. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
3. What is meant by number synthesis?
4. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
5. What is toggle position?
6. What is pantograph?
7. What are the important applications of single slider crank mechanism?
8. Compare machine and structure.
9. Give some examples for kinematic pairs.
10. Discuss Elliptical trammel.
11. Differentiate kinematic pair and kinematic chain.
12. Define ? Transmission angle
13. Define ? Toggle position
14. What is simple mechanism?
15. Define ? Inversion mechanism
16. What is meant by mechanical advantages of mechanism?
17. Define ? Sliding pair
18. Define ? Turning pair
19. Define ? Rolling pair
20. Define ? Higher pair






Viva-voce

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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.06 STUDY OF INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR
MECHANISMS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE SLIDER
MECHANISMS
Aim:
To study the inversions of Four bar Mechanisms, Single & Double slider crank mechanisms
Apparatus Required:
Arrangement of four bar mechanisms, single and double slider crank mechanisms
Theory:
1. Definitions of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
2. Classifications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
3. Diagrams of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
4. Working & construction of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
5. Applications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanism
Grashof?s Law:
The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the shortest and longest link of a
planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or equal to the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be
continuous relative motion between two members. In other words, the condition is satisfied if S+L ?
P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest, and P and Q are the other links.
Single Slider Crank Chain
It is a modification of a basic four bar chain. It consists of one sliding and turning pair. It consists of
one sliding and turning pair. It is usually used in reciprocating engine mechanisms. This type of
mechanisms converts reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. E.g. IC Engines.


Fig. Single Slider Crank Chain
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Four bar mechanism:
A four bar link mechanism or linkage is the most fundamental of the plane kinematics linkages. It is a
much preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and control of motion due to its simplicity and
versatility. Basically it consists of four rigid links which are connected in the form of a quadrilateral by
four pin joints. A link that makes complete revolutions is the crank, the link opposite to the fixed link is
the coupler and the fourth link a lever or rocker if oscillates or an another crank, if rotate. By fixing the
link:-
? Shortest Link Fixed
? Link opposite to Shortest Link fixed
Fig. Four Bar Mechanism

The four links of a four bar chain are
1. Crank or Driver ? A crank is a part that makes complete revolutions.
2. Coupler ? It is a link which is opposite to the fixed link of the mechanism that is used to
connect the crank and rocker.
3. Lever or Rocker ? The link that makes a partial rotation is called as Lever or Rocker.
4. Frame ? The fixed link of a mechanism is called as Frame.
Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematics chain are known as its
inversions. A slider ?crank chain has the following inversions:-
1. First inversion (i.e; Reciprocating engine and compressor) ? this inversion is obtained when link
1 is fixed and links 2 and 4 are made the crank and the slider respectively.
2. Second inversion (i.e., Whitworth quick return mechanism and Rotary engine) ? fixing of
link 2 of a slider ? crank chain.
3. Third inversion (i.e., Oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted ? lever mechanism)
? By fixing link 3 of the slider crank mechanism.
4. Fourth inversion (Hand pump) ? I f link 4 of the slider crank mechanism is fixed, the
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

fourth inversion is obtained.
Double-slider crank-chain:


A four-bar chain having two turning and two sliding pairs such that two pairs of the same
kind are adjacent is known as a double-slider-crank chain. The following are its inversions:
1. First inversion (i.e., Elliptical trammel)
2. Second inversion (i.e., Scotch yoke)
3. Third inversion (i.e., Actual Oldham?s coupling)
Applications:
1. In reciprocating engine.
2. In reciprocating compressor.
3. In Whitworth quick ? return mechanism and Rotary engine.
4. In oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted-lever mechanism.
5. In hand pump.
6. In scotch yoke.
Result:
Thus the inversions of four bar mechanisms, single & double slider cranks mechanisms
and its comparison and motion to be named were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to study inversions of four bar mechanisms, single
& double slider crank mechanism which is used in shaper and planer machines.
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. The four bar chain mechanism is used in deep boring machines and locomotives.
2. The slider and crank mechanism is used in lathes.


1. What is meant by mobility?
2. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
3. What is meant by number synthesis?
4. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
5. What is toggle position?
6. What is pantograph?
7. What are the important applications of single slider crank mechanism?
8. Compare machine and structure.
9. Give some examples for kinematic pairs.
10. Discuss Elliptical trammel.
11. Differentiate kinematic pair and kinematic chain.
12. Define ? Transmission angle
13. Define ? Toggle position
14. What is simple mechanism?
15. Define ? Inversion mechanism
16. What is meant by mechanical advantages of mechanism?
17. Define ? Sliding pair
18. Define ? Turning pair
19. Define ? Rolling pair
20. Define ? Higher pair






Viva-voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.07 KINEMATICS OF UNIVERSAL JOINT

Aim:
To study the kinematics of universal joint
Apparatus Required:
Universal joint with protractor
Description:
Universal joint is used to connect two parallel intersects shafts, the end of each shaft
is forked and each fork provides two bearings for arms of a cross. The two forks line in places
at right angles. The arms crossing are at right angles.
Procedure:
1. Rotate the driving shaft to some angle and note down the angle for the same that as shown
in the protractor.
2. For the same angle of rotation of driver shaft, note down the angle of rotation of driven shaft.
3. Increase the angle of rotation of driver shaft for periodic angular intervals, observe and
tabulate the driven angular positions.
Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Input Angle (Driver)
Degrees
Output Angle (Driven)
Degrees


Result:
Thus the kinematics of Universal Joint was studied successfully.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of the kinematics of
universal joint which is used in automobile industry.

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MISSION
VISION

MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



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Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
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iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
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Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
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The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
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? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
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Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
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5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
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Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

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Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
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Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
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Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

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Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


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Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

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Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








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Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

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Expt. No.06 STUDY OF INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR
MECHANISMS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE SLIDER
MECHANISMS
Aim:
To study the inversions of Four bar Mechanisms, Single & Double slider crank mechanisms
Apparatus Required:
Arrangement of four bar mechanisms, single and double slider crank mechanisms
Theory:
1. Definitions of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
2. Classifications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
3. Diagrams of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
4. Working & construction of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
5. Applications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanism
Grashof?s Law:
The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the shortest and longest link of a
planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or equal to the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be
continuous relative motion between two members. In other words, the condition is satisfied if S+L ?
P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest, and P and Q are the other links.
Single Slider Crank Chain
It is a modification of a basic four bar chain. It consists of one sliding and turning pair. It consists of
one sliding and turning pair. It is usually used in reciprocating engine mechanisms. This type of
mechanisms converts reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. E.g. IC Engines.


Fig. Single Slider Crank Chain
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Four bar mechanism:
A four bar link mechanism or linkage is the most fundamental of the plane kinematics linkages. It is a
much preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and control of motion due to its simplicity and
versatility. Basically it consists of four rigid links which are connected in the form of a quadrilateral by
four pin joints. A link that makes complete revolutions is the crank, the link opposite to the fixed link is
the coupler and the fourth link a lever or rocker if oscillates or an another crank, if rotate. By fixing the
link:-
? Shortest Link Fixed
? Link opposite to Shortest Link fixed
Fig. Four Bar Mechanism

The four links of a four bar chain are
1. Crank or Driver ? A crank is a part that makes complete revolutions.
2. Coupler ? It is a link which is opposite to the fixed link of the mechanism that is used to
connect the crank and rocker.
3. Lever or Rocker ? The link that makes a partial rotation is called as Lever or Rocker.
4. Frame ? The fixed link of a mechanism is called as Frame.
Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematics chain are known as its
inversions. A slider ?crank chain has the following inversions:-
1. First inversion (i.e; Reciprocating engine and compressor) ? this inversion is obtained when link
1 is fixed and links 2 and 4 are made the crank and the slider respectively.
2. Second inversion (i.e., Whitworth quick return mechanism and Rotary engine) ? fixing of
link 2 of a slider ? crank chain.
3. Third inversion (i.e., Oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted ? lever mechanism)
? By fixing link 3 of the slider crank mechanism.
4. Fourth inversion (Hand pump) ? I f link 4 of the slider crank mechanism is fixed, the
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fourth inversion is obtained.
Double-slider crank-chain:


A four-bar chain having two turning and two sliding pairs such that two pairs of the same
kind are adjacent is known as a double-slider-crank chain. The following are its inversions:
1. First inversion (i.e., Elliptical trammel)
2. Second inversion (i.e., Scotch yoke)
3. Third inversion (i.e., Actual Oldham?s coupling)
Applications:
1. In reciprocating engine.
2. In reciprocating compressor.
3. In Whitworth quick ? return mechanism and Rotary engine.
4. In oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted-lever mechanism.
5. In hand pump.
6. In scotch yoke.
Result:
Thus the inversions of four bar mechanisms, single & double slider cranks mechanisms
and its comparison and motion to be named were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to study inversions of four bar mechanisms, single
& double slider crank mechanism which is used in shaper and planer machines.
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Application:
1. The four bar chain mechanism is used in deep boring machines and locomotives.
2. The slider and crank mechanism is used in lathes.


1. What is meant by mobility?
2. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
3. What is meant by number synthesis?
4. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
5. What is toggle position?
6. What is pantograph?
7. What are the important applications of single slider crank mechanism?
8. Compare machine and structure.
9. Give some examples for kinematic pairs.
10. Discuss Elliptical trammel.
11. Differentiate kinematic pair and kinematic chain.
12. Define ? Transmission angle
13. Define ? Toggle position
14. What is simple mechanism?
15. Define ? Inversion mechanism
16. What is meant by mechanical advantages of mechanism?
17. Define ? Sliding pair
18. Define ? Turning pair
19. Define ? Rolling pair
20. Define ? Higher pair






Viva-voce

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Expt.No.07 KINEMATICS OF UNIVERSAL JOINT

Aim:
To study the kinematics of universal joint
Apparatus Required:
Universal joint with protractor
Description:
Universal joint is used to connect two parallel intersects shafts, the end of each shaft
is forked and each fork provides two bearings for arms of a cross. The two forks line in places
at right angles. The arms crossing are at right angles.
Procedure:
1. Rotate the driving shaft to some angle and note down the angle for the same that as shown
in the protractor.
2. For the same angle of rotation of driver shaft, note down the angle of rotation of driven shaft.
3. Increase the angle of rotation of driver shaft for periodic angular intervals, observe and
tabulate the driven angular positions.
Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Input Angle (Driver)
Degrees
Output Angle (Driven)
Degrees


Result:
Thus the kinematics of Universal Joint was studied successfully.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of the kinematics of
universal joint which is used in automobile industry.

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Application:
The universal joint is used in each end of the propeller shaft, connecting the gear box on one
end and the differential on the other end in automobiles.



1. Define - Cylindrical pair
2. Define - Lower pair
3. Define - Single slider crank mechanism
4. Define - Double slider crank mechanism
5. List out few types of rocking mechanism.
6. What is free body diagram?
7. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
8. What is the important application of single slider crank mechanism?
9. What is meant by Ackermann steering?
10. What are the two components of acceleration?
11. Define - Kennedy?s theorem
12. What are the properties of instantaneous centre?
13. What is meant by the efficiency of a mechanism?
14. State the kutzback criterion.
15. Define - Rubbing velocity
16. What is meant by virtual centre?
17. What is meant by indexing mechanism?
18. State Coriolis law.
19. Explain normal component of acceleration.
20. State the condition for a link to experience coriolis acceleration.


Viva-voce

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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
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is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






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ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



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Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
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iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
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Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
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The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
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? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
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Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
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5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
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Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.06 STUDY OF INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR
MECHANISMS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE SLIDER
MECHANISMS
Aim:
To study the inversions of Four bar Mechanisms, Single & Double slider crank mechanisms
Apparatus Required:
Arrangement of four bar mechanisms, single and double slider crank mechanisms
Theory:
1. Definitions of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
2. Classifications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
3. Diagrams of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
4. Working & construction of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
5. Applications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanism
Grashof?s Law:
The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the shortest and longest link of a
planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or equal to the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be
continuous relative motion between two members. In other words, the condition is satisfied if S+L ?
P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest, and P and Q are the other links.
Single Slider Crank Chain
It is a modification of a basic four bar chain. It consists of one sliding and turning pair. It consists of
one sliding and turning pair. It is usually used in reciprocating engine mechanisms. This type of
mechanisms converts reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. E.g. IC Engines.


Fig. Single Slider Crank Chain
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Four bar mechanism:
A four bar link mechanism or linkage is the most fundamental of the plane kinematics linkages. It is a
much preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and control of motion due to its simplicity and
versatility. Basically it consists of four rigid links which are connected in the form of a quadrilateral by
four pin joints. A link that makes complete revolutions is the crank, the link opposite to the fixed link is
the coupler and the fourth link a lever or rocker if oscillates or an another crank, if rotate. By fixing the
link:-
? Shortest Link Fixed
? Link opposite to Shortest Link fixed
Fig. Four Bar Mechanism

The four links of a four bar chain are
1. Crank or Driver ? A crank is a part that makes complete revolutions.
2. Coupler ? It is a link which is opposite to the fixed link of the mechanism that is used to
connect the crank and rocker.
3. Lever or Rocker ? The link that makes a partial rotation is called as Lever or Rocker.
4. Frame ? The fixed link of a mechanism is called as Frame.
Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematics chain are known as its
inversions. A slider ?crank chain has the following inversions:-
1. First inversion (i.e; Reciprocating engine and compressor) ? this inversion is obtained when link
1 is fixed and links 2 and 4 are made the crank and the slider respectively.
2. Second inversion (i.e., Whitworth quick return mechanism and Rotary engine) ? fixing of
link 2 of a slider ? crank chain.
3. Third inversion (i.e., Oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted ? lever mechanism)
? By fixing link 3 of the slider crank mechanism.
4. Fourth inversion (Hand pump) ? I f link 4 of the slider crank mechanism is fixed, the
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fourth inversion is obtained.
Double-slider crank-chain:


A four-bar chain having two turning and two sliding pairs such that two pairs of the same
kind are adjacent is known as a double-slider-crank chain. The following are its inversions:
1. First inversion (i.e., Elliptical trammel)
2. Second inversion (i.e., Scotch yoke)
3. Third inversion (i.e., Actual Oldham?s coupling)
Applications:
1. In reciprocating engine.
2. In reciprocating compressor.
3. In Whitworth quick ? return mechanism and Rotary engine.
4. In oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted-lever mechanism.
5. In hand pump.
6. In scotch yoke.
Result:
Thus the inversions of four bar mechanisms, single & double slider cranks mechanisms
and its comparison and motion to be named were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to study inversions of four bar mechanisms, single
& double slider crank mechanism which is used in shaper and planer machines.
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Application:
1. The four bar chain mechanism is used in deep boring machines and locomotives.
2. The slider and crank mechanism is used in lathes.


1. What is meant by mobility?
2. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
3. What is meant by number synthesis?
4. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
5. What is toggle position?
6. What is pantograph?
7. What are the important applications of single slider crank mechanism?
8. Compare machine and structure.
9. Give some examples for kinematic pairs.
10. Discuss Elliptical trammel.
11. Differentiate kinematic pair and kinematic chain.
12. Define ? Transmission angle
13. Define ? Toggle position
14. What is simple mechanism?
15. Define ? Inversion mechanism
16. What is meant by mechanical advantages of mechanism?
17. Define ? Sliding pair
18. Define ? Turning pair
19. Define ? Rolling pair
20. Define ? Higher pair






Viva-voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.07 KINEMATICS OF UNIVERSAL JOINT

Aim:
To study the kinematics of universal joint
Apparatus Required:
Universal joint with protractor
Description:
Universal joint is used to connect two parallel intersects shafts, the end of each shaft
is forked and each fork provides two bearings for arms of a cross. The two forks line in places
at right angles. The arms crossing are at right angles.
Procedure:
1. Rotate the driving shaft to some angle and note down the angle for the same that as shown
in the protractor.
2. For the same angle of rotation of driver shaft, note down the angle of rotation of driven shaft.
3. Increase the angle of rotation of driver shaft for periodic angular intervals, observe and
tabulate the driven angular positions.
Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Input Angle (Driver)
Degrees
Output Angle (Driven)
Degrees


Result:
Thus the kinematics of Universal Joint was studied successfully.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of the kinematics of
universal joint which is used in automobile industry.

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The universal joint is used in each end of the propeller shaft, connecting the gear box on one
end and the differential on the other end in automobiles.



1. Define - Cylindrical pair
2. Define - Lower pair
3. Define - Single slider crank mechanism
4. Define - Double slider crank mechanism
5. List out few types of rocking mechanism.
6. What is free body diagram?
7. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
8. What is the important application of single slider crank mechanism?
9. What is meant by Ackermann steering?
10. What are the two components of acceleration?
11. Define - Kennedy?s theorem
12. What are the properties of instantaneous centre?
13. What is meant by the efficiency of a mechanism?
14. State the kutzback criterion.
15. Define - Rubbing velocity
16. What is meant by virtual centre?
17. What is meant by indexing mechanism?
18. State Coriolis law.
19. Explain normal component of acceleration.
20. State the condition for a link to experience coriolis acceleration.


Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.08 DETERMINATION OF MASS MOMENT OF
INERTIA USING TURN TABLE

Aim:
To determine the moment of inertia using turn table apparatus
Apparatus required:
Turn table, masses, steel rule and brass rod
Procedure:
1. Fix the required rod and measure the dimension (dia) at various points to calculate the mean
diameter.
2. Fix the one end of the rod at the top chuck where the flywheel (disc) is suspended at the
bottom end.
3. Give the twist to the flywheel and on release measure time for 10 oscillations.
4. Repeat the experiments at different length and tabulate the observations.
Formulae used:
Time period (T) = Time taken/ No. of oscillations (in Sec)
Frequency (F
n
) = 1/T (in Hz)
Moment of Inertia = Gd
4
/ 128 ? x (Fn)
2
x l (in Kg-m
2
)
Where, Rigidity Modulus (G) = 3.5 x 10
10

(in N/m
2
) (From PSG Data Book)
Tabulation:
Diameter of the brass rod = (m)



Result:
Thus the moment of inertia of the brass rod using turn table apparatus is ___________.


Sl.No.

Length L
( m)

Time for 10
oscillations
in (Sec)

Time Period
T in
(Sec)

Frequency (Hz)

Mass Moment of
Inertia
Kg m
2

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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
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Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.06 STUDY OF INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR
MECHANISMS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE SLIDER
MECHANISMS
Aim:
To study the inversions of Four bar Mechanisms, Single & Double slider crank mechanisms
Apparatus Required:
Arrangement of four bar mechanisms, single and double slider crank mechanisms
Theory:
1. Definitions of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
2. Classifications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
3. Diagrams of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
4. Working & construction of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
5. Applications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanism
Grashof?s Law:
The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the shortest and longest link of a
planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or equal to the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be
continuous relative motion between two members. In other words, the condition is satisfied if S+L ?
P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest, and P and Q are the other links.
Single Slider Crank Chain
It is a modification of a basic four bar chain. It consists of one sliding and turning pair. It consists of
one sliding and turning pair. It is usually used in reciprocating engine mechanisms. This type of
mechanisms converts reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. E.g. IC Engines.


Fig. Single Slider Crank Chain
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Four bar mechanism:
A four bar link mechanism or linkage is the most fundamental of the plane kinematics linkages. It is a
much preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and control of motion due to its simplicity and
versatility. Basically it consists of four rigid links which are connected in the form of a quadrilateral by
four pin joints. A link that makes complete revolutions is the crank, the link opposite to the fixed link is
the coupler and the fourth link a lever or rocker if oscillates or an another crank, if rotate. By fixing the
link:-
? Shortest Link Fixed
? Link opposite to Shortest Link fixed
Fig. Four Bar Mechanism

The four links of a four bar chain are
1. Crank or Driver ? A crank is a part that makes complete revolutions.
2. Coupler ? It is a link which is opposite to the fixed link of the mechanism that is used to
connect the crank and rocker.
3. Lever or Rocker ? The link that makes a partial rotation is called as Lever or Rocker.
4. Frame ? The fixed link of a mechanism is called as Frame.
Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematics chain are known as its
inversions. A slider ?crank chain has the following inversions:-
1. First inversion (i.e; Reciprocating engine and compressor) ? this inversion is obtained when link
1 is fixed and links 2 and 4 are made the crank and the slider respectively.
2. Second inversion (i.e., Whitworth quick return mechanism and Rotary engine) ? fixing of
link 2 of a slider ? crank chain.
3. Third inversion (i.e., Oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted ? lever mechanism)
? By fixing link 3 of the slider crank mechanism.
4. Fourth inversion (Hand pump) ? I f link 4 of the slider crank mechanism is fixed, the
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

fourth inversion is obtained.
Double-slider crank-chain:


A four-bar chain having two turning and two sliding pairs such that two pairs of the same
kind are adjacent is known as a double-slider-crank chain. The following are its inversions:
1. First inversion (i.e., Elliptical trammel)
2. Second inversion (i.e., Scotch yoke)
3. Third inversion (i.e., Actual Oldham?s coupling)
Applications:
1. In reciprocating engine.
2. In reciprocating compressor.
3. In Whitworth quick ? return mechanism and Rotary engine.
4. In oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted-lever mechanism.
5. In hand pump.
6. In scotch yoke.
Result:
Thus the inversions of four bar mechanisms, single & double slider cranks mechanisms
and its comparison and motion to be named were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to study inversions of four bar mechanisms, single
& double slider crank mechanism which is used in shaper and planer machines.
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. The four bar chain mechanism is used in deep boring machines and locomotives.
2. The slider and crank mechanism is used in lathes.


1. What is meant by mobility?
2. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
3. What is meant by number synthesis?
4. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
5. What is toggle position?
6. What is pantograph?
7. What are the important applications of single slider crank mechanism?
8. Compare machine and structure.
9. Give some examples for kinematic pairs.
10. Discuss Elliptical trammel.
11. Differentiate kinematic pair and kinematic chain.
12. Define ? Transmission angle
13. Define ? Toggle position
14. What is simple mechanism?
15. Define ? Inversion mechanism
16. What is meant by mechanical advantages of mechanism?
17. Define ? Sliding pair
18. Define ? Turning pair
19. Define ? Rolling pair
20. Define ? Higher pair






Viva-voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.07 KINEMATICS OF UNIVERSAL JOINT

Aim:
To study the kinematics of universal joint
Apparatus Required:
Universal joint with protractor
Description:
Universal joint is used to connect two parallel intersects shafts, the end of each shaft
is forked and each fork provides two bearings for arms of a cross. The two forks line in places
at right angles. The arms crossing are at right angles.
Procedure:
1. Rotate the driving shaft to some angle and note down the angle for the same that as shown
in the protractor.
2. For the same angle of rotation of driver shaft, note down the angle of rotation of driven shaft.
3. Increase the angle of rotation of driver shaft for periodic angular intervals, observe and
tabulate the driven angular positions.
Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Input Angle (Driver)
Degrees
Output Angle (Driven)
Degrees


Result:
Thus the kinematics of Universal Joint was studied successfully.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of the kinematics of
universal joint which is used in automobile industry.

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The universal joint is used in each end of the propeller shaft, connecting the gear box on one
end and the differential on the other end in automobiles.



1. Define - Cylindrical pair
2. Define - Lower pair
3. Define - Single slider crank mechanism
4. Define - Double slider crank mechanism
5. List out few types of rocking mechanism.
6. What is free body diagram?
7. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
8. What is the important application of single slider crank mechanism?
9. What is meant by Ackermann steering?
10. What are the two components of acceleration?
11. Define - Kennedy?s theorem
12. What are the properties of instantaneous centre?
13. What is meant by the efficiency of a mechanism?
14. State the kutzback criterion.
15. Define - Rubbing velocity
16. What is meant by virtual centre?
17. What is meant by indexing mechanism?
18. State Coriolis law.
19. Explain normal component of acceleration.
20. State the condition for a link to experience coriolis acceleration.


Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.08 DETERMINATION OF MASS MOMENT OF
INERTIA USING TURN TABLE

Aim:
To determine the moment of inertia using turn table apparatus
Apparatus required:
Turn table, masses, steel rule and brass rod
Procedure:
1. Fix the required rod and measure the dimension (dia) at various points to calculate the mean
diameter.
2. Fix the one end of the rod at the top chuck where the flywheel (disc) is suspended at the
bottom end.
3. Give the twist to the flywheel and on release measure time for 10 oscillations.
4. Repeat the experiments at different length and tabulate the observations.
Formulae used:
Time period (T) = Time taken/ No. of oscillations (in Sec)
Frequency (F
n
) = 1/T (in Hz)
Moment of Inertia = Gd
4
/ 128 ? x (Fn)
2
x l (in Kg-m
2
)
Where, Rigidity Modulus (G) = 3.5 x 10
10

(in N/m
2
) (From PSG Data Book)
Tabulation:
Diameter of the brass rod = (m)



Result:
Thus the moment of inertia of the brass rod using turn table apparatus is ___________.


Sl.No.

Length L
( m)

Time for 10
oscillations
in (Sec)

Time Period
T in
(Sec)

Frequency (Hz)

Mass Moment of
Inertia
Kg m
2

32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the moment of inertia using turntable
apparatus.
Application:
The turn table is used in machine welding, scarfing and cutting, cladding, grinding, polishing,
assembly and NDT.


1. Define ? Static force analysis
2. Define ? D Alembert?s principle
3. What do you meant by inertia?
4. What is meant by moment of inertia?
5. What is meant by polar moment inertia?
6. Define ? Section modulus
7. Define ? Parallel axis theorem
8. Define ? Perpendicular axis theorem
9. Define ? Natural frequency
10. Define ? Piston effort
11. Define ? Crank pin effort
12. Define ? Inertia torque
13. Define ? Crank effort
14. Define ? Dynamics force analysis
15. State the principle of superposition.
16. Define ? Coefficient of fluctuation of speed
17. What is meant by maximum fluctuation of speed?
18. Define ? Coefficient of fluctuation of energy
19. What do you mean by equivalent offset inertia force?
20. Define ? Radius of gyration

Viva-voce

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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
7 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
9 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
10 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
11 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.06 STUDY OF INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR
MECHANISMS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE SLIDER
MECHANISMS
Aim:
To study the inversions of Four bar Mechanisms, Single & Double slider crank mechanisms
Apparatus Required:
Arrangement of four bar mechanisms, single and double slider crank mechanisms
Theory:
1. Definitions of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
2. Classifications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
3. Diagrams of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
4. Working & construction of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
5. Applications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanism
Grashof?s Law:
The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the shortest and longest link of a
planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or equal to the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be
continuous relative motion between two members. In other words, the condition is satisfied if S+L ?
P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest, and P and Q are the other links.
Single Slider Crank Chain
It is a modification of a basic four bar chain. It consists of one sliding and turning pair. It consists of
one sliding and turning pair. It is usually used in reciprocating engine mechanisms. This type of
mechanisms converts reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. E.g. IC Engines.


Fig. Single Slider Crank Chain
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Four bar mechanism:
A four bar link mechanism or linkage is the most fundamental of the plane kinematics linkages. It is a
much preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and control of motion due to its simplicity and
versatility. Basically it consists of four rigid links which are connected in the form of a quadrilateral by
four pin joints. A link that makes complete revolutions is the crank, the link opposite to the fixed link is
the coupler and the fourth link a lever or rocker if oscillates or an another crank, if rotate. By fixing the
link:-
? Shortest Link Fixed
? Link opposite to Shortest Link fixed
Fig. Four Bar Mechanism

The four links of a four bar chain are
1. Crank or Driver ? A crank is a part that makes complete revolutions.
2. Coupler ? It is a link which is opposite to the fixed link of the mechanism that is used to
connect the crank and rocker.
3. Lever or Rocker ? The link that makes a partial rotation is called as Lever or Rocker.
4. Frame ? The fixed link of a mechanism is called as Frame.
Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematics chain are known as its
inversions. A slider ?crank chain has the following inversions:-
1. First inversion (i.e; Reciprocating engine and compressor) ? this inversion is obtained when link
1 is fixed and links 2 and 4 are made the crank and the slider respectively.
2. Second inversion (i.e., Whitworth quick return mechanism and Rotary engine) ? fixing of
link 2 of a slider ? crank chain.
3. Third inversion (i.e., Oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted ? lever mechanism)
? By fixing link 3 of the slider crank mechanism.
4. Fourth inversion (Hand pump) ? I f link 4 of the slider crank mechanism is fixed, the
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

fourth inversion is obtained.
Double-slider crank-chain:


A four-bar chain having two turning and two sliding pairs such that two pairs of the same
kind are adjacent is known as a double-slider-crank chain. The following are its inversions:
1. First inversion (i.e., Elliptical trammel)
2. Second inversion (i.e., Scotch yoke)
3. Third inversion (i.e., Actual Oldham?s coupling)
Applications:
1. In reciprocating engine.
2. In reciprocating compressor.
3. In Whitworth quick ? return mechanism and Rotary engine.
4. In oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted-lever mechanism.
5. In hand pump.
6. In scotch yoke.
Result:
Thus the inversions of four bar mechanisms, single & double slider cranks mechanisms
and its comparison and motion to be named were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to study inversions of four bar mechanisms, single
& double slider crank mechanism which is used in shaper and planer machines.
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. The four bar chain mechanism is used in deep boring machines and locomotives.
2. The slider and crank mechanism is used in lathes.


1. What is meant by mobility?
2. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
3. What is meant by number synthesis?
4. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
5. What is toggle position?
6. What is pantograph?
7. What are the important applications of single slider crank mechanism?
8. Compare machine and structure.
9. Give some examples for kinematic pairs.
10. Discuss Elliptical trammel.
11. Differentiate kinematic pair and kinematic chain.
12. Define ? Transmission angle
13. Define ? Toggle position
14. What is simple mechanism?
15. Define ? Inversion mechanism
16. What is meant by mechanical advantages of mechanism?
17. Define ? Sliding pair
18. Define ? Turning pair
19. Define ? Rolling pair
20. Define ? Higher pair






Viva-voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.07 KINEMATICS OF UNIVERSAL JOINT

Aim:
To study the kinematics of universal joint
Apparatus Required:
Universal joint with protractor
Description:
Universal joint is used to connect two parallel intersects shafts, the end of each shaft
is forked and each fork provides two bearings for arms of a cross. The two forks line in places
at right angles. The arms crossing are at right angles.
Procedure:
1. Rotate the driving shaft to some angle and note down the angle for the same that as shown
in the protractor.
2. For the same angle of rotation of driver shaft, note down the angle of rotation of driven shaft.
3. Increase the angle of rotation of driver shaft for periodic angular intervals, observe and
tabulate the driven angular positions.
Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Input Angle (Driver)
Degrees
Output Angle (Driven)
Degrees


Result:
Thus the kinematics of Universal Joint was studied successfully.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of the kinematics of
universal joint which is used in automobile industry.

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Application:
The universal joint is used in each end of the propeller shaft, connecting the gear box on one
end and the differential on the other end in automobiles.



1. Define - Cylindrical pair
2. Define - Lower pair
3. Define - Single slider crank mechanism
4. Define - Double slider crank mechanism
5. List out few types of rocking mechanism.
6. What is free body diagram?
7. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
8. What is the important application of single slider crank mechanism?
9. What is meant by Ackermann steering?
10. What are the two components of acceleration?
11. Define - Kennedy?s theorem
12. What are the properties of instantaneous centre?
13. What is meant by the efficiency of a mechanism?
14. State the kutzback criterion.
15. Define - Rubbing velocity
16. What is meant by virtual centre?
17. What is meant by indexing mechanism?
18. State Coriolis law.
19. Explain normal component of acceleration.
20. State the condition for a link to experience coriolis acceleration.


Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.08 DETERMINATION OF MASS MOMENT OF
INERTIA USING TURN TABLE

Aim:
To determine the moment of inertia using turn table apparatus
Apparatus required:
Turn table, masses, steel rule and brass rod
Procedure:
1. Fix the required rod and measure the dimension (dia) at various points to calculate the mean
diameter.
2. Fix the one end of the rod at the top chuck where the flywheel (disc) is suspended at the
bottom end.
3. Give the twist to the flywheel and on release measure time for 10 oscillations.
4. Repeat the experiments at different length and tabulate the observations.
Formulae used:
Time period (T) = Time taken/ No. of oscillations (in Sec)
Frequency (F
n
) = 1/T (in Hz)
Moment of Inertia = Gd
4
/ 128 ? x (Fn)
2
x l (in Kg-m
2
)
Where, Rigidity Modulus (G) = 3.5 x 10
10

(in N/m
2
) (From PSG Data Book)
Tabulation:
Diameter of the brass rod = (m)



Result:
Thus the moment of inertia of the brass rod using turn table apparatus is ___________.


Sl.No.

Length L
( m)

Time for 10
oscillations
in (Sec)

Time Period
T in
(Sec)

Frequency (Hz)

Mass Moment of
Inertia
Kg m
2

32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the moment of inertia using turntable
apparatus.
Application:
The turn table is used in machine welding, scarfing and cutting, cladding, grinding, polishing,
assembly and NDT.


1. Define ? Static force analysis
2. Define ? D Alembert?s principle
3. What do you meant by inertia?
4. What is meant by moment of inertia?
5. What is meant by polar moment inertia?
6. Define ? Section modulus
7. Define ? Parallel axis theorem
8. Define ? Perpendicular axis theorem
9. Define ? Natural frequency
10. Define ? Piston effort
11. Define ? Crank pin effort
12. Define ? Inertia torque
13. Define ? Crank effort
14. Define ? Dynamics force analysis
15. State the principle of superposition.
16. Define ? Coefficient of fluctuation of speed
17. What is meant by maximum fluctuation of speed?
18. Define ? Coefficient of fluctuation of energy
19. What do you mean by equivalent offset inertia force?
20. Define ? Radius of gyration

Viva-voce

33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.09 DETERMINATION OF RADIUS OF GYRATION USING
BIFILAR SUSPENSION
Aim:
To determine the radius of gyration of a given rectangular plate
Apparatus required:
Main frame, bifilar plate, weights, stopwatch, thread
Formula used:
Time period (T) = t/N (in Sec)
Natural frequency (F
n
) = 1/T (in Hz)
Radius of gyration (k) = (Tb/2 ) (g/L) (in mm)
Where, b = distance of string from center of gravity, T= Time period in Sec
L = Length of the string, N = Number of oscillations
t = Time taken for N oscillations (in Sec)
Procedure:
1. Select the bifilar plate.
2. With the help of chuck tighten the string at the top.
3. Adjust the length of string to desired value.
4. Give a small horizontal displacement about vertical axis.
5. Start the stop watch and note down the time required for ?N? oscillation.
6. Repeat the experiment by adding weights and also by changing the length of the strings.
7. Do the model calculation.
Graph:
A graph is plotted between mass added and radius of gyration.
Observation:
Type of suspension = bifilar suspension
Number of oscillation (n) =10
b = ________ (in m) b
1
=___________(in m) b
2
= ________ (in m)


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



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Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
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iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
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Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
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The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
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? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.06 STUDY OF INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR
MECHANISMS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE SLIDER
MECHANISMS
Aim:
To study the inversions of Four bar Mechanisms, Single & Double slider crank mechanisms
Apparatus Required:
Arrangement of four bar mechanisms, single and double slider crank mechanisms
Theory:
1. Definitions of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
2. Classifications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
3. Diagrams of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
4. Working & construction of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
5. Applications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanism
Grashof?s Law:
The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the shortest and longest link of a
planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or equal to the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be
continuous relative motion between two members. In other words, the condition is satisfied if S+L ?
P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest, and P and Q are the other links.
Single Slider Crank Chain
It is a modification of a basic four bar chain. It consists of one sliding and turning pair. It consists of
one sliding and turning pair. It is usually used in reciprocating engine mechanisms. This type of
mechanisms converts reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. E.g. IC Engines.


Fig. Single Slider Crank Chain
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Four bar mechanism:
A four bar link mechanism or linkage is the most fundamental of the plane kinematics linkages. It is a
much preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and control of motion due to its simplicity and
versatility. Basically it consists of four rigid links which are connected in the form of a quadrilateral by
four pin joints. A link that makes complete revolutions is the crank, the link opposite to the fixed link is
the coupler and the fourth link a lever or rocker if oscillates or an another crank, if rotate. By fixing the
link:-
? Shortest Link Fixed
? Link opposite to Shortest Link fixed
Fig. Four Bar Mechanism

The four links of a four bar chain are
1. Crank or Driver ? A crank is a part that makes complete revolutions.
2. Coupler ? It is a link which is opposite to the fixed link of the mechanism that is used to
connect the crank and rocker.
3. Lever or Rocker ? The link that makes a partial rotation is called as Lever or Rocker.
4. Frame ? The fixed link of a mechanism is called as Frame.
Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematics chain are known as its
inversions. A slider ?crank chain has the following inversions:-
1. First inversion (i.e; Reciprocating engine and compressor) ? this inversion is obtained when link
1 is fixed and links 2 and 4 are made the crank and the slider respectively.
2. Second inversion (i.e., Whitworth quick return mechanism and Rotary engine) ? fixing of
link 2 of a slider ? crank chain.
3. Third inversion (i.e., Oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted ? lever mechanism)
? By fixing link 3 of the slider crank mechanism.
4. Fourth inversion (Hand pump) ? I f link 4 of the slider crank mechanism is fixed, the
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fourth inversion is obtained.
Double-slider crank-chain:


A four-bar chain having two turning and two sliding pairs such that two pairs of the same
kind are adjacent is known as a double-slider-crank chain. The following are its inversions:
1. First inversion (i.e., Elliptical trammel)
2. Second inversion (i.e., Scotch yoke)
3. Third inversion (i.e., Actual Oldham?s coupling)
Applications:
1. In reciprocating engine.
2. In reciprocating compressor.
3. In Whitworth quick ? return mechanism and Rotary engine.
4. In oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted-lever mechanism.
5. In hand pump.
6. In scotch yoke.
Result:
Thus the inversions of four bar mechanisms, single & double slider cranks mechanisms
and its comparison and motion to be named were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to study inversions of four bar mechanisms, single
& double slider crank mechanism which is used in shaper and planer machines.
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. The four bar chain mechanism is used in deep boring machines and locomotives.
2. The slider and crank mechanism is used in lathes.


1. What is meant by mobility?
2. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
3. What is meant by number synthesis?
4. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
5. What is toggle position?
6. What is pantograph?
7. What are the important applications of single slider crank mechanism?
8. Compare machine and structure.
9. Give some examples for kinematic pairs.
10. Discuss Elliptical trammel.
11. Differentiate kinematic pair and kinematic chain.
12. Define ? Transmission angle
13. Define ? Toggle position
14. What is simple mechanism?
15. Define ? Inversion mechanism
16. What is meant by mechanical advantages of mechanism?
17. Define ? Sliding pair
18. Define ? Turning pair
19. Define ? Rolling pair
20. Define ? Higher pair






Viva-voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.07 KINEMATICS OF UNIVERSAL JOINT

Aim:
To study the kinematics of universal joint
Apparatus Required:
Universal joint with protractor
Description:
Universal joint is used to connect two parallel intersects shafts, the end of each shaft
is forked and each fork provides two bearings for arms of a cross. The two forks line in places
at right angles. The arms crossing are at right angles.
Procedure:
1. Rotate the driving shaft to some angle and note down the angle for the same that as shown
in the protractor.
2. For the same angle of rotation of driver shaft, note down the angle of rotation of driven shaft.
3. Increase the angle of rotation of driver shaft for periodic angular intervals, observe and
tabulate the driven angular positions.
Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Input Angle (Driver)
Degrees
Output Angle (Driven)
Degrees


Result:
Thus the kinematics of Universal Joint was studied successfully.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of the kinematics of
universal joint which is used in automobile industry.

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The universal joint is used in each end of the propeller shaft, connecting the gear box on one
end and the differential on the other end in automobiles.



1. Define - Cylindrical pair
2. Define - Lower pair
3. Define - Single slider crank mechanism
4. Define - Double slider crank mechanism
5. List out few types of rocking mechanism.
6. What is free body diagram?
7. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
8. What is the important application of single slider crank mechanism?
9. What is meant by Ackermann steering?
10. What are the two components of acceleration?
11. Define - Kennedy?s theorem
12. What are the properties of instantaneous centre?
13. What is meant by the efficiency of a mechanism?
14. State the kutzback criterion.
15. Define - Rubbing velocity
16. What is meant by virtual centre?
17. What is meant by indexing mechanism?
18. State Coriolis law.
19. Explain normal component of acceleration.
20. State the condition for a link to experience coriolis acceleration.


Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.08 DETERMINATION OF MASS MOMENT OF
INERTIA USING TURN TABLE

Aim:
To determine the moment of inertia using turn table apparatus
Apparatus required:
Turn table, masses, steel rule and brass rod
Procedure:
1. Fix the required rod and measure the dimension (dia) at various points to calculate the mean
diameter.
2. Fix the one end of the rod at the top chuck where the flywheel (disc) is suspended at the
bottom end.
3. Give the twist to the flywheel and on release measure time for 10 oscillations.
4. Repeat the experiments at different length and tabulate the observations.
Formulae used:
Time period (T) = Time taken/ No. of oscillations (in Sec)
Frequency (F
n
) = 1/T (in Hz)
Moment of Inertia = Gd
4
/ 128 ? x (Fn)
2
x l (in Kg-m
2
)
Where, Rigidity Modulus (G) = 3.5 x 10
10

(in N/m
2
) (From PSG Data Book)
Tabulation:
Diameter of the brass rod = (m)



Result:
Thus the moment of inertia of the brass rod using turn table apparatus is ___________.


Sl.No.

Length L
( m)

Time for 10
oscillations
in (Sec)

Time Period
T in
(Sec)

Frequency (Hz)

Mass Moment of
Inertia
Kg m
2

32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the moment of inertia using turntable
apparatus.
Application:
The turn table is used in machine welding, scarfing and cutting, cladding, grinding, polishing,
assembly and NDT.


1. Define ? Static force analysis
2. Define ? D Alembert?s principle
3. What do you meant by inertia?
4. What is meant by moment of inertia?
5. What is meant by polar moment inertia?
6. Define ? Section modulus
7. Define ? Parallel axis theorem
8. Define ? Perpendicular axis theorem
9. Define ? Natural frequency
10. Define ? Piston effort
11. Define ? Crank pin effort
12. Define ? Inertia torque
13. Define ? Crank effort
14. Define ? Dynamics force analysis
15. State the principle of superposition.
16. Define ? Coefficient of fluctuation of speed
17. What is meant by maximum fluctuation of speed?
18. Define ? Coefficient of fluctuation of energy
19. What do you mean by equivalent offset inertia force?
20. Define ? Radius of gyration

Viva-voce

33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.09 DETERMINATION OF RADIUS OF GYRATION USING
BIFILAR SUSPENSION
Aim:
To determine the radius of gyration of a given rectangular plate
Apparatus required:
Main frame, bifilar plate, weights, stopwatch, thread
Formula used:
Time period (T) = t/N (in Sec)
Natural frequency (F
n
) = 1/T (in Hz)
Radius of gyration (k) = (Tb/2 ) (g/L) (in mm)
Where, b = distance of string from center of gravity, T= Time period in Sec
L = Length of the string, N = Number of oscillations
t = Time taken for N oscillations (in Sec)
Procedure:
1. Select the bifilar plate.
2. With the help of chuck tighten the string at the top.
3. Adjust the length of string to desired value.
4. Give a small horizontal displacement about vertical axis.
5. Start the stop watch and note down the time required for ?N? oscillation.
6. Repeat the experiment by adding weights and also by changing the length of the strings.
7. Do the model calculation.
Graph:
A graph is plotted between mass added and radius of gyration.
Observation:
Type of suspension = bifilar suspension
Number of oscillation (n) =10
b = ________ (in m) b
1
=___________(in m) b
2
= ________ (in m)


34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:









Result:
Thus the experiment is carried out and the radius of gyration of a given rectangular plate is
__________ mm.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the radius of gyration of a given
rectangular plate.
Application:
The bifilar suspension is usually used for finding the moment of inertia of a connecting rod of
an engine.











Sl. No.
Mass added
m (Kg)
Length of
string
L (m)

Time taken
for ?N? osc.
T(Sec)
Time taken for
one osc.
(t) Sec
Natural
frequency F
n
(Hz)
Radius of
gyration (k)
(mm)


FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
1 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00


Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
4 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



8 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
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iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
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Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
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The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
12 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
13 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
14 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
15 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

16 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.06 STUDY OF INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR
MECHANISMS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE SLIDER
MECHANISMS
Aim:
To study the inversions of Four bar Mechanisms, Single & Double slider crank mechanisms
Apparatus Required:
Arrangement of four bar mechanisms, single and double slider crank mechanisms
Theory:
1. Definitions of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
2. Classifications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
3. Diagrams of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
4. Working & construction of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
5. Applications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanism
Grashof?s Law:
The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the shortest and longest link of a
planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or equal to the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be
continuous relative motion between two members. In other words, the condition is satisfied if S+L ?
P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest, and P and Q are the other links.
Single Slider Crank Chain
It is a modification of a basic four bar chain. It consists of one sliding and turning pair. It consists of
one sliding and turning pair. It is usually used in reciprocating engine mechanisms. This type of
mechanisms converts reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. E.g. IC Engines.


Fig. Single Slider Crank Chain
26 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Four bar mechanism:
A four bar link mechanism or linkage is the most fundamental of the plane kinematics linkages. It is a
much preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and control of motion due to its simplicity and
versatility. Basically it consists of four rigid links which are connected in the form of a quadrilateral by
four pin joints. A link that makes complete revolutions is the crank, the link opposite to the fixed link is
the coupler and the fourth link a lever or rocker if oscillates or an another crank, if rotate. By fixing the
link:-
? Shortest Link Fixed
? Link opposite to Shortest Link fixed
Fig. Four Bar Mechanism

The four links of a four bar chain are
1. Crank or Driver ? A crank is a part that makes complete revolutions.
2. Coupler ? It is a link which is opposite to the fixed link of the mechanism that is used to
connect the crank and rocker.
3. Lever or Rocker ? The link that makes a partial rotation is called as Lever or Rocker.
4. Frame ? The fixed link of a mechanism is called as Frame.
Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematics chain are known as its
inversions. A slider ?crank chain has the following inversions:-
1. First inversion (i.e; Reciprocating engine and compressor) ? this inversion is obtained when link
1 is fixed and links 2 and 4 are made the crank and the slider respectively.
2. Second inversion (i.e., Whitworth quick return mechanism and Rotary engine) ? fixing of
link 2 of a slider ? crank chain.
3. Third inversion (i.e., Oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted ? lever mechanism)
? By fixing link 3 of the slider crank mechanism.
4. Fourth inversion (Hand pump) ? I f link 4 of the slider crank mechanism is fixed, the
27 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

fourth inversion is obtained.
Double-slider crank-chain:


A four-bar chain having two turning and two sliding pairs such that two pairs of the same
kind are adjacent is known as a double-slider-crank chain. The following are its inversions:
1. First inversion (i.e., Elliptical trammel)
2. Second inversion (i.e., Scotch yoke)
3. Third inversion (i.e., Actual Oldham?s coupling)
Applications:
1. In reciprocating engine.
2. In reciprocating compressor.
3. In Whitworth quick ? return mechanism and Rotary engine.
4. In oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted-lever mechanism.
5. In hand pump.
6. In scotch yoke.
Result:
Thus the inversions of four bar mechanisms, single & double slider cranks mechanisms
and its comparison and motion to be named were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to study inversions of four bar mechanisms, single
& double slider crank mechanism which is used in shaper and planer machines.
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. The four bar chain mechanism is used in deep boring machines and locomotives.
2. The slider and crank mechanism is used in lathes.


1. What is meant by mobility?
2. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
3. What is meant by number synthesis?
4. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
5. What is toggle position?
6. What is pantograph?
7. What are the important applications of single slider crank mechanism?
8. Compare machine and structure.
9. Give some examples for kinematic pairs.
10. Discuss Elliptical trammel.
11. Differentiate kinematic pair and kinematic chain.
12. Define ? Transmission angle
13. Define ? Toggle position
14. What is simple mechanism?
15. Define ? Inversion mechanism
16. What is meant by mechanical advantages of mechanism?
17. Define ? Sliding pair
18. Define ? Turning pair
19. Define ? Rolling pair
20. Define ? Higher pair






Viva-voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.07 KINEMATICS OF UNIVERSAL JOINT

Aim:
To study the kinematics of universal joint
Apparatus Required:
Universal joint with protractor
Description:
Universal joint is used to connect two parallel intersects shafts, the end of each shaft
is forked and each fork provides two bearings for arms of a cross. The two forks line in places
at right angles. The arms crossing are at right angles.
Procedure:
1. Rotate the driving shaft to some angle and note down the angle for the same that as shown
in the protractor.
2. For the same angle of rotation of driver shaft, note down the angle of rotation of driven shaft.
3. Increase the angle of rotation of driver shaft for periodic angular intervals, observe and
tabulate the driven angular positions.
Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Input Angle (Driver)
Degrees
Output Angle (Driven)
Degrees


Result:
Thus the kinematics of Universal Joint was studied successfully.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of the kinematics of
universal joint which is used in automobile industry.

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The universal joint is used in each end of the propeller shaft, connecting the gear box on one
end and the differential on the other end in automobiles.



1. Define - Cylindrical pair
2. Define - Lower pair
3. Define - Single slider crank mechanism
4. Define - Double slider crank mechanism
5. List out few types of rocking mechanism.
6. What is free body diagram?
7. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
8. What is the important application of single slider crank mechanism?
9. What is meant by Ackermann steering?
10. What are the two components of acceleration?
11. Define - Kennedy?s theorem
12. What are the properties of instantaneous centre?
13. What is meant by the efficiency of a mechanism?
14. State the kutzback criterion.
15. Define - Rubbing velocity
16. What is meant by virtual centre?
17. What is meant by indexing mechanism?
18. State Coriolis law.
19. Explain normal component of acceleration.
20. State the condition for a link to experience coriolis acceleration.


Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.08 DETERMINATION OF MASS MOMENT OF
INERTIA USING TURN TABLE

Aim:
To determine the moment of inertia using turn table apparatus
Apparatus required:
Turn table, masses, steel rule and brass rod
Procedure:
1. Fix the required rod and measure the dimension (dia) at various points to calculate the mean
diameter.
2. Fix the one end of the rod at the top chuck where the flywheel (disc) is suspended at the
bottom end.
3. Give the twist to the flywheel and on release measure time for 10 oscillations.
4. Repeat the experiments at different length and tabulate the observations.
Formulae used:
Time period (T) = Time taken/ No. of oscillations (in Sec)
Frequency (F
n
) = 1/T (in Hz)
Moment of Inertia = Gd
4
/ 128 ? x (Fn)
2
x l (in Kg-m
2
)
Where, Rigidity Modulus (G) = 3.5 x 10
10

(in N/m
2
) (From PSG Data Book)
Tabulation:
Diameter of the brass rod = (m)



Result:
Thus the moment of inertia of the brass rod using turn table apparatus is ___________.


Sl.No.

Length L
( m)

Time for 10
oscillations
in (Sec)

Time Period
T in
(Sec)

Frequency (Hz)

Mass Moment of
Inertia
Kg m
2

32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the moment of inertia using turntable
apparatus.
Application:
The turn table is used in machine welding, scarfing and cutting, cladding, grinding, polishing,
assembly and NDT.


1. Define ? Static force analysis
2. Define ? D Alembert?s principle
3. What do you meant by inertia?
4. What is meant by moment of inertia?
5. What is meant by polar moment inertia?
6. Define ? Section modulus
7. Define ? Parallel axis theorem
8. Define ? Perpendicular axis theorem
9. Define ? Natural frequency
10. Define ? Piston effort
11. Define ? Crank pin effort
12. Define ? Inertia torque
13. Define ? Crank effort
14. Define ? Dynamics force analysis
15. State the principle of superposition.
16. Define ? Coefficient of fluctuation of speed
17. What is meant by maximum fluctuation of speed?
18. Define ? Coefficient of fluctuation of energy
19. What do you mean by equivalent offset inertia force?
20. Define ? Radius of gyration

Viva-voce

33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.09 DETERMINATION OF RADIUS OF GYRATION USING
BIFILAR SUSPENSION
Aim:
To determine the radius of gyration of a given rectangular plate
Apparatus required:
Main frame, bifilar plate, weights, stopwatch, thread
Formula used:
Time period (T) = t/N (in Sec)
Natural frequency (F
n
) = 1/T (in Hz)
Radius of gyration (k) = (Tb/2 ) (g/L) (in mm)
Where, b = distance of string from center of gravity, T= Time period in Sec
L = Length of the string, N = Number of oscillations
t = Time taken for N oscillations (in Sec)
Procedure:
1. Select the bifilar plate.
2. With the help of chuck tighten the string at the top.
3. Adjust the length of string to desired value.
4. Give a small horizontal displacement about vertical axis.
5. Start the stop watch and note down the time required for ?N? oscillation.
6. Repeat the experiment by adding weights and also by changing the length of the strings.
7. Do the model calculation.
Graph:
A graph is plotted between mass added and radius of gyration.
Observation:
Type of suspension = bifilar suspension
Number of oscillation (n) =10
b = ________ (in m) b
1
=___________(in m) b
2
= ________ (in m)


34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:









Result:
Thus the experiment is carried out and the radius of gyration of a given rectangular plate is
__________ mm.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the radius of gyration of a given
rectangular plate.
Application:
The bifilar suspension is usually used for finding the moment of inertia of a connecting rod of
an engine.











Sl. No.
Mass added
m (Kg)
Length of
string
L (m)

Time taken
for ?N? osc.
T(Sec)
Time taken for
one osc.
(t) Sec
Natural
frequency F
n
(Hz)
Radius of
gyration (k)
(mm)


35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Briefly explain elastic suspension.
2. Define - Transmissibility ratio
3. What is meant by transmissibility?
4. What is meant by indexing mechanism?
5. What is limiting angle of friction?
6. What is the use of differential in automobile?
8. What is pantograph?
9. What are the important applications of single slider crank mechanism?
10. What is the toggle position?
11. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
12. What are the requirements of an equivalent dynamical system?
13. What are the forces acting on the connecting rod?
14. Define - Resonance
15. Define - Steady state and transient vibrations
16. What is equivalent spring stiffness?
17. What are the causes of critical speed?
18. Define - Damping ratio
19. Define - Logarithmic decrement
20. What is meant by dynamic magnifier?
21. What are the factors that affect the critical speed of a shaft?
Viva-voce

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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
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is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

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Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


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experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
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engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
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PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancing of Rotating masses 59
20. Balancing of Reciprocating masses 61
21.
Measurement of displacement, velocity and Acceleration using vibration
analysis
63
22. Hartnell Governer 65
EXPERIMENTS BEYOND SYLLABUS
23. Study of Vibration 69
24. Stroboscope 73
25. List of Projects 76



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Expt. No.01 STUDY OF GEARS
Aim:
To study the various types of gears and its parameter
Apparatus required:
Arrangement of gear system
Introduction:
Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another or between a shaft. This is
accomplished by successful engaging of tooth. Gears are intermediate links or connections and transmit
the motion by direct contact. In this method the surface of two bodies have either a rolling or sliding
motion along the tangent at the point of contact to transmit the definite motion of one disc to another or
to prevent slip between the surface projection and recession on two discs can be made which can mesh
with each other. The discs with teeth are known as gears or gear wheel.
Classification of gear:
The different kinds of gears are:
1. Based on the peripheral velocity of gears
a. Low velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity < 3 m/s
b. Medium velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity = 3-15 m/s
c. High velocity gears ? Gears with peripheral velocity > 15 m/s
2. Based on the position of axes of revolution
a. Gears with parallel axes
i. Spur gear
ii. Helical Gear
a) Single Helical Gear
b) Double Helical Gear (or) Herringbone Gear
b. Gears with intersecting axes
i. Bevel Gear
a) Straight bevel gear
b) Spiral bevel gear
c) Zerol bevel gear
d) Hypoid bevel gear
ii. Angular gear
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iii. Miter gear
c. Gears with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes
i. Worm gear
a) Non-throated worm gear
b) Single-throated worm gear
c) Double-throated worm gear
ii. Hypoid gear
iii. Screw gear (or crossed helical gear)
3. Based on the type of gearing
a. Internal gear
b. External gear
c. Rack and Pinion
4. Based on the tooth profile on the gear surface
a. Gears with straight teeth
b. Gears with curved teeth
c. Gears with inclined teeth
1. Spur Gear:
Spur gears have straight teeth parallel to the rotating axis and thus are not subjected to axial
thrust due to teeth load. Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth, and
are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to create very large
gear reductions.
Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a
noise. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. Spur gears are the most commonly used gear
type. They are characterized by teeth, which are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are
most commonly available, and are generally the least expensive.

Fig. External spur gear Fig. Internal spur gear
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Spur Gear Terminology:


Fig. Spur Gear Terminology
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The following terms, which are mostly used to describe a gear, are as follow:
? Face of tooth: It is defined as the surface of the tooth above the pitch circle is known as face.
? Flank of tooth: The surface of the tooth below the pitch circle is known as flank.
? Top land: The top most surface of the tooth is known as the top land of the tooth.
? Face width: Width of the tooth is known as face width.
? Pitch Circle: It is an imaginary circle which is in pure rolling action. The motion of the gear is
describe by the pitch circle motion.
? Pitch Circle diameter: The diameter of the pitch circle from the center of the gear is known as
pitch circle diameter. The gear diameter is described by its pitch circle diameter.
? Pitch point: When the two gears are in contact, the common point of both of pitch circle of
meshing gears is known as pitch point.
? Pressure angle or angle of obliquity: Pressure angle is the angle between common normal to the
pitch circle to the common tangent to the pitch point.
? Addendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the top of the tooth in radial direction is known
as addendum.
? Dedendum: Distance between the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth in radial direction, is
known as dedendum of the gear.
? Addendum circle: The circle passes from the top of the tooth is known as addendum circle. This
circle is concentric with pitch circle.
? Dedendum circle: The circle passes from the bottom of the tooth is known as dedendum circle.
This circle is also concentric with pitch circle and addendum circle.
? Circular pitch: The distance between a point of a tooth to the same point of the adjacent tooth,
measured along circumference of the pitch circle is known as circular pitch. It is plays measure
role in gear meshing. Two gears will mesh together correctly if and only they have same circular
pitch.
? Diametrical pitch: The ratio of the number of teeth to the diameter of pitch circle in millimeter is
known as diametrical pitch.
? Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the total number of teeth is known
as module. It is reciprocal of the diametrical pitch.
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? Clearance: When two gears are in meshing condition, the radial distance from top of a tooth of
one gear to the bottom of the tooth of another gear is known as clearance. The circle passes
from the top of the tooth in meshing condition is known as clearance angle.
? Total depth: The sum of the addendum and dedendum of a gear is known as total depth. It is the
distance between addendum circle to the dedendum circle measure along radial direction.
? Working depth: The distance between addendum circle to the clearance circle measured along
radial direction is known as working depth of the gear.
? Tooth thickness: Distance of the tooth measured along the circumference of the pitch circle is
known as tooth thickness.
? Tooth space: Distance between the two adjacent tooth measured along the circumference of the
pitch circle is known as the tooth space.
? Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth thickness and the tooth space. It prevents
jamming of the gears in meshing condition.
? Profile: It is the curved formed by the face and flank is known as profile of the tooth. Gear tooth
are generally have cycloidal or involute profile.
? Path of contact: The curved traced by the point of contact of two teeth form beginning to the end
of engagement is known as path of contact.
? Arc of contact: It is the curve traced by the pitch point form the beginning to the end of
engagement is known as arc of contact.
? Arc of approach: The portion of the path of contact from beginning of engagement to the pitch
point is known as arc of approach.
? Arc of recess: The portion of the path of contact form pitch point to the end of the engagement is
known as arc of recess.
2. Helical Gear:
The helical gear is used to connect two parallel shafts and teeth inclined or unused to the axis of the
shafts. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling causes the tooth shape to be a segment of a helix. Helical gears
can be meshed in a parallel or crossed orientations.
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Fig. Helical Gear Fig. Bevel Gear
3. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears transmit power between two intersecting shafts at any angle or between non- intersecting
shafts. They are classified as straight and spiral tooth bevel and hypoid gears. When intersecting shafts
are connected by gears, the pitch cones (analogous to the pitch cylinders of spur and helical gears) are
tangent along an element, with their apexes at the intersection of the shafts where two bevel gears are
in mesh. The size and shape of the teeth are defined at the large end, where they intersect the back
cones. Pitch cone and back cone elements are perpendicular to each other. The tooth profiles resemble
those of spur gears having pitch radii equal to the developed back cone radii.
4. Worm Gear:
Worm gears are usually used when large speed reductions are needed. The reduction ratio is
determined by the number of starts of the worm and number of teeth on the worm gear. But worm gears
have sliding contact which is quiet but tends to produce heat and have relatively low transmission
efficiency.
The applications for worm gears include gear boxes, fishing pole reels, guitar string tuning pegs, and
where a delicate speed adjustment by utilizing a large speed reduction is needed.

Fig. Worm and worm wheel Fig. Screw gear Fig. Miter gear
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5. Screw gears:
Screw gears, also sometimes called crossed helical gears, are helical gears used in motion
transmission between non-intersecting shafts. The helical gears used in parallel shafts have the same
helix angle but in the opposite directions.
6. Miter gears:
Miter gears are one type of bevel gears where the two rotational axes intersect. When speaking of
narrow definition of bevel gears with ability to increase or decrease speed, miter gears do not have that
ability due to the pair?s same number of teeth. Their purpose is limited to the change in transmission
direction. Because they are a type of bevel gears, the basic characteristic of bevel gears exist such as
presence of gear forms of straight cut, spiral cut and zerol types.

Result:
Thus gear, types and its parameters were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of gear, types and its
parameters which is used in transmission systems.
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Application:
1. They are used in back gear of the lathe, hoists, pulley blocks, clock, wrist watches and precision
equipment.
2. They are popular for automatic transmission in automobiles.
3. They are used for power train between internal combustion engine and an electric motor.
4. They are also used in speed drives in textile and Jute machineries.

1. Define ? Pitch circle
2. Define ? Pitch point
3. Define ? Circular pitch
4. Define ? Module
5. Define ? Backlash
7. What is axial of a helical gear?
8. Define ? Cycloid
9. Define ? Undercutting gear
10. What is meant by contact ratio?
11. Define ? Gear tooth system
12. State law of gearing.
13. What is an angle of obliquity in gears?
14. What is bevel gearing? Mention its types.
15. What are the methods to avoid interference?
16. What do you know about tumbler gear?
17. Define ? Interference
18. Define ? Backlash
19. What is meant by non ? standard gear teeth?
20. Define ? Cycloidal tooth profile
Viva-voce

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Expt. No.02

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SPEED RATIO OF
SPUR GEAR TRAIN

Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur gear train
Apparatus required:
Spur gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1
x 100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
1. Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front
panel of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm
(N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm
(N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of a spur gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of spur
gear train which is used in transmission systems.
17 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The spur gear trains are used in electric screw driver, windup alarm clock, washing machine and
clothes dryer.


1. What is a simple gear train?
2. What are the types of gear trains?
3. What is a compound gear train?
4. What is reverted gear train?
5. What is an epicyclic or planetary gear train?
6. What is gear train or train of wheels?
7. Write velocity ratio in compound train of wheels?
8. State the methods to find the velocity ratio of epicyclic gear train.
9. What is the externally applied torque used to keep the gear train in equilibrium?
10. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
11. What are the advantage and limitations of gear train?
12. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gears?
13. What is meant by slope of a thread?
14. Where will the interference occur in an involute pinion and gear mesh having same size of
addendum?
15. What is the advantage when arc of recess is equal to arc of approach in meshing gears?
16. Write down the differences between involute and cycloidal tooth profile.
17. Name two applications of reverted gear train.
18. What are the advantages of planetary gear train?
19. What is the use of differential in automobile?
20. What are various types of torques in an epicyclic gear train?

Viva-voce

18 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.03 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF AN
EPICYCLIC GEAR TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an epicyclic gear train
Apparatus required:
Epicyclic gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel of
electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total reduction in speed (N) = (N
1
? N
2
) / N
1 x
100 in %
Where,
N
1
= Input Speed in rpm
N
2
= Output Speed in rpm
2. Speed Ratio = (Input Speed/ Output Speed)
Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed.
Tabulation:

Sl. No.
Input Speed in
rpm (N
1
)
Output Speed in
rpm (N
2
)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)

Speed
Ratio
(N
1
/N
2
)

Result:
Thus the speed ratio of an epicyclic gear reducer is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of an
Epicyclic gear train which is used in transmission systems.
19 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The epicyclic gear trains are used in the back gear of lathe, differential gears of the automobile, hoists,
pulley blocks, wrist watches.


1. Which type of gear box is used in automobiles?
2. What is meant by an idle gear?
3. In which type of vehicles, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
4. In which type of gear trains, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion
between them?
2. Define the term Limiting friction.
3. Define pressure angle and explain the effect of different pressure angles.
4. What is axial pitch of a helical gear?
5. What are timing belts?
6. Explain the construction of involute teeth and its advantages.
7. State the conditions for constant velocity ratio of toothed wheels.
8. How to change the direction of rotation of the output gear in simple gear train without changing the
direction of rotation of input gear?
9. What is the condition for self-locking in screws?
10. State the relationship between circular pitch and the module.
11. State the laws of dry friction.
12. Briefly write about reverted gear train with suitable sketch.
13. What is the effect of centrifugal tension in belt drives?
14. Explain any two methods of reducing or eliminating interference in gears.
15. Why lubrication reduces friction?
16. What is meant by crowning in pulley?
Viva-voce

20 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.04 STUDY OF SPEED RATIO OF DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
TRAIN
Aim:
To conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of differential gear train
Apparatus required:
Differential gear train, digital speed indicator, speed transformer
Procedure:
1. Connect the main chord to the 230 V, 50 Hz power supply.
2. Connect the sensor 1and sensor 2 to the respective sensor sockets provided on the front panel
of electronic speed control system.
3. Connect the motor cable to the terminal socket.
4. Initially, keep variable speed control knob in closed position.
5. Switch on the instrument.
6. Adjust the speed by tuning the knob and tabulate the readings and calculate.
Formulae Used:
1. Total speed reduction in
Right wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
Left wheel (N R) = (N 1- N 2)/ N1 x 100 in %
where,
N1 = input speed in rpm,
N 2 = output speed in rpm
2. Speed ratio
Right wheel (N R) = (input speed / output speed)
Left wheel (N L) = (input speed / output speed)

Tabulation:

Sl. No. Input Speed (rpm) N
Output Speed
(rpm)
Total reduction in
Speed (N)
Speed Ratio
Right
Wheel
(N
1
)
Left
Wheel
(N
2
)
Right
Wheel
(N
1)

Left
Wheel
(N
2)

Right
Wheel
N
R

Left
Wheel
N
L


21 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Graph:
Input Speed Vs Output Speed (for N
R
and N
L
)
Result:
Thus, the speed ratio of a differential gear train is carried out and the graph is plotted.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to conduct the experimental study of speed ratio of
differential gear train which is used in differential unit.
Application:
The differential gear trains are used in the rear drive of an automobile.



1. What is meant by an idle gear?
2. In which type of vehicle, differential gear box is mounted on rear wheel axle?
3. In which type of gear train, shaft axes which are mounted by gear wheels have relative motion between
them?
4. What is meant by initial tension in belts?
5. What is meant by angle of contact?
6. Sate the law of belting?
7. What are the belt materials?
8. What is the effect of slip on velocity ratio of a belt drive?
9. What is meant by slope of a thread?
10. What are the effects of limiting angle of friction?
11. What do you know about tumbler gear?
12. What is the arc of contact between two gears of pressure angle?
13. What is the maximum efficiency in worm and worm gear?
14. What is the condition and expression for maximum efficiency in spiral gear?
15. What are the standard interchangeable tooth profiles?
16. What is the involute function in terms of pressure angle?
17. What is the minimum number of teeth on a pinion for involute rack in order to avoid interference?
Viva-voce

22 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No. 05 DETERMINATION OF TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY OF A
WORM GEAR REDUCER
Aim:
To determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
Apparatus required:
Worm gear box with coupler, 1 HP Induction motor, energy watt meter, spring balance, stop clock,
tachometer
Procedure:
1. Connect the power cable to 3 Phase electric supply.
2. Initially, balance the spring on no load position.
3. Switch ON the power and simultaneously give the equal range load on springs of both sides by
tightening the knobs.
4. Note down the number of revolution of energy meter and time taken for the same.
Formulae Used:
Torque = (W
1
? W
2
) x 9.81 x r N-m
Effective radius (r) = r
r
+ r
d
Where,
W
1
and W
2
= Spring balance weight in Kg
r
d
and r
r
= Radius of drum and the radius of rope in m
Input Power = (3600x N
E
)/ (Energy meter constant X Time) in KW
Output Power = 2?NT/ 60 in KW
Transmission Efficiency = (O.P / I.P) x 100 in %








23 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:


Result:
Thus experimentally the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer is determined.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the transmission efficiency of a worm gear reducer
which is used in transmission systems.
Application:
The worm gear drives are used in gate control mechanisms, hoisting machines, automobile steering
mechanisms, lifts, conveyors, presses.













Sl.
No.
Output
Speed
in rpm
(N
2
)
Input
Speed
in rpm
(N
1
)
Spring
balance
weight
No. of
revolutions
in
wattmeter
(N
E)


Time taken
for 2
revolutions
(Sec)


Torque
(N-m)

Output
Power
(KW)

Input
Power
(KW)

Transmission
Efficiency
(?%)
W
1
(Kg)
W
2
(Kg)

24 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Under what situation, worm gears are used?
2. Where do we use worm gears?
3. What is irreversibility in worm gears?
4. What are single ? enveloping and double - enveloping worm drives?
5. How can you specify a pair of worm gears?
6. Define ? Normal pitch of a worm gear
7. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
8. Differentiate self ? locking and over running worm drives.
9. Why phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears?
10. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
11. In worm gear drive, only the wheels are designed. Why?
12. Why is dynamic loading rarely considered in worm gear drives?
13. What are the various losses in the worm gear?
14. In worm gearing heat removal is an important design requirement. Why?
15. What are preferred numbers?
16. What situations demand use of gear boxes?
17. List out the main types of failure in worm gear drive.
18. What is the velocity ratio range of worm gear drive?
19. What is a speed reducer?
20. Define ? Progression ratio









Viva-voce

25 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.06 STUDY OF INVERSIONS OF FOUR BAR
MECHANISMS, SINGLE AND DOUBLE SLIDER
MECHANISMS
Aim:
To study the inversions of Four bar Mechanisms, Single & Double slider crank mechanisms
Apparatus Required:
Arrangement of four bar mechanisms, single and double slider crank mechanisms
Theory:
1. Definitions of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
2. Classifications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
3. Diagrams of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
4. Working & construction of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanisms
5. Applications of 4 bar mechanisms, single & double slider crank mechanism
Grashof?s Law:
The Grashof condition for a four-bar linkage states: If the sum of the shortest and longest link of a
planar quadrilateral linkage is less than or equal to the sum of the remaining two links, if there is to be
continuous relative motion between two members. In other words, the condition is satisfied if S+L ?
P+Q where S is the shortest link, L is the longest, and P and Q are the other links.
Single Slider Crank Chain
It is a modification of a basic four bar chain. It consists of one sliding and turning pair. It consists of
one sliding and turning pair. It is usually used in reciprocating engine mechanisms. This type of
mechanisms converts reciprocating motion in to rotary motion. E.g. IC Engines.


Fig. Single Slider Crank Chain
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Four bar mechanism:
A four bar link mechanism or linkage is the most fundamental of the plane kinematics linkages. It is a
much preferred mechanical device for the mechanization and control of motion due to its simplicity and
versatility. Basically it consists of four rigid links which are connected in the form of a quadrilateral by
four pin joints. A link that makes complete revolutions is the crank, the link opposite to the fixed link is
the coupler and the fourth link a lever or rocker if oscillates or an another crank, if rotate. By fixing the
link:-
? Shortest Link Fixed
? Link opposite to Shortest Link fixed
Fig. Four Bar Mechanism

The four links of a four bar chain are
1. Crank or Driver ? A crank is a part that makes complete revolutions.
2. Coupler ? It is a link which is opposite to the fixed link of the mechanism that is used to
connect the crank and rocker.
3. Lever or Rocker ? The link that makes a partial rotation is called as Lever or Rocker.
4. Frame ? The fixed link of a mechanism is called as Frame.
Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematics chain are known as its
inversions. A slider ?crank chain has the following inversions:-
1. First inversion (i.e; Reciprocating engine and compressor) ? this inversion is obtained when link
1 is fixed and links 2 and 4 are made the crank and the slider respectively.
2. Second inversion (i.e., Whitworth quick return mechanism and Rotary engine) ? fixing of
link 2 of a slider ? crank chain.
3. Third inversion (i.e., Oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted ? lever mechanism)
? By fixing link 3 of the slider crank mechanism.
4. Fourth inversion (Hand pump) ? I f link 4 of the slider crank mechanism is fixed, the
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fourth inversion is obtained.
Double-slider crank-chain:


A four-bar chain having two turning and two sliding pairs such that two pairs of the same
kind are adjacent is known as a double-slider-crank chain. The following are its inversions:
1. First inversion (i.e., Elliptical trammel)
2. Second inversion (i.e., Scotch yoke)
3. Third inversion (i.e., Actual Oldham?s coupling)
Applications:
1. In reciprocating engine.
2. In reciprocating compressor.
3. In Whitworth quick ? return mechanism and Rotary engine.
4. In oscillating cylinder engine and crank & slotted-lever mechanism.
5. In hand pump.
6. In scotch yoke.
Result:
Thus the inversions of four bar mechanisms, single & double slider cranks mechanisms
and its comparison and motion to be named were studied.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to study inversions of four bar mechanisms, single
& double slider crank mechanism which is used in shaper and planer machines.
28 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
1. The four bar chain mechanism is used in deep boring machines and locomotives.
2. The slider and crank mechanism is used in lathes.


1. What is meant by mobility?
2. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
3. What is meant by number synthesis?
4. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
5. What is toggle position?
6. What is pantograph?
7. What are the important applications of single slider crank mechanism?
8. Compare machine and structure.
9. Give some examples for kinematic pairs.
10. Discuss Elliptical trammel.
11. Differentiate kinematic pair and kinematic chain.
12. Define ? Transmission angle
13. Define ? Toggle position
14. What is simple mechanism?
15. Define ? Inversion mechanism
16. What is meant by mechanical advantages of mechanism?
17. Define ? Sliding pair
18. Define ? Turning pair
19. Define ? Rolling pair
20. Define ? Higher pair






Viva-voce

29 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt.No.07 KINEMATICS OF UNIVERSAL JOINT

Aim:
To study the kinematics of universal joint
Apparatus Required:
Universal joint with protractor
Description:
Universal joint is used to connect two parallel intersects shafts, the end of each shaft
is forked and each fork provides two bearings for arms of a cross. The two forks line in places
at right angles. The arms crossing are at right angles.
Procedure:
1. Rotate the driving shaft to some angle and note down the angle for the same that as shown
in the protractor.
2. For the same angle of rotation of driver shaft, note down the angle of rotation of driven shaft.
3. Increase the angle of rotation of driver shaft for periodic angular intervals, observe and
tabulate the driven angular positions.
Tabulation:
Sl. No.
Input Angle (Driver)
Degrees
Output Angle (Driven)
Degrees


Result:
Thus the kinematics of Universal Joint was studied successfully.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to demonstrate the principles of the kinematics of
universal joint which is used in automobile industry.

30 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Application:
The universal joint is used in each end of the propeller shaft, connecting the gear box on one
end and the differential on the other end in automobiles.



1. Define - Cylindrical pair
2. Define - Lower pair
3. Define - Single slider crank mechanism
4. Define - Double slider crank mechanism
5. List out few types of rocking mechanism.
6. What is free body diagram?
7. What are the important inversions of four bar chain mechanism?
8. What is the important application of single slider crank mechanism?
9. What is meant by Ackermann steering?
10. What are the two components of acceleration?
11. Define - Kennedy?s theorem
12. What are the properties of instantaneous centre?
13. What is meant by the efficiency of a mechanism?
14. State the kutzback criterion.
15. Define - Rubbing velocity
16. What is meant by virtual centre?
17. What is meant by indexing mechanism?
18. State Coriolis law.
19. Explain normal component of acceleration.
20. State the condition for a link to experience coriolis acceleration.


Viva-voce

31 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.08 DETERMINATION OF MASS MOMENT OF
INERTIA USING TURN TABLE

Aim:
To determine the moment of inertia using turn table apparatus
Apparatus required:
Turn table, masses, steel rule and brass rod
Procedure:
1. Fix the required rod and measure the dimension (dia) at various points to calculate the mean
diameter.
2. Fix the one end of the rod at the top chuck where the flywheel (disc) is suspended at the
bottom end.
3. Give the twist to the flywheel and on release measure time for 10 oscillations.
4. Repeat the experiments at different length and tabulate the observations.
Formulae used:
Time period (T) = Time taken/ No. of oscillations (in Sec)
Frequency (F
n
) = 1/T (in Hz)
Moment of Inertia = Gd
4
/ 128 ? x (Fn)
2
x l (in Kg-m
2
)
Where, Rigidity Modulus (G) = 3.5 x 10
10

(in N/m
2
) (From PSG Data Book)
Tabulation:
Diameter of the brass rod = (m)



Result:
Thus the moment of inertia of the brass rod using turn table apparatus is ___________.


Sl.No.

Length L
( m)

Time for 10
oscillations
in (Sec)

Time Period
T in
(Sec)

Frequency (Hz)

Mass Moment of
Inertia
Kg m
2

32 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the moment of inertia using turntable
apparatus.
Application:
The turn table is used in machine welding, scarfing and cutting, cladding, grinding, polishing,
assembly and NDT.


1. Define ? Static force analysis
2. Define ? D Alembert?s principle
3. What do you meant by inertia?
4. What is meant by moment of inertia?
5. What is meant by polar moment inertia?
6. Define ? Section modulus
7. Define ? Parallel axis theorem
8. Define ? Perpendicular axis theorem
9. Define ? Natural frequency
10. Define ? Piston effort
11. Define ? Crank pin effort
12. Define ? Inertia torque
13. Define ? Crank effort
14. Define ? Dynamics force analysis
15. State the principle of superposition.
16. Define ? Coefficient of fluctuation of speed
17. What is meant by maximum fluctuation of speed?
18. Define ? Coefficient of fluctuation of energy
19. What do you mean by equivalent offset inertia force?
20. Define ? Radius of gyration

Viva-voce

33 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.09 DETERMINATION OF RADIUS OF GYRATION USING
BIFILAR SUSPENSION
Aim:
To determine the radius of gyration of a given rectangular plate
Apparatus required:
Main frame, bifilar plate, weights, stopwatch, thread
Formula used:
Time period (T) = t/N (in Sec)
Natural frequency (F
n
) = 1/T (in Hz)
Radius of gyration (k) = (Tb/2 ) (g/L) (in mm)
Where, b = distance of string from center of gravity, T= Time period in Sec
L = Length of the string, N = Number of oscillations
t = Time taken for N oscillations (in Sec)
Procedure:
1. Select the bifilar plate.
2. With the help of chuck tighten the string at the top.
3. Adjust the length of string to desired value.
4. Give a small horizontal displacement about vertical axis.
5. Start the stop watch and note down the time required for ?N? oscillation.
6. Repeat the experiment by adding weights and also by changing the length of the strings.
7. Do the model calculation.
Graph:
A graph is plotted between mass added and radius of gyration.
Observation:
Type of suspension = bifilar suspension
Number of oscillation (n) =10
b = ________ (in m) b
1
=___________(in m) b
2
= ________ (in m)


34 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Tabulation:









Result:
Thus the experiment is carried out and the radius of gyration of a given rectangular plate is
__________ mm.
Outcome:
From this experiment, students will be able to determine the radius of gyration of a given
rectangular plate.
Application:
The bifilar suspension is usually used for finding the moment of inertia of a connecting rod of
an engine.











Sl. No.
Mass added
m (Kg)
Length of
string
L (m)

Time taken
for ?N? osc.
T(Sec)
Time taken for
one osc.
(t) Sec
Natural
frequency F
n
(Hz)
Radius of
gyration (k)
(mm)


35 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



1. Briefly explain elastic suspension.
2. Define - Transmissibility ratio
3. What is meant by transmissibility?
4. What is meant by indexing mechanism?
5. What is limiting angle of friction?
6. What is the use of differential in automobile?
8. What is pantograph?
9. What are the important applications of single slider crank mechanism?
10. What is the toggle position?
11. What is meant by spatial mechanism?
12. What are the requirements of an equivalent dynamical system?
13. What are the forces acting on the connecting rod?
14. Define - Resonance
15. Define - Steady state and transient vibrations
16. What is equivalent spring stiffness?
17. What are the causes of critical speed?
18. Define - Damping ratio
19. Define - Logarithmic decrement
20. What is meant by dynamic magnifier?
21. What are the factors that affect the critical speed of a shaft?
Viva-voce

36 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

Expt. No.10 DETERMINATION OF MASS MOMENT OF
INERTIA OF COMPOUND PENDULUM

Aim:
To determine the radius of gyration, mass moment of inertia and the natural frequency of
the given circular rod experimentally
Apparatus required:
1. Vertical frame, 2.Circular rod, 3. Stop watch and 4. Steel rule
Formulae used:
Experimental Time period (T
exp
) = t/N (in Sec)
Theoretical time period (T
theo
) = 2? ((K
2
+ h
1
2
)/gh
1
)
Experimental radius of gyration (K
exp
) = h/?12 (in m)
Theoretical radius of gyration (K
theo
) = ? ((gh
1
T
2
/4?
2
)- h
1
2
) (in m)
Where, h
1
= distance from point of suspension to centre of gravity of rod
h = total length of the rod
Natural frequency (Fn) :
(by Experiment) = 1/ T
exp
(Hz)
(by Theoretical ) = 1/ T
theo
(Hz)
Moment of inertia (I) = mk
2
in kg-m
2

Equivalent Length of pendulum (l) = (K
2
+ h
2
)/h in m
Procedure:
1. Suspend the rod through any one of the holes.
2. Give a small angular displacement to the rod & note the time taken for 5 oscillations.
3. Repeat the step by suspending through all the holes.










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Tambaram, ?



DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
ME 6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
V SEMESTER - R 2013






Name : _______________________________________
Register No. : _______________________________________
Section : _______________________________________

LABORATORY MANUAL
2 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00





3 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00



is committed to provide highly disciplined, conscientious and
enterprising professionals conforming to global standards through value based quality education and
training.

? To provide competent technical manpower capable of meeting requirements of the industry
? To contribute to the promotion of Academic Excellence in pursuit of Technical Education at different
levels
? To train the students to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder but to never put a price tag on
heart and soul

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


Rendering the services to the global needs of engineering industries by educating students to
become professionally sound mechanical engineers of excellent caliber


To produce mechanical engineering technocrats with a perfect knowledge intellectual and hands on
experience and to inculcate the spirit of moral values and ethics to serve the society





VISION

MISSION
VISION

MISSION
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEOs)
1. Fundamentals
To impart students with fundamental knowledge in mathematics and basic sciences that will
mould them to be successful professionals
2. Core competence
To provide students with sound knowledge in engineering and experimental skills to identify
complex software problems in industry and to develop a practical solution for them
3. Breadth
To provide relevant training and experience to bridge the gap between theory and practice which
enable them to find solutions for the real time problems in industry and organization and to
design products requiring interdisciplinary skills
4. Professional skills
To bestow students with adequate training and provide opportunities to work as team that will
build up their communication skills, individual, leadership and supportive qualities and to enable
them to adapt and to work in ever changing technologies
5. Life-long learning
To develop the ability of students to establish themselves as professionals in mechanical
engineering and to create awareness about the need for lifelong learning and pursuing advanced
degrees



5 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (POs)
On completion of the B.E. (Mechanical) degree, the graduate will be able
1. To apply the basic knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering
2. To design and conduct experiments as well as to analyze and interpret data and apply the same
in the career or entrepreneurship
3. To design and develop innovative and creative software applications
4. To understand a complex real world problem and develop an efficient practical solution
5. To create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, modern engineering and IT tools
6. To understand the role as a professional and give the best to the society
7. To develop a system that will meet expected needs within realistic constraints such as
economical environmental, social, political, ethical, safety and sustainability
8. To communicate effectively and make others understand exactly what they are trying to tell in
both verbal and written forms
9. To work in a team as a team member or a leader and make unique contributions and work with
coordination
10. To engage in lifelong learning and exhibit their technical skills
11. To develop and manage projects in multidisciplinary environments






6 Format No.: FirstRanker/Stud/LM/34/Issue: 00/Revision: 00

ME6511 ? DYNAMICS LABORATORY
SYLLABUS


1. To supplement the principles learnt in kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. To understand how certain measuring devices are used for dynamic testing
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. a. Study of gear parameters.
b. Experimental study of velocity ratios of simple, compound, epicyclic and differential gear
trains.
2. a. Kinematics of four bar, slider crank, crank rocker, double crank, double rocker, oscillating
cylinder mechanisms.
b. Kinematics of single and double universal joints.
3. a. Determination of mass moment of inertia of fly wheel and axle system.
b. Determination of mass moment of inertia of axisymmetric bodies using turn table apparatus.
c. Determination of mass moment of inertia using bifilar suspension and compound
pendulum.
4. Motorized gyroscope ? Study of gyroscopic effect and couple.
5. Governor ? Determination of range sensitivity, effort etc., for watts, porter, proell and hartnell
governors
6. Cams ? cam profile drawing, motion curves and study of jump phenomenon
7. a. Single degree of freedom spring mass system ? determination of natural frequency
and verification of laws of springs ? damping coefficient determination.
b. Multi degree freedom suspension system ? determination of influence coefficient.
8. a. Determination of torsional natural frequency of single and double Rotor systems.
Undamped and damped natural frequencies.
b. Vibration absorber ? Tuned vibration absorber.
9. Vibration of equivalent spring mass system ? Undamped and damped vibration.
10. Whirling of shafts ? Determination of critical speeds of shafts with concentrated loads.
11. a. Balancing of rotating masses
b. Balancing of reciprocating masses
12. a. Transverse vibration of free-free beam ? with and without concentrated masses.
b. Forced Vibration of cantilever beam ? mode shapes and natural frequencies.
c. Determination of transmissibility ratio using vibrating table.


1. Ability to demonstrate the principles of kinematics and dynamics of machinery
2. Ability to use the measuring devices for dynamic testing.
COURSE OBJECTIVES

COURSE OUTCOMES
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ME6511 - DYNAMICS LABORATORY
CONTENTS
Sl. No. Name of the experiment Page No.
1. Study of Gear parameters 06
2. Experimental study of speed ratio of Spur Gear 14
3.

Experimental study of speed ratio of Epicyclic Gear
16
4. Experimental study of speed ratio of Differential Gear 18
5. Determination of transmission efficiency of a Worm gear reducer 20
6. Four Bar Mechanism 23
7. Kinematics of Universal Joint 27
8. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Turn Table 29
9. Determination of Mass Moment of Inertia using Bifilar 31
10. Determination of Mass Moment of Compound pendulum 34
11. Motorized Gyroscope ? Study of gyroscope effect and couple 37
12. To study the displacement, motion curve and jump phenomenon of Cam 39
13. Free vibration of Spring mass system 42
14. Undamped and Damped Natural and forced frequencies 45
15. Transverse vibration ? I 48
16. Transverse vibration ? II 51
17. Determination of Torsional natural frequency of Two rotor system 54
18. Determination of Whirling of shaft 57
19. Balancin