Download GAU BAMS 1st Year Padartha Vigyan Paper 2 Question Bank Question Bank

Download GAU (Gujarat Ayurved University Jamnagar) BAMS (Bachelor of Ayurvedic medicine and Surgery) 1st Year Padartha Vigyan Paper 2 Question Bank Question Bank (Important Questions)

Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
Page 9 of 54

178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
Page 9 of 54

178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
Page 10 of 54

207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
Page 9 of 54

178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
Page 10 of 54

207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
Page 11 of 54

236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
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159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
Page 10 of 54

207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
Page 9 of 54

178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
Page 10 of 54

207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
Page 11 of 54

236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
Page 12 of 54

265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
Page 13 of 54

286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
Page 9 of 54

178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
Page 10 of 54

207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
Page 11 of 54

236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
Page 12 of 54

265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
Page 13 of 54

286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
Page 14 of 54

311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
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159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
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61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
Page 9 of 54

178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
Page 10 of 54

207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
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3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
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61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
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73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
Page 10 of 54

207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
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3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
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61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
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73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
Page 9 of 54

178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
Page 10 of 54

207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
Page 12 of 54

265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
Page 13 of 54

286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
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3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
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61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
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73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
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3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
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61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
Page 13 of 54

286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
Page 19 of 54

35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
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75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
Page 21 of 54

75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
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94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
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73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
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159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

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14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
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75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
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94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
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123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
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3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
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61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
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73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
Page 11 of 54

236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
Page 12 of 54

265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
Page 13 of 54

286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

Page 17 of 54





4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
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75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
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94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
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123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
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143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
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1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
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3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
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61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
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73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
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159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
Page 12 of 54

265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
Page 13 of 54

286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
Page 14 of 54

311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
Page 15 of 54

330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
Page 16 of 54

359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

Page 17 of 54





4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
Page 19 of 54

35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
Page 20 of 54

46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
Page 21 of 54

75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
Page 22 of 54

94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
Page 23 of 54

123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
Page 24 of 54

143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
Page 25 of 54

163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
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180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
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???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
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185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
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FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
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159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

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14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
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75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
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94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
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123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
Page 24 of 54

143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
Page 25 of 54

163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
178. Explain the Verse ? ????????? ?????????????? ??|
????? ???????? ??????? ???|?
179. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? |
??? , ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ||?
180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ||?
181. Explain the Verse ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????|
???????? ????? ?????? ????????||?
182. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????|
???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
???? ???????????????? ?????? ||?
184. Explain the Verse ? ??????(?)???????????????? |
?????? ????????????????? ||?
185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???|?
186. Explain the Verse ? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??
Page 26 of 54

187. Explain the Verse ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????: ??
188. Explain the Verse ? ?? ?????: - ????, ? ????, ?? ???????? ??
189. Explain the verse ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????: ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ?
190. Explain the verse ? ????????? ???????????? ???? , ????????? ||?
191. Explain the verse ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??
192. Explain the verse ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????: ?
? ? ??????........??????? ??
193. Explain the verse ? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
194. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??
195. Explain the verse ? ????? ???????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????
? ??
196. Explain the verse ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??
197. Explain the verse ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
198. Explain the verse ? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??
199. Explain the verse ? ??????: ???? ????????? ??
200. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ??? ?????????: ? ??????????
?????? : ?????? ? ??

***********



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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
Page 9 of 54

178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
Page 10 of 54

207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
Page 11 of 54

236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
Page 12 of 54

265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
Page 13 of 54

286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
Page 14 of 54

311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
Page 15 of 54

330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
Page 16 of 54

359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

Page 17 of 54





4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
Page 19 of 54

35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
Page 20 of 54

46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
Page 21 of 54

75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
Page 22 of 54

94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
Page 23 of 54

123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
Page 24 of 54

143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
Page 25 of 54

163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
178. Explain the Verse ? ????????? ?????????????? ??|
????? ???????? ??????? ???|?
179. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? |
??? , ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ||?
180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ||?
181. Explain the Verse ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????|
???????? ????? ?????? ????????||?
182. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????|
???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
???? ???????????????? ?????? ||?
184. Explain the Verse ? ??????(?)???????????????? |
?????? ????????????????? ||?
185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???|?
186. Explain the Verse ? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??
Page 26 of 54

187. Explain the Verse ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????: ??
188. Explain the Verse ? ?? ?????: - ????, ? ????, ?? ???????? ??
189. Explain the verse ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????: ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ?
190. Explain the verse ? ????????? ???????????? ???? , ????????? ||?
191. Explain the verse ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??
192. Explain the verse ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????: ?
? ? ??????........??????? ??
193. Explain the verse ? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
194. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??
195. Explain the verse ? ????? ???????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????
? ??
196. Explain the verse ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??
197. Explain the verse ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
198. Explain the verse ? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??
199. Explain the verse ? ??????: ???? ????????? ??
200. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ??? ?????????: ? ??????????
?????? : ?????? ? ??

***********



Page 27 of 54







7. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Long Question: 10 marks
1. Define Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on Pramana as methods of examination in Ayurveda.
5. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
6. Write definition and types of Pramana and explain their utility in treatment.
7. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
8. Define various types of Pramanas. Explain its significance in Ayurveda.
8. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
10 Marks Questions

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
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159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

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14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
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75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
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94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
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123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
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143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
Page 25 of 54

163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
178. Explain the Verse ? ????????? ?????????????? ??|
????? ???????? ??????? ???|?
179. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? |
??? , ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ||?
180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ||?
181. Explain the Verse ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????|
???????? ????? ?????? ????????||?
182. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????|
???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
???? ???????????????? ?????? ||?
184. Explain the Verse ? ??????(?)???????????????? |
?????? ????????????????? ||?
185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???|?
186. Explain the Verse ? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??
Page 26 of 54

187. Explain the Verse ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????: ??
188. Explain the Verse ? ?? ?????: - ????, ? ????, ?? ???????? ??
189. Explain the verse ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????: ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ?
190. Explain the verse ? ????????? ???????????? ???? , ????????? ||?
191. Explain the verse ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??
192. Explain the verse ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????: ?
? ? ??????........??????? ??
193. Explain the verse ? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
194. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??
195. Explain the verse ? ????? ???????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????
? ??
196. Explain the verse ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??
197. Explain the verse ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
198. Explain the verse ? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??
199. Explain the verse ? ??????: ???? ????????? ??
200. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ??? ?????????: ? ??????????
?????? : ?????? ? ??

***********



Page 27 of 54







7. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Long Question: 10 marks
1. Define Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on Pramana as methods of examination in Ayurveda.
5. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
6. Write definition and types of Pramana and explain their utility in treatment.
7. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
8. Define various types of Pramanas. Explain its significance in Ayurveda.
8. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
10 Marks Questions

Page 28 of 54

9. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
10. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
11. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
12. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
9. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
10. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
11. Describe Shabda Pramana.
12. Explain classification of Shabdha.
13. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
14. Explain Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
15. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
16. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
17. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
18. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
19. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
9. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
15. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
16. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
17. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
18. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
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61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
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73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
Page 9 of 54

178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
Page 10 of 54

207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
Page 11 of 54

236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
Page 12 of 54

265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
Page 13 of 54

286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
Page 14 of 54

311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
Page 16 of 54

359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

Page 17 of 54





4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
Page 19 of 54

35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
Page 20 of 54

46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
Page 21 of 54

75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
Page 22 of 54

94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
Page 23 of 54

123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
Page 24 of 54

143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
Page 25 of 54

163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
178. Explain the Verse ? ????????? ?????????????? ??|
????? ???????? ??????? ???|?
179. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? |
??? , ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ||?
180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ||?
181. Explain the Verse ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????|
???????? ????? ?????? ????????||?
182. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????|
???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
???? ???????????????? ?????? ||?
184. Explain the Verse ? ??????(?)???????????????? |
?????? ????????????????? ||?
185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???|?
186. Explain the Verse ? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??
Page 26 of 54

187. Explain the Verse ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????: ??
188. Explain the Verse ? ?? ?????: - ????, ? ????, ?? ???????? ??
189. Explain the verse ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????: ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ?
190. Explain the verse ? ????????? ???????????? ???? , ????????? ||?
191. Explain the verse ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??
192. Explain the verse ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????: ?
? ? ??????........??????? ??
193. Explain the verse ? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
194. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??
195. Explain the verse ? ????? ???????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????
? ??
196. Explain the verse ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??
197. Explain the verse ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
198. Explain the verse ? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??
199. Explain the verse ? ??????: ???? ????????? ??
200. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ??? ?????????: ? ??????????
?????? : ?????? ? ??

***********



Page 27 of 54







7. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Long Question: 10 marks
1. Define Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on Pramana as methods of examination in Ayurveda.
5. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
6. Write definition and types of Pramana and explain their utility in treatment.
7. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
8. Define various types of Pramanas. Explain its significance in Ayurveda.
8. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
10 Marks Questions

Page 28 of 54

9. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
10. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
11. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
12. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
9. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
10. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
11. Describe Shabda Pramana.
12. Explain classification of Shabdha.
13. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
14. Explain Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
15. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
16. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
17. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
18. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
19. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
9. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
15. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
16. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
17. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
18. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
Page 29 of 54

19. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

20. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
21. Describe Swapna in detail.
22. Describe Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
23. Describe Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
24. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
25. Describe Bhautikatva and Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
26. Define Indriya. Describe Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
27. Define Indriya. Describe Ubhayendriya.
28. Describe the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
29. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
30. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
31. Explain Pratyaksha Badhaka Karanas.
32. Describe the obstructing factors to Pratyaksha.
33. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
34. Describe in detail the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
35. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
36. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
37. . Define"Pratyaksha Pramana" along with classification and importance of it in
Ayurveda.
38. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
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73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
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159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

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14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
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75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
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94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
Page 23 of 54

123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
Page 24 of 54

143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
Page 25 of 54

163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
178. Explain the Verse ? ????????? ?????????????? ??|
????? ???????? ??????? ???|?
179. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? |
??? , ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ||?
180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ||?
181. Explain the Verse ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????|
???????? ????? ?????? ????????||?
182. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????|
???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
???? ???????????????? ?????? ||?
184. Explain the Verse ? ??????(?)???????????????? |
?????? ????????????????? ||?
185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???|?
186. Explain the Verse ? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??
Page 26 of 54

187. Explain the Verse ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????: ??
188. Explain the Verse ? ?? ?????: - ????, ? ????, ?? ???????? ??
189. Explain the verse ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????: ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ?
190. Explain the verse ? ????????? ???????????? ???? , ????????? ||?
191. Explain the verse ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??
192. Explain the verse ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????: ?
? ? ??????........??????? ??
193. Explain the verse ? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
194. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??
195. Explain the verse ? ????? ???????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????
? ??
196. Explain the verse ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??
197. Explain the verse ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
198. Explain the verse ? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??
199. Explain the verse ? ??????: ???? ????????? ??
200. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ??? ?????????: ? ??????????
?????? : ?????? ? ??

***********



Page 27 of 54







7. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Long Question: 10 marks
1. Define Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on Pramana as methods of examination in Ayurveda.
5. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
6. Write definition and types of Pramana and explain their utility in treatment.
7. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
8. Define various types of Pramanas. Explain its significance in Ayurveda.
8. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
10 Marks Questions

Page 28 of 54

9. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
10. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
11. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
12. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
9. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
10. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
11. Describe Shabda Pramana.
12. Explain classification of Shabdha.
13. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
14. Explain Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
15. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
16. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
17. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
18. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
19. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
9. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
15. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
16. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
17. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
18. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
Page 29 of 54

19. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

20. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
21. Describe Swapna in detail.
22. Describe Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
23. Describe Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
24. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
25. Describe Bhautikatva and Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
26. Define Indriya. Describe Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
27. Define Indriya. Describe Ubhayendriya.
28. Describe the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
29. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
30. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
31. Explain Pratyaksha Badhaka Karanas.
32. Describe the obstructing factors to Pratyaksha.
33. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
34. Describe in detail the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
35. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
36. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
37. . Define"Pratyaksha Pramana" along with classification and importance of it in
Ayurveda.
38. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
Page 30 of 54

a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

39. Write the etymological derivation and explain types of Anumana Pramana
according to Nyaya.
40. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Nyaya.
41. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Tarka
Sangraha.
42. Explain the types of Anumana based on Kala as per Charak and explain Dristanta
in detail.
43. Explain the type of Anumana Pramana and importance of Pararthanuman.
44. Explain the importance of Anumana Pramana with reference to Shadvidha
Kriyakala.
45. What is Hetu? Explain the types of Hetus.
46. Explain Hetwaabhas.
47. Define Hetwabhas and types of it
48. What is Tarka ? Explain it in brief.
49. Explain Tadvidya Sambhasha.
50. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
51. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
52. How Anumana Pramana is helpful in diagnosis of disease? Explain the arguments.
53. Use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
54. Use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
55. Use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
Page 9 of 54

178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

Page 17 of 54





4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
Page 21 of 54

75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
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94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
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123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
Page 24 of 54

143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
Page 25 of 54

163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
178. Explain the Verse ? ????????? ?????????????? ??|
????? ???????? ??????? ???|?
179. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? |
??? , ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ||?
180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ||?
181. Explain the Verse ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????|
???????? ????? ?????? ????????||?
182. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????|
???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
???? ???????????????? ?????? ||?
184. Explain the Verse ? ??????(?)???????????????? |
?????? ????????????????? ||?
185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???|?
186. Explain the Verse ? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??
Page 26 of 54

187. Explain the Verse ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????: ??
188. Explain the Verse ? ?? ?????: - ????, ? ????, ?? ???????? ??
189. Explain the verse ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????: ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ?
190. Explain the verse ? ????????? ???????????? ???? , ????????? ||?
191. Explain the verse ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??
192. Explain the verse ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????: ?
? ? ??????........??????? ??
193. Explain the verse ? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
194. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??
195. Explain the verse ? ????? ???????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????
? ??
196. Explain the verse ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??
197. Explain the verse ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
198. Explain the verse ? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??
199. Explain the verse ? ??????: ???? ????????? ??
200. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ??? ?????????: ? ??????????
?????? : ?????? ? ??

***********



Page 27 of 54







7. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Long Question: 10 marks
1. Define Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on Pramana as methods of examination in Ayurveda.
5. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
6. Write definition and types of Pramana and explain their utility in treatment.
7. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
8. Define various types of Pramanas. Explain its significance in Ayurveda.
8. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
10 Marks Questions

Page 28 of 54

9. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
10. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
11. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
12. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
9. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
10. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
11. Describe Shabda Pramana.
12. Explain classification of Shabdha.
13. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
14. Explain Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
15. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
16. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
17. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
18. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
19. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
9. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
15. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
16. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
17. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
18. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
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19. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

20. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
21. Describe Swapna in detail.
22. Describe Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
23. Describe Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
24. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
25. Describe Bhautikatva and Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
26. Define Indriya. Describe Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
27. Define Indriya. Describe Ubhayendriya.
28. Describe the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
29. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
30. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
31. Explain Pratyaksha Badhaka Karanas.
32. Describe the obstructing factors to Pratyaksha.
33. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
34. Describe in detail the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
35. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
36. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
37. . Define"Pratyaksha Pramana" along with classification and importance of it in
Ayurveda.
38. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
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a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

39. Write the etymological derivation and explain types of Anumana Pramana
according to Nyaya.
40. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Nyaya.
41. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Tarka
Sangraha.
42. Explain the types of Anumana based on Kala as per Charak and explain Dristanta
in detail.
43. Explain the type of Anumana Pramana and importance of Pararthanuman.
44. Explain the importance of Anumana Pramana with reference to Shadvidha
Kriyakala.
45. What is Hetu? Explain the types of Hetus.
46. Explain Hetwaabhas.
47. Define Hetwabhas and types of it
48. What is Tarka ? Explain it in brief.
49. Explain Tadvidya Sambhasha.
50. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
51. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
52. How Anumana Pramana is helpful in diagnosis of disease? Explain the arguments.
53. Use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
54. Use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
55. Use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
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56. Use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
57. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
58. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

59. Describe Yukti Pramana.
60. Define Yukti and explain importance of it.
61. Define Yukti and explain importance of it in treatment.
62. Enlist the types of Pramana according to Charaka and describe yukti pramana.
63. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
64. Define the Yukti Pramana along with its importance in therapeutics and research.
65. Describe the definition and characteristic features of Yukti and explain its utility in
treatment.
20. Upamana Pramana
5. Lakshana.
6. Application in therapeutics and research.
66. Define Upamana and explain its types in detail.
67. Describe Upamana Pramana.
68. Describe types of Upamana Pramana.
69. Define Upamana Pramana and write its importance in detail.
70. Explain the therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana with examples.
71. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
72. Use of Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
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1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

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13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
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3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
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61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
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73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
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159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
Page 15 of 54

330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
Page 16 of 54

359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

Page 17 of 54





4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
Page 19 of 54

35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
Page 20 of 54

46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
Page 21 of 54

75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
Page 22 of 54

94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
Page 23 of 54

123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
Page 24 of 54

143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
Page 25 of 54

163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
178. Explain the Verse ? ????????? ?????????????? ??|
????? ???????? ??????? ???|?
179. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? |
??? , ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ||?
180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ||?
181. Explain the Verse ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????|
???????? ????? ?????? ????????||?
182. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????|
???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
???? ???????????????? ?????? ||?
184. Explain the Verse ? ??????(?)???????????????? |
?????? ????????????????? ||?
185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???|?
186. Explain the Verse ? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??
Page 26 of 54

187. Explain the Verse ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????: ??
188. Explain the Verse ? ?? ?????: - ????, ? ????, ?? ???????? ??
189. Explain the verse ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????: ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ?
190. Explain the verse ? ????????? ???????????? ???? , ????????? ||?
191. Explain the verse ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??
192. Explain the verse ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????: ?
? ? ??????........??????? ??
193. Explain the verse ? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
194. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??
195. Explain the verse ? ????? ???????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????
? ??
196. Explain the verse ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??
197. Explain the verse ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
198. Explain the verse ? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??
199. Explain the verse ? ??????: ???? ????????? ??
200. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ??? ?????????: ? ??????????
?????? : ?????? ? ??

***********



Page 27 of 54







7. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Long Question: 10 marks
1. Define Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on Pramana as methods of examination in Ayurveda.
5. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
6. Write definition and types of Pramana and explain their utility in treatment.
7. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
8. Define various types of Pramanas. Explain its significance in Ayurveda.
8. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
10 Marks Questions

Page 28 of 54

9. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
10. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
11. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
12. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
9. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
10. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
11. Describe Shabda Pramana.
12. Explain classification of Shabdha.
13. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
14. Explain Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
15. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
16. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
17. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
18. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
19. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
9. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
15. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
16. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
17. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
18. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
Page 29 of 54

19. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

20. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
21. Describe Swapna in detail.
22. Describe Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
23. Describe Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
24. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
25. Describe Bhautikatva and Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
26. Define Indriya. Describe Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
27. Define Indriya. Describe Ubhayendriya.
28. Describe the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
29. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
30. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
31. Explain Pratyaksha Badhaka Karanas.
32. Describe the obstructing factors to Pratyaksha.
33. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
34. Describe in detail the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
35. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
36. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
37. . Define"Pratyaksha Pramana" along with classification and importance of it in
Ayurveda.
38. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
Page 30 of 54

a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

39. Write the etymological derivation and explain types of Anumana Pramana
according to Nyaya.
40. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Nyaya.
41. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Tarka
Sangraha.
42. Explain the types of Anumana based on Kala as per Charak and explain Dristanta
in detail.
43. Explain the type of Anumana Pramana and importance of Pararthanuman.
44. Explain the importance of Anumana Pramana with reference to Shadvidha
Kriyakala.
45. What is Hetu? Explain the types of Hetus.
46. Explain Hetwaabhas.
47. Define Hetwabhas and types of it
48. What is Tarka ? Explain it in brief.
49. Explain Tadvidya Sambhasha.
50. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
51. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
52. How Anumana Pramana is helpful in diagnosis of disease? Explain the arguments.
53. Use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
54. Use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
55. Use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
Page 31 of 54

56. Use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
57. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
58. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

59. Describe Yukti Pramana.
60. Define Yukti and explain importance of it.
61. Define Yukti and explain importance of it in treatment.
62. Enlist the types of Pramana according to Charaka and describe yukti pramana.
63. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
64. Define the Yukti Pramana along with its importance in therapeutics and research.
65. Describe the definition and characteristic features of Yukti and explain its utility in
treatment.
20. Upamana Pramana
5. Lakshana.
6. Application in therapeutics and research.
66. Define Upamana and explain its types in detail.
67. Describe Upamana Pramana.
68. Describe types of Upamana Pramana.
69. Define Upamana Pramana and write its importance in detail.
70. Explain the therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana with examples.
71. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
72. Use of Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
Page 32 of 54

73. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
74. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
75. Write Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
21. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

76. Write the Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Explain the importance of Karya Karana
Bhava.
77. Define Karya and Karana along with it, write the importance in Ayurveda.
78. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
79. Define Karya and Karana. Explain its importance in Ayurveda.
80. Describe Satkaryavad in detail.
81. Define"Kaarana" and types of it, along with the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad
in Ayurveda.
82. Explain Karya Karana Siddhanta with any two Vada described in Charaka
Samhita.
83. Describe Swabhavoparamavad in detail.
84. Describe Parinamvada in detail.
85. Explain Parinam Vada.
86. Describe Parinamavad.
87. Describe Arambhavada.
88. Describe Pilupaka and Pitharapaka in detail.
89. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
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1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
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3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
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61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
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73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
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159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
Page 20 of 54

46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
Page 21 of 54

75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
Page 22 of 54

94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
Page 23 of 54

123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
Page 24 of 54

143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
Page 25 of 54

163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
178. Explain the Verse ? ????????? ?????????????? ??|
????? ???????? ??????? ???|?
179. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? |
??? , ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ||?
180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ||?
181. Explain the Verse ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????|
???????? ????? ?????? ????????||?
182. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????|
???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
???? ???????????????? ?????? ||?
184. Explain the Verse ? ??????(?)???????????????? |
?????? ????????????????? ||?
185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???|?
186. Explain the Verse ? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??
Page 26 of 54

187. Explain the Verse ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????: ??
188. Explain the Verse ? ?? ?????: - ????, ? ????, ?? ???????? ??
189. Explain the verse ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????: ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ?
190. Explain the verse ? ????????? ???????????? ???? , ????????? ||?
191. Explain the verse ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??
192. Explain the verse ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????: ?
? ? ??????........??????? ??
193. Explain the verse ? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
194. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??
195. Explain the verse ? ????? ???????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????
? ??
196. Explain the verse ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??
197. Explain the verse ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
198. Explain the verse ? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??
199. Explain the verse ? ??????: ???? ????????? ??
200. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ??? ?????????: ? ??????????
?????? : ?????? ? ??

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Page 27 of 54







7. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Long Question: 10 marks
1. Define Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on Pramana as methods of examination in Ayurveda.
5. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
6. Write definition and types of Pramana and explain their utility in treatment.
7. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
8. Define various types of Pramanas. Explain its significance in Ayurveda.
8. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
10 Marks Questions

Page 28 of 54

9. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
10. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
11. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
12. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
9. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
10. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
11. Describe Shabda Pramana.
12. Explain classification of Shabdha.
13. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
14. Explain Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
15. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
16. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
17. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
18. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
19. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
9. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
15. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
16. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
17. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
18. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
Page 29 of 54

19. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

20. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
21. Describe Swapna in detail.
22. Describe Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
23. Describe Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
24. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
25. Describe Bhautikatva and Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
26. Define Indriya. Describe Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
27. Define Indriya. Describe Ubhayendriya.
28. Describe the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
29. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
30. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
31. Explain Pratyaksha Badhaka Karanas.
32. Describe the obstructing factors to Pratyaksha.
33. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
34. Describe in detail the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
35. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
36. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
37. . Define"Pratyaksha Pramana" along with classification and importance of it in
Ayurveda.
38. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
Page 30 of 54

a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

39. Write the etymological derivation and explain types of Anumana Pramana
according to Nyaya.
40. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Nyaya.
41. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Tarka
Sangraha.
42. Explain the types of Anumana based on Kala as per Charak and explain Dristanta
in detail.
43. Explain the type of Anumana Pramana and importance of Pararthanuman.
44. Explain the importance of Anumana Pramana with reference to Shadvidha
Kriyakala.
45. What is Hetu? Explain the types of Hetus.
46. Explain Hetwaabhas.
47. Define Hetwabhas and types of it
48. What is Tarka ? Explain it in brief.
49. Explain Tadvidya Sambhasha.
50. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
51. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
52. How Anumana Pramana is helpful in diagnosis of disease? Explain the arguments.
53. Use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
54. Use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
55. Use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
Page 31 of 54

56. Use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
57. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
58. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

59. Describe Yukti Pramana.
60. Define Yukti and explain importance of it.
61. Define Yukti and explain importance of it in treatment.
62. Enlist the types of Pramana according to Charaka and describe yukti pramana.
63. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
64. Define the Yukti Pramana along with its importance in therapeutics and research.
65. Describe the definition and characteristic features of Yukti and explain its utility in
treatment.
20. Upamana Pramana
5. Lakshana.
6. Application in therapeutics and research.
66. Define Upamana and explain its types in detail.
67. Describe Upamana Pramana.
68. Describe types of Upamana Pramana.
69. Define Upamana Pramana and write its importance in detail.
70. Explain the therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana with examples.
71. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
72. Use of Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
Page 32 of 54

73. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
74. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
75. Write Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
21. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

76. Write the Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Explain the importance of Karya Karana
Bhava.
77. Define Karya and Karana along with it, write the importance in Ayurveda.
78. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
79. Define Karya and Karana. Explain its importance in Ayurveda.
80. Describe Satkaryavad in detail.
81. Define"Kaarana" and types of it, along with the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad
in Ayurveda.
82. Explain Karya Karana Siddhanta with any two Vada described in Charaka
Samhita.
83. Describe Swabhavoparamavad in detail.
84. Describe Parinamvada in detail.
85. Explain Parinam Vada.
86. Describe Parinamavad.
87. Describe Arambhavada.
88. Describe Pilupaka and Pitharapaka in detail.
89. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
Page 33 of 54

90. Describe Paramanuvad in detail.
91. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
92. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
93. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
94. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
95. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
96. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
97. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
98. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
99. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
100. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.

***********





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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
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73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
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102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
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131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
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159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

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14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
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75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
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94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
Page 23 of 54

123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
Page 24 of 54

143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
Page 25 of 54

163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
178. Explain the Verse ? ????????? ?????????????? ??|
????? ???????? ??????? ???|?
179. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? |
??? , ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ||?
180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ||?
181. Explain the Verse ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????|
???????? ????? ?????? ????????||?
182. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????|
???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
???? ???????????????? ?????? ||?
184. Explain the Verse ? ??????(?)???????????????? |
?????? ????????????????? ||?
185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???|?
186. Explain the Verse ? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??
Page 26 of 54

187. Explain the Verse ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????: ??
188. Explain the Verse ? ?? ?????: - ????, ? ????, ?? ???????? ??
189. Explain the verse ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????: ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ?
190. Explain the verse ? ????????? ???????????? ???? , ????????? ||?
191. Explain the verse ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??
192. Explain the verse ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????: ?
? ? ??????........??????? ??
193. Explain the verse ? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
194. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??
195. Explain the verse ? ????? ???????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????
? ??
196. Explain the verse ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??
197. Explain the verse ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
198. Explain the verse ? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??
199. Explain the verse ? ??????: ???? ????????? ??
200. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ??? ?????????: ? ??????????
?????? : ?????? ? ??

***********



Page 27 of 54







7. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Long Question: 10 marks
1. Define Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on Pramana as methods of examination in Ayurveda.
5. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
6. Write definition and types of Pramana and explain their utility in treatment.
7. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
8. Define various types of Pramanas. Explain its significance in Ayurveda.
8. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
10 Marks Questions

Page 28 of 54

9. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
10. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
11. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
12. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
9. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
10. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
11. Describe Shabda Pramana.
12. Explain classification of Shabdha.
13. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
14. Explain Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
15. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
16. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
17. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
18. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
19. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
9. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
15. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
16. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
17. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
18. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
Page 29 of 54

19. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

20. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
21. Describe Swapna in detail.
22. Describe Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
23. Describe Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
24. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
25. Describe Bhautikatva and Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
26. Define Indriya. Describe Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
27. Define Indriya. Describe Ubhayendriya.
28. Describe the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
29. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
30. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
31. Explain Pratyaksha Badhaka Karanas.
32. Describe the obstructing factors to Pratyaksha.
33. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
34. Describe in detail the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
35. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
36. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
37. . Define"Pratyaksha Pramana" along with classification and importance of it in
Ayurveda.
38. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
Page 30 of 54

a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

39. Write the etymological derivation and explain types of Anumana Pramana
according to Nyaya.
40. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Nyaya.
41. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Tarka
Sangraha.
42. Explain the types of Anumana based on Kala as per Charak and explain Dristanta
in detail.
43. Explain the type of Anumana Pramana and importance of Pararthanuman.
44. Explain the importance of Anumana Pramana with reference to Shadvidha
Kriyakala.
45. What is Hetu? Explain the types of Hetus.
46. Explain Hetwaabhas.
47. Define Hetwabhas and types of it
48. What is Tarka ? Explain it in brief.
49. Explain Tadvidya Sambhasha.
50. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
51. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
52. How Anumana Pramana is helpful in diagnosis of disease? Explain the arguments.
53. Use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
54. Use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
55. Use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
Page 31 of 54

56. Use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
57. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
58. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

59. Describe Yukti Pramana.
60. Define Yukti and explain importance of it.
61. Define Yukti and explain importance of it in treatment.
62. Enlist the types of Pramana according to Charaka and describe yukti pramana.
63. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
64. Define the Yukti Pramana along with its importance in therapeutics and research.
65. Describe the definition and characteristic features of Yukti and explain its utility in
treatment.
20. Upamana Pramana
5. Lakshana.
6. Application in therapeutics and research.
66. Define Upamana and explain its types in detail.
67. Describe Upamana Pramana.
68. Describe types of Upamana Pramana.
69. Define Upamana Pramana and write its importance in detail.
70. Explain the therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana with examples.
71. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
72. Use of Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
Page 32 of 54

73. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
74. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
75. Write Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
21. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

76. Write the Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Explain the importance of Karya Karana
Bhava.
77. Define Karya and Karana along with it, write the importance in Ayurveda.
78. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
79. Define Karya and Karana. Explain its importance in Ayurveda.
80. Describe Satkaryavad in detail.
81. Define"Kaarana" and types of it, along with the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad
in Ayurveda.
82. Explain Karya Karana Siddhanta with any two Vada described in Charaka
Samhita.
83. Describe Swabhavoparamavad in detail.
84. Describe Parinamvada in detail.
85. Explain Parinam Vada.
86. Describe Parinamavad.
87. Describe Arambhavada.
88. Describe Pilupaka and Pitharapaka in detail.
89. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
Page 33 of 54

90. Describe Paramanuvad in detail.
91. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
92. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
93. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
94. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
95. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
96. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
97. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
98. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
99. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
100. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.

***********





Page 34 of 54





10. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Long Question: 15 marks
1. Define Prama, Prameya and Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
5. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
11. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
13. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
14. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
15 Marks Questions

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
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159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

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14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
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75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
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94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
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123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
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143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
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163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
178. Explain the Verse ? ????????? ?????????????? ??|
????? ???????? ??????? ???|?
179. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? |
??? , ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ||?
180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ||?
181. Explain the Verse ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????|
???????? ????? ?????? ????????||?
182. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????|
???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
???? ???????????????? ?????? ||?
184. Explain the Verse ? ??????(?)???????????????? |
?????? ????????????????? ||?
185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???|?
186. Explain the Verse ? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??
Page 26 of 54

187. Explain the Verse ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????: ??
188. Explain the Verse ? ?? ?????: - ????, ? ????, ?? ???????? ??
189. Explain the verse ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????: ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ?
190. Explain the verse ? ????????? ???????????? ???? , ????????? ||?
191. Explain the verse ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??
192. Explain the verse ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????: ?
? ? ??????........??????? ??
193. Explain the verse ? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
194. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??
195. Explain the verse ? ????? ???????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????
? ??
196. Explain the verse ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??
197. Explain the verse ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
198. Explain the verse ? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??
199. Explain the verse ? ??????: ???? ????????? ??
200. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ??? ?????????: ? ??????????
?????? : ?????? ? ??

***********



Page 27 of 54







7. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Long Question: 10 marks
1. Define Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on Pramana as methods of examination in Ayurveda.
5. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
6. Write definition and types of Pramana and explain their utility in treatment.
7. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
8. Define various types of Pramanas. Explain its significance in Ayurveda.
8. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
10 Marks Questions

Page 28 of 54

9. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
10. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
11. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
12. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
9. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
10. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
11. Describe Shabda Pramana.
12. Explain classification of Shabdha.
13. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
14. Explain Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
15. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
16. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
17. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
18. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
19. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
9. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
15. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
16. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
17. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
18. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
Page 29 of 54

19. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

20. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
21. Describe Swapna in detail.
22. Describe Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
23. Describe Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
24. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
25. Describe Bhautikatva and Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
26. Define Indriya. Describe Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
27. Define Indriya. Describe Ubhayendriya.
28. Describe the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
29. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
30. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
31. Explain Pratyaksha Badhaka Karanas.
32. Describe the obstructing factors to Pratyaksha.
33. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
34. Describe in detail the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
35. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
36. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
37. . Define"Pratyaksha Pramana" along with classification and importance of it in
Ayurveda.
38. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
Page 30 of 54

a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

39. Write the etymological derivation and explain types of Anumana Pramana
according to Nyaya.
40. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Nyaya.
41. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Tarka
Sangraha.
42. Explain the types of Anumana based on Kala as per Charak and explain Dristanta
in detail.
43. Explain the type of Anumana Pramana and importance of Pararthanuman.
44. Explain the importance of Anumana Pramana with reference to Shadvidha
Kriyakala.
45. What is Hetu? Explain the types of Hetus.
46. Explain Hetwaabhas.
47. Define Hetwabhas and types of it
48. What is Tarka ? Explain it in brief.
49. Explain Tadvidya Sambhasha.
50. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
51. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
52. How Anumana Pramana is helpful in diagnosis of disease? Explain the arguments.
53. Use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
54. Use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
55. Use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
Page 31 of 54

56. Use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
57. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
58. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

59. Describe Yukti Pramana.
60. Define Yukti and explain importance of it.
61. Define Yukti and explain importance of it in treatment.
62. Enlist the types of Pramana according to Charaka and describe yukti pramana.
63. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
64. Define the Yukti Pramana along with its importance in therapeutics and research.
65. Describe the definition and characteristic features of Yukti and explain its utility in
treatment.
20. Upamana Pramana
5. Lakshana.
6. Application in therapeutics and research.
66. Define Upamana and explain its types in detail.
67. Describe Upamana Pramana.
68. Describe types of Upamana Pramana.
69. Define Upamana Pramana and write its importance in detail.
70. Explain the therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana with examples.
71. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
72. Use of Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
Page 32 of 54

73. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
74. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
75. Write Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
21. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

76. Write the Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Explain the importance of Karya Karana
Bhava.
77. Define Karya and Karana along with it, write the importance in Ayurveda.
78. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
79. Define Karya and Karana. Explain its importance in Ayurveda.
80. Describe Satkaryavad in detail.
81. Define"Kaarana" and types of it, along with the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad
in Ayurveda.
82. Explain Karya Karana Siddhanta with any two Vada described in Charaka
Samhita.
83. Describe Swabhavoparamavad in detail.
84. Describe Parinamvada in detail.
85. Explain Parinam Vada.
86. Describe Parinamavad.
87. Describe Arambhavada.
88. Describe Pilupaka and Pitharapaka in detail.
89. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
Page 33 of 54

90. Describe Paramanuvad in detail.
91. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
92. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
93. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
94. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
95. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
96. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
97. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
98. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
99. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
100. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.

***********





Page 34 of 54





10. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Long Question: 15 marks
1. Define Prama, Prameya and Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
5. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
11. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
13. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
14. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
15 Marks Questions

Page 35 of 54

15. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
16. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
6. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
7. Describe Shabda Pramana.
8. Describe ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
9. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
10. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
11. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
12. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
12. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
22. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
23. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
24. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
25. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
26. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
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75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
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94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
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123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
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143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
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163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
178. Explain the Verse ? ????????? ?????????????? ??|
????? ???????? ??????? ???|?
179. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? |
??? , ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ||?
180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ||?
181. Explain the Verse ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????|
???????? ????? ?????? ????????||?
182. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????|
???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
???? ???????????????? ?????? ||?
184. Explain the Verse ? ??????(?)???????????????? |
?????? ????????????????? ||?
185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???|?
186. Explain the Verse ? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??
Page 26 of 54

187. Explain the Verse ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????: ??
188. Explain the Verse ? ?? ?????: - ????, ? ????, ?? ???????? ??
189. Explain the verse ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????: ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ?
190. Explain the verse ? ????????? ???????????? ???? , ????????? ||?
191. Explain the verse ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??
192. Explain the verse ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????: ?
? ? ??????........??????? ??
193. Explain the verse ? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
194. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??
195. Explain the verse ? ????? ???????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????
? ??
196. Explain the verse ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??
197. Explain the verse ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
198. Explain the verse ? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??
199. Explain the verse ? ??????: ???? ????????? ??
200. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ??? ?????????: ? ??????????
?????? : ?????? ? ??

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Page 27 of 54







7. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Long Question: 10 marks
1. Define Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on Pramana as methods of examination in Ayurveda.
5. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
6. Write definition and types of Pramana and explain their utility in treatment.
7. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
8. Define various types of Pramanas. Explain its significance in Ayurveda.
8. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
10 Marks Questions

Page 28 of 54

9. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
10. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
11. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
12. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
9. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
10. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
11. Describe Shabda Pramana.
12. Explain classification of Shabdha.
13. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
14. Explain Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
15. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
16. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
17. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
18. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
19. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
9. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
15. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
16. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
17. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
18. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
Page 29 of 54

19. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

20. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
21. Describe Swapna in detail.
22. Describe Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
23. Describe Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
24. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
25. Describe Bhautikatva and Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
26. Define Indriya. Describe Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
27. Define Indriya. Describe Ubhayendriya.
28. Describe the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
29. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
30. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
31. Explain Pratyaksha Badhaka Karanas.
32. Describe the obstructing factors to Pratyaksha.
33. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
34. Describe in detail the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
35. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
36. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
37. . Define"Pratyaksha Pramana" along with classification and importance of it in
Ayurveda.
38. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
Page 30 of 54

a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

39. Write the etymological derivation and explain types of Anumana Pramana
according to Nyaya.
40. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Nyaya.
41. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Tarka
Sangraha.
42. Explain the types of Anumana based on Kala as per Charak and explain Dristanta
in detail.
43. Explain the type of Anumana Pramana and importance of Pararthanuman.
44. Explain the importance of Anumana Pramana with reference to Shadvidha
Kriyakala.
45. What is Hetu? Explain the types of Hetus.
46. Explain Hetwaabhas.
47. Define Hetwabhas and types of it
48. What is Tarka ? Explain it in brief.
49. Explain Tadvidya Sambhasha.
50. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
51. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
52. How Anumana Pramana is helpful in diagnosis of disease? Explain the arguments.
53. Use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
54. Use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
55. Use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
Page 31 of 54

56. Use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
57. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
58. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

59. Describe Yukti Pramana.
60. Define Yukti and explain importance of it.
61. Define Yukti and explain importance of it in treatment.
62. Enlist the types of Pramana according to Charaka and describe yukti pramana.
63. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
64. Define the Yukti Pramana along with its importance in therapeutics and research.
65. Describe the definition and characteristic features of Yukti and explain its utility in
treatment.
20. Upamana Pramana
5. Lakshana.
6. Application in therapeutics and research.
66. Define Upamana and explain its types in detail.
67. Describe Upamana Pramana.
68. Describe types of Upamana Pramana.
69. Define Upamana Pramana and write its importance in detail.
70. Explain the therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana with examples.
71. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
72. Use of Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
Page 32 of 54

73. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
74. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
75. Write Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
21. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

76. Write the Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Explain the importance of Karya Karana
Bhava.
77. Define Karya and Karana along with it, write the importance in Ayurveda.
78. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
79. Define Karya and Karana. Explain its importance in Ayurveda.
80. Describe Satkaryavad in detail.
81. Define"Kaarana" and types of it, along with the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad
in Ayurveda.
82. Explain Karya Karana Siddhanta with any two Vada described in Charaka
Samhita.
83. Describe Swabhavoparamavad in detail.
84. Describe Parinamvada in detail.
85. Explain Parinam Vada.
86. Describe Parinamavad.
87. Describe Arambhavada.
88. Describe Pilupaka and Pitharapaka in detail.
89. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
Page 33 of 54

90. Describe Paramanuvad in detail.
91. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
92. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
93. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
94. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
95. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
96. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
97. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
98. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
99. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
100. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.

***********





Page 34 of 54





10. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Long Question: 15 marks
1. Define Prama, Prameya and Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
5. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
11. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
13. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
14. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
15 Marks Questions

Page 35 of 54

15. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
16. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
6. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
7. Describe Shabda Pramana.
8. Describe ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
9. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
10. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
11. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
12. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
12. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
22. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
23. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
24. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
25. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
26. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

Page 36 of 54

13. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
14. Describe Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana and Ayurveda.
15. Describe Bhautikatva and Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
16. Define Indriya. Describe Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
17. Describe the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
18. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
19. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
20. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
21. Describe in detail the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
22. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
23. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
24. . Define"Pratyaksha Pramana" along with classification and importance of it in
Ayurveda.
25. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

26. Write the etymological derivation and explain types of Anumana Pramana
according to Nyaya.
27. Explain the types of Anumana as per Charak and explain Dristanta in detail.
28. Explain the type of Anumana Pramana and importance of Swaarthanumana and
Pararthanuman.
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Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
2. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
3. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
4. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
5. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

70. Define Pratyaksha
71. Etymological derivation of Pratyaksha.
72. Write the meaning of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
Page 5 of 54

73. Write the meaning of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
74. Give the examples of Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha.
75. Give the examples of Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
76. Enlist types of Laukika Pratyaksha.
77. Enlist types of Alaukika Pratyaksha.
78. What is Manas Pratyaksha?
79. Enlist types of Manas Pratyaksha.
80. Write about Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
81. Enlist types of Swapna.
82. Name the Vedana Adhisthana.
83. Name the Vedana Hetu.
84. Which are the Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
85. Define Sannikarsha.
86. Enlist types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
87. Enlist types of Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
88. What is Saatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
89. What is Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha?
90. Enlist types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda.
91. Lakshana of Indriya.
92. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
93. Lakshana of Indriya according to Sankhya.
94. Lakshana of Indriya according to Ayurveda.
95. Enlist types Indriyas.
96. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka
97. Write the site of Strotrendriya.
98. Write the site of Chakshu Indriya.
99. Write the site of Sparshanendriya.
100. Write the site of Rasanendriya.
101. Write the site of Ghraanendriya.
Page 6 of 54

102. Write the function of Strotrendriya.
103. Write the function of Chakshu Indriya.
104. Write the function of Sparshanendriya.
105. Write the function of Rasanendriya.
106. Write the function of Ghraanendriya.
107. Write the site and function of Strotrendriya.
108. Write the site and function of Chakshu Indriya.
109. Write the site and function of Sparshanendriya.
110. Write the site and function of Rasanendriya.
111. Write the site and function of Ghraanendriya.
112. Write the function of Pani.
113. Write the function of Pada.
114. Write the function of Payu.
115. Write the function of Upastha.
116. Write the function of Jeehva.
117. Write the function of Pani and Pada.
118. Write the function of Payu and Upastha.
119. Write the function of Jihva and Pani.
120. Write the function of Ubhayendriya.
121. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Sparsha.
122. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Sparsha.
123. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Sparsha.
124. Write the Indriya Vritti of Rasa and Ghrana.
125. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Rasa.
126. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Ghrana.
127. Write the Indriya Vritti of Srotra and Chakshu.
128. Write the Indriya Vritti of Chakshu and Ghrana.
129. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
130. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Pada.
Page 7 of 54

131. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Payu.
132. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Upastha.
133. Write the Indriya Vritti of Pani and Jihva.
134. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Pada.
135. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Netra.
136. Write the Indriya Vritti of Jihva and Ghrana.
137. Enlist Tryodasha karana.
138. What is the role of Bhautikatva of Indiya.
139. What is the role of Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
140. Enlist Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
141. Explain Ubhayendriya.
142. Write the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
143. Enlist Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
144. Write the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
145. Name four instruments which helps us in Pratyaksha Gyana(direct
perception).
146. Name Adhidevata (God) of Buddhi Indriya.
147. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ahankara Indriya.
148. Name Adhidevata (God) of Mana Indriya.
149. Name Adhidevata (God) of Strotra Indriya.
150. Name Adhidevata (God) of Twaka Indriya.
151. Name Adhidevata (God) of Chakshu Indriya.
152. Name Adhidevata (God) of Rasa Indriya.
153. Name Adhidevata (God) of Ghrana Indriya.
154. Name Adhidevata (God) of Vak Indriya.
155. Name Adhidevata (God) of Pada Indriya.
156. Name Adhidevata (God) of Hasta Indriya.
157. Name Adhidevata (God) of Payu Indriya.
158. Name Adhidevata (God) of Upastha Indriya.
Page 8 of 54

159. Write about the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
160. Write the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
161. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
162. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
163. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
164. ???? ?????? ???? ? which type of Pramana indicated in this verse ?
165. Which Pramana is used in ???? ??????? ' Why?
166. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ? ?? ? ? Why?
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

167. Write the etymological derivation of Anumana Pramana.
168. Define Anumana.
169. Lakshana of Anumana.
170. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay.
171. Enlist types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
172. Enlist types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
173. Enlist types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
174. What is Paksha?
175. Give two examples of Paksh.
176. What is Vyapti?
177. Give two examples of Vyapti.
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178. Enumerate the Characteristics of Vyapti.
179. Enumerate Vyapti.
180. Give brief introduction of Anvaya Vyapti
181. Give brief introduction of Vyatireka Vyapti.
182. Give two examples of Purvavat Anumana.
183. Give two examples of Sheshavat Anumana.
184. Give two examples of Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
185. Give two examples of Atitakaalak Anumana.
186. Give two examples of Anaagatkalak Anumana.
187. Give two examples of Vartmankalak Anumana.
188. What is Drustanta?
189. Give two examples of Drustanta.
190. What is Pakshata?
191. Give two examples of Pakshata.
192. Define Pakshadharmata.
193. Give two examples of Pakshadharmata.
194. Define Paramarsha.
195. What is meaning of Paramarsha
196. Give two examples of Paramarsha.
197. What is Hetu?
198. What is Sadhetu?
199. What is Asadhetu?
200. Characteristics of Hetu.
201. Write about the characteristics features of Sad Hetu.
202. Write the meaning of Anvaya hetu.
203. Write the meaning of Vyatireka hetu.
204. Give two examples of Hetu.
205. Give two examples of Sadhetu.
206. Give two examples of Asadhetu.
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207. Give two examples of Anvaya hetu.
208. Give two examples of Vyatireka hetu.
209. What is Purvavat Anumana.
210. What is Sheshavat Anumana.
211. What is Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
212. Explain Atitakaalak Anumana.
213. Explain Anaagatkalak Anumana.
214. Explain Vartmankalak Anumana.
215. Define Tarka.
216. Enlist Tarka according to Nyay Darshana.
217. Write about Samdheya Sambhasa.
218. Write about Vigruhya Sambhasa.
219. Write about Jalpa.
220. Write about Vitanda.
221. What is Linga Paramarsha?
222. Write the meaning of Tadvidya Sambhasha.
223. Enlist the types of assembly.
224. Enlist the types of Prativadi.
225. What is the meaning of Nigrahasthana.
226. What is irrelevant Statement?
227. Write the meaning and examples of Samsaya.
228. Write the meaning and examples of Prayojana.
229. Write the meaning and examples of Jigyasha.
230. Write the meaning and examples of Arthaprapti.
231. Write the meaning and examples of Sambhava.
232. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyoga.
233. Write the meaning and examples of Ananuyoga.
234. Write the meaning and examples of Anuyojya.
235. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Dosha.
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236. Write the meaning and examples of Vakya Prashamsha.
237. Write the meaning and examples of Chala.
238. Write the meaning and examples of Atitakaala.
239. Write the meaning and examples of Upaalambha.
240. Write the meaning and examples of Parihara.
241. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
242. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
243. Enlist Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
244. Enlist Ahetu as per Charak.
245. What is Asadhetu?
246. Define Swaarthanumana.
247. Define Pararthanuman.
248. Define Hetwaabhas.
249. Write the types of Hetwabhas.
250. Savyaabhichari Hetwabhas.
251. Viruddha Hetwabhas.
252. Satpratipaksha Hetwabhas.
253. Asiddhata Hetwabhas.
254. Badhita Hetwabhas.
255. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
256. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
257. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
258. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
259. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
260. Give the example of use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
261. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
262. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
263. Jatharaagni is examined by which Pariksha?
264. Bala is examined by which Pariksha?
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265. Srotra, Chakshu etc. are examined by which Pariksha? How?
266. Manas (mind) is examined by which Pariksha?How?
267. Happiness or Joy are examined by which Pariksha?
268. Fear and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
269. Medha(intellect) is examined by which Pariksha?
270. Anger and grief are examined by which Pariksha?
271. Vigyana (Knowledge) is examined by which Pariksha?
272. How the examination of Samgya(consciousness) been carried out?
273. Which type of Pramana indicate in "?? ????? ??
274. Which type of Pramana indicate in ??? ??????? ?
275. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ?????? ? ?
276. Which type of Pramana indicate in ????? ??????? ? ?
277. Which type of Pramana indicate in ???? ???????? ?
278. Which type of Pramana indicate in ?????? ???? ? ?
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

279. Define Yukti.
280. Give four examples of Yukti Pramana.
281. Importance of Yukti Pramana.
282. How Yukti is helpful in diagnosis.
283. How Yukti is helpful in treatment.
284. Write about practical implementation of Yukti Pramana.
285. Is yukti helpful in preparing medicines? How?
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286. Does Yukti fulfils aim of Ayurveda? How?
287. Write the meaning of ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
288. Why Charaka has accepted Yukti as 4
th
Pramana?
289. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
6. Upamana Pramana
1. Lakshana.
2. Application in therapeutics and research.
290. Define Upamana.
291. Explain types of Upamana.
292. Lakshanas of Upamana Pramana.
293. Write the importance of Upamana Pramana.
294. Importance of Upamana in diagnosis.
295. Importance of Upamana in treatment.
296. Write the examples of therapeutic utility of Upamana Praman.
297. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
298. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
299. Define Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
300. Enlist the types of Arthaapatti Pramana.
301. Write importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
302. Use of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
303. Define Aitihya Pramana.
304. What is the meaning of Aitihya
305. Write the importance of Aitihya Pramana.
306. Utility of Sambhava Pramana.
307. Examples of Sambhava Pramana.
308. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
309. Examples of Chesta Pramana.
310. Utility of Anupalabdhi Pramana.
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311. Examples of Aitihya Pramana.
312. Which Pramana is used in ?????????????? ? Why?

7. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

313. Write the Lakshana of Karya.
314. Write the Lakshana of Karana.
315. Enumerate Karana.
316. Enlist the types of Karana.
317. Write the name of Vada explain by Sankhya Darshana.
318. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava.
319. Write the importance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
320. Write the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad in Ayurveda.
321. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
322. Which is the Samavayi Karana for the manifestation of disease.
323. Write about Satkaryavad.
324. Write the importance of Satkaryavad.
325. Enlist the principles of Satkaryavad.
326. Write the examples of Asatkaranat of Satkaryavad.
327. Write the examples of Upadangrahanat of Satkaryavad.
328. Write the examples of Saktasyasaktakaranat of Satkaryavad.
329. Write the examples of Sarvasambhavaabhavat of Satkaryavad.
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330. Write the examples of Karanabhavat of Satkaryavad.
331. Write the examples of Asatkaryavad.
332. Who explain Asatkaryavad.
333. What are the contents of Parinamavad.
334. Write the significance of Parinamavad.
335. What is the main Principle of Vivartavad.
336. Write the meaning of ?Vivarta?
337. Write examples of Vivartavad.
338. Enlist any two Vada described in Charaka Samhita.
339. Write the meaning of Swabhavoparamavad.
340. Write the meaning of Kshanabhanguravad.
341. Give two example of Kshanbhangura Vada in Ayurveda.
342. What is the meaning of Anekanta ?
343. Write examples of Anekantavada.
344. Write about Arambhavada.
345. Briefly explain Aarambha Vada.
346. What is the meaning of Ekantavada.
347. Explain Pilupaka and Pitharapaka.
348. Define Pilu.
349. Write the meaning of Pilu? Give examples.
350. Write the meaning of Pithara? Give examples.
351. Pilupaka is contribution of which Darshana?
352. Pitharapaka is contribution of which Darshana?
353. What is Paramanuvad.
354. Write any examples of Paramanuvad given in Ayurveda.
355. What is Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
356. Write the example of Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
357. Give the examples of Prakruti-Sama-Samavaya.
358. Give the examples of Prakruti-Vishama-Samavaya.
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359. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
360. Name the Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
361. Name the Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
362. Name the Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
363. Name the Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
364. Name the Vada according to Jain Darshana.
365. Name the Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
366. Name the Vada according to Ayurveda.
367. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.
368. What is the difference in between Vada and Siddhanta

***********

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4. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Short Question: 05 marks
1. Define Pariksha and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Explain Prama, Pramana, Prameya and Pramata.
3. Explain Prama and Pramana.
4. Explain Prameya and Pramata.
5. Define Pramana and importance of it in Ayurveda.
6. Explain types of Pramana according to Nyay.
7. Explain types of Pramana according to Ayurveda.
8. Explain types of Pramana according to Vaisheshika.
9. Write about Smritijanya Gyan.
10. Write about Anubhavjanya Gyan.
11. Write a note on Aprama.
12. Write a note on Ayathartha Gyan.
13. Enlist types of Pramanas according to different texts.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
05 Marks Questions

Page 18 of 54

14. Subsudation of different Pramanas in to three Pramanas.
15. Enumerate and explain various classifications of Pramanas according to Charak.
16. Write about Practical application of method of examination in treatment.
17. Write practical applicability of Aptopadesha in treatment.
18. Write practical applicability of Pratyaksha in treatment.
19. Write practical applicability of Anumana in treatment.
20. Write practical applicability of Yukti in treatment.
21. Explain the importance of Pariksha vidhi in Chikitsa.
5. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
5. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
6. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
7. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
8. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
22. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
23. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
24. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
25. Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
26. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
27. Explain Shabda Pramana.
28. Explain classification of Shabdha.
29. Explain types of Shabda according to Tarka Samgraha.
30. Explain types of Shabda according to Charaka.
31. Write the importance of Shabda Pramana in Ayurveda.
32. Write a note on Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
33. Write a note on Vakyaartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
34. Write a note on Shaktigraha.
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35. Write a note on Lakshana Vritti.
36. How to acquire the knowledge of Pada(Pada ? Artha gyana)? Explain its types.
37. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
38. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
39. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
6. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
8. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
9. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
10. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
11. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
12. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

40. Write a note on Nirvikalpa Pratyaksha and Savikalpa Pratyaksha
41. Write a note on Savikalpa Pratyaksha.
42. Explain Laukika Pratyaksha and Alaukika Pratyaksha
43. Explain Manas Pratyaksha
44. Explain the types of Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
45. Explain types of Swapna.
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46. Explain Vedana, Vedana Adhisthana and Vedana Hetu.
47. Write a note on Vedana Nivruti Karana (cause to get read off the pain).
48. Define Sannikarsha. And describe types of Sannikarsha
49. Explain types of Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
50. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
51. Process of acquiring knowledge.
52. Gyana Pravriti.
53. Role of knowledge of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha.
54. Explain types of Asaatmyendriyaartha Sannikarsha to Ayurveda with examples.
55. Write Lakshana of Indriya. Describe characteristics of Indriya.
56. Lakshana of Indriya and explain types Indriyas.
57. What is the meaning of Panchapanchaka.
58. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
59. Describe Bhautikatva of Indriyas.
60. Explain Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
61. Describe Gyanendriya
62. Describe Karmendriya.
63. Define and describe Ubhayendriya.
64. Difference between Bahya and Antah Karana(indriya).
65. Importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
66. Indriya Pancha Panchaka.
67. Panchavayava Vakya Nirupan of Indriya.
68. Explain Indriya Vrittis.
69. Explain Antahkarana Vrittis.
70. Explain Trayodasha Karana.
71. Explain Lakshana and classification of Indriya.
72. Importance of Panchabhautikatva of Indriya in treatment.
73. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
74. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
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75. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
76. Utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
77. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis
78. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in treatment.
79. Importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
80. Pratyaksha Pramana and Yantra (instruments)
81. Pratyaksha and Anumana.
82. Pratyaksha and Yukti.
83. Pratyaksha and Upamana.
84. Pratyaksha and Aptopadesha.
85. Pratyaksha and Arthapatti.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

86. Write the etymological derivation and types of Anumana.
87. Define Anumana and types of Anumana.
88. Lakshana of Anumana and classification of it.
89. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay.
90. Explain types of Anumana as per Tarka Samgraha.
91. Explain types of Anumana as per Vaisheshika Darshana.
92. Explain types of Anumana as per Nyay Vartika.
93. What is Paksha? Explain with examples.
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94. What is Vyapti? Explain types of Vyapti with examples.
95. What is Drustanta? Explain with examples.
96. What is Pakshata? Explain with examples.
97. Define Pakshadharmata. Explain with examples.
98. Define Paramarsha. Explain with examples.
99. Write a note on Tarka.
100. Write a note on Sambhava.
101. What is Hetu? Explain Characteristics and types of it.
102. What is Sadhetu? Explain Anvaya - Vyatireka hetu.
103. What is Asadhetu? Explain it.
104. Explain Purvavat-Sheshavat- Samanyato Drusta Anumana.
105. Explain Atitakaalak-Anaagatkalak-Vartmankalak Anumana.
106. Define Tarka.explain the types according to Nyay Darshana.
107. Write about Sambhasa Parishad.
108. What is Linga Paramarsha? Explain it.
109. Write about Tadvidya Sambhasha.
110. Explain the types of assembly.
111. Write a note on Nigrahasthana.
112. Write a note on Vakya Dosha and Vakya Prashamsha.
113. Explain Hetu bheda according to Nyay.
114. Explain Hetu bheda according to Bauddha.
115. Explain Hetu bheda according to Vaisheshika Sutra.
116. Explain Ahetu as per Charak.
117. Explain Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
118. Explain Pararthanuman.
119. Difference Swaarthanumana and Pararthanuman.
120. Write a note on Hetwaabhas.
121. Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
122. Write the example of Panchavayav Vakya.
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123. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
124. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in diagnosis?.
125. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in treatment?.
126. Write a note on ?Anumana Pramana in Research?.
127. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
128. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
129. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.
130. Explain Yukti Pramana.
131. Explain Yukti is accepted as 4
th
Pramana by Charak.
132. Write Lakshana of Yukti and explain importance of it.
133. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
134. Is Yukti Pramana incorporated in Anumana Pramana?
13. Upamana Pramana
3. Lakshana.
4. Application in therapeutics and research.
135. Explain Upamana Pramana.
136. Define Upamana and explain its types.
137. Explain types of Upamana Pramana.
138. Importance of Upamana Pramana in detail.
139. Therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana.
140. Explain Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
141. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
142. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
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143. Write about Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
144. Write the importance of Arthaapatti Pramana.
145. Anupalabdhi Pramana and its utility.
146. Define Aitihya Pramana and importance of it.
147. Explain Sambhava Pramana.
148. Utility of Sambhava Pramana in Ayurveda.
149. Explain Chesta Pramana.
150. Utility of Chesta Pramana.
14. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

151. Explain Karya Karana Bhava.
152. Write the importance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
153. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
154. Satkaryavad.
155. Swabhavoparamavad.
156. Parinamvada.
157. Explain Parinam Vada.
158. Describe Arambhavada.
159. Describe Pilupaka.
160. Explain Pitharapaka in detail.
161. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
162. Paramanuvad.
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163. Asatkaryavad.
164. Write the main Principle of Vivartavad.
165. Vivartavad.
166. Kshanabhanguravad.
167. Anekantavada.
168. Aarambha Vada.
169. What is the meaning of Ekantavada?
170. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
171. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
172. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
173. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
174. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
175. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
176. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
177. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
178. Explain the Verse ? ????????? ?????????????? ??|
????? ???????? ??????? ???|?
179. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? |
??? , ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ||?
180. Explain the Verse ? ?????????????? ??????? ???? |
? ????? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ||?
181. Explain the Verse ? ????? ????? ????? ?????????|
???????? ????? ?????? ????????||?
182. Explain the Verse ? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????????|
???? ?????? ??? ???????? ????? ?????||?
183. Explain the Verse ? ??????????????????? ?????? |
???? ???????????????? ?????? ||?
184. Explain the Verse ? ??????(?)???????????????? |
?????? ????????????????? ||?
185. Explain the Verse ? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????????? |
???????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???|?
186. Explain the Verse ? ??????? ??? ? ????? ??
Page 26 of 54

187. Explain the Verse ? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????: ??
188. Explain the Verse ? ?? ?????: - ????, ? ????, ?? ???????? ??
189. Explain the verse ? ???????????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ????: ?
????? ???????????? ???????? ????: ?
190. Explain the verse ? ????????? ???????????? ???? , ????????? ||?
191. Explain the verse ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??
192. Explain the verse ? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????: ?
? ? ??????........??????? ??
193. Explain the verse ? ? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?
194. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??
195. Explain the verse ? ????? ???????? ??? ? ???? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????
? ??
196. Explain the verse ? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??
197. Explain the verse ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??
198. Explain the verse ? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??
199. Explain the verse ? ??????: ???? ????????? ??
200. Explain the verse ? ??? ?? ????? ? ? ??? ?????????: ? ??????????
?????? : ?????? ? ??

***********



Page 27 of 54







7. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Long Question: 10 marks
1. Define Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on Pramana as methods of examination in Ayurveda.
5. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
6. Write definition and types of Pramana and explain their utility in treatment.
7. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
8. Define various types of Pramanas. Explain its significance in Ayurveda.
8. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
10 Marks Questions

Page 28 of 54

9. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
10. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
11. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
12. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
9. Define Apta and Aptopadesha. Write its importance in treatment.
10. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
11. Describe Shabda Pramana.
12. Explain classification of Shabdha.
13. Write a note on ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
14. Explain Shabdartha Bodhaka Vruttis.
15. Describe Vaakyartha Gyana Hetu.
16. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
17. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
18. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
19. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
9. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
15. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
16. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
17. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
18. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
Page 29 of 54

19. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

20. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
21. Describe Swapna in detail.
22. Describe Manas Pratyaksha with examples.
23. Describe Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana.
24. Describe Sannikarsha according to Ayurveda.
25. Describe Bhautikatva and Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
26. Define Indriya. Describe Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
27. Define Indriya. Describe Ubhayendriya.
28. Describe the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
29. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
30. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
31. Explain Pratyaksha Badhaka Karanas.
32. Describe the obstructing factors to Pratyaksha.
33. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
34. Describe in detail the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
35. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
36. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
37. . Define"Pratyaksha Pramana" along with classification and importance of it in
Ayurveda.
38. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
Page 30 of 54

a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

39. Write the etymological derivation and explain types of Anumana Pramana
according to Nyaya.
40. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Nyaya.
41. Define Anumana and explain types of Anumana Pramana according to Tarka
Sangraha.
42. Explain the types of Anumana based on Kala as per Charak and explain Dristanta
in detail.
43. Explain the type of Anumana Pramana and importance of Pararthanuman.
44. Explain the importance of Anumana Pramana with reference to Shadvidha
Kriyakala.
45. What is Hetu? Explain the types of Hetus.
46. Explain Hetwaabhas.
47. Define Hetwabhas and types of it
48. What is Tarka ? Explain it in brief.
49. Explain Tadvidya Sambhasha.
50. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
51. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
52. How Anumana Pramana is helpful in diagnosis of disease? Explain the arguments.
53. Use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis.
54. Use of Anumana Pramana in treatment.
55. Use of Anumana Pramana in Research.
Page 31 of 54

56. Use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology.
57. Explain Anumana grahya Bhavas.
58. Explain Anumiti Gyana Sadhana.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

59. Describe Yukti Pramana.
60. Define Yukti and explain importance of it.
61. Define Yukti and explain importance of it in treatment.
62. Enlist the types of Pramana according to Charaka and describe yukti pramana.
63. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
64. Define the Yukti Pramana along with its importance in therapeutics and research.
65. Describe the definition and characteristic features of Yukti and explain its utility in
treatment.
20. Upamana Pramana
5. Lakshana.
6. Application in therapeutics and research.
66. Define Upamana and explain its types in detail.
67. Describe Upamana Pramana.
68. Describe types of Upamana Pramana.
69. Define Upamana Pramana and write its importance in detail.
70. Explain the therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana with examples.
71. Therapeutic use of Upamana Pramana.
72. Use of Upamana in diagnosis and treatment.
Page 32 of 54

73. Is Upamana Pramana useful in Ayurveda? How?
74. Explain Arthaapatti Pramana with examples.
75. Write Aitihya Pramana and its importance.
21. Karya- Karana Siddhanta (Cause and Effect Theory)
a. Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Types of Karana.
b. Significance of Karya and Karana in Ayurveda.
c. Different opinions regarding the manifestation of Karya from Karana:
Satkaryavada, Asatkaryavada, Parinamavada, Arambhavada,
Paramanuvada, Vivartavada, Kshanabhangurvada, Swabhavavada,
Pilupaka, Pitharpaka, Anekantavada, Swabhavoparamavada.

76. Write the Lakshana of Karya and Karana. Explain the importance of Karya Karana
Bhava.
77. Define Karya and Karana along with it, write the importance in Ayurveda.
78. Significance of Karya Karana Bhava in Ayurveda.
79. Define Karya and Karana. Explain its importance in Ayurveda.
80. Describe Satkaryavad in detail.
81. Define"Kaarana" and types of it, along with the importance of Kaarana Karya Vad
in Ayurveda.
82. Explain Karya Karana Siddhanta with any two Vada described in Charaka
Samhita.
83. Describe Swabhavoparamavad in detail.
84. Describe Parinamvada in detail.
85. Explain Parinam Vada.
86. Describe Parinamavad.
87. Describe Arambhavada.
88. Describe Pilupaka and Pitharapaka in detail.
89. What is Pithara Paka? Explain it with examples.
Page 33 of 54

90. Describe Paramanuvad in detail.
91. Explain Samanya ? Vaisheya Siddhanta.
92. Describe the importance of Swabhavoparamavad.
93. Explain Vada according to Samkhya Darshana.
94. Explain Vada according to Nyay Darshana.
95. Explain Vada according to Vaisheshika Darshana.
96. Explain Vada according to Bauddha Darshana.
97. Explain Vada according to Jain Darshana.
98. Explain Vada according to Yoga Darshana.
99. Explain Vada according to Ayurveda.
100. Write the importance of Vada in Ayurveda along with its practical
applicability.

***********





Page 34 of 54





10. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Long Question: 15 marks
1. Define Prama, Prameya and Pramana and write the importance of Pariksha.
2. Write the classification of all Pramana according to Darshana Shastra, Charak and
Sushruta,.
3. What is Gyana? Describe Smrutijanya and Anubhavajanya Gyana in detail.
4. Write a note on practical applicability of Pramana(methods of examination) in
treatment.
5. Write the different types of Pramanas with their definition. Also describe their
utility in diagnosis of disease.
11. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
13. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
14. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
15 Marks Questions

Page 35 of 54

15. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
16. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
6. Write an essay on Aptopdesha.
7. Describe Shabda Pramana.
8. Describe ??Shastra Lakshana ? Good text book?.
9. Explain the Significance of Aptopadesha Pramana.
10. What is Aptopadesha? Describe in detail the utility of this Pramana.
11. Describe the definition, utility and types of Pramana according to various
philosophical schools. Explain Significance of Shabda Praman in Ayurveda.
12. Is Aaptopadesh Pramana useful now a days? Describe your opinion.
12. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
22. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Pratyaksha- Nirvikalpaka- Savikalpaka with
description, description of Laukika and Alaukika types and their further
classification.
23. Indriya-prapyakaritvam, six types of Sannikarsha.
24. Indriyanam lakshanam, classification and enumeration of Indriya. Description
of Panchapanchaka, Penta-elemental nature of Indriya by Panchamahabhuta
(Panchabhautikatwa of Indriya) and similarity in sources (Tulyayonitva) of
Indriya.
25. Trayodasha Karana, dominance of Antahkaran.
26. Hindrances in direct perception (pratyaksha-anupalabdhikaaran),
enhancement of direct perception (Pratyaksha) by various instruments/
equipments, necessity of other Pramanas in addition to Pratyaksha. Practical
study/ application of Pratyaksha in physiological, diagnostic, therapeutics and
research grounds.

Page 36 of 54

13. Define Pratyaksha and write a note on Pratyaksha Pramana.
14. Describe Sannikarsha according to Nyaaya Darshana and Ayurveda.
15. Describe Bhautikatva and Ahankarikatva of Indriyas.
16. Define Indriya. Describe Gyanendriya and Karmendriya.
17. Describe the importance of Indriyas in Pratyaksha Gyana.
18. Explain ? ?Pratyaksha Badhaka Bhavas (obstacles in direct perception)?
19. Explain the Pratyaksha Badhakara Bhava with example.
20. Explain the relation of Pratyaksha Pramana with other Pramanas.
21. Describe in detail the utility of Pratyaksha Pramana for the diagnosis of disease.
22. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
23. Write about importance of Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda.
24. . Define"Pratyaksha Pramana" along with classification and importance of it in
Ayurveda.
25. What is the meaning of Savikalpa and Nirvikalpa. Justify with examples.
4. Anumanapariksha/Pramana
a. Lakshana of Anumana. Introduction of Anumiti, Paramarsha, Vyapti, Hetu,
Sadhya, Paksha, Drishtanta. Types of Anumana mentioned by Charaka and
Nyayadarshana.
b. Characteristic and types of Vyapti.
c. Lakshana and types of Hetu, description of Ahetu and Hetwabhasa.
d. Characteristic and significance of Tarka.
e. Practical study/ application of Anumanapramana in physiological,
diagnostic, therapeutics and research.

26. Write the etymological derivation and explain types of Anumana Pramana
according to Nyaya.
27. Explain the types of Anumana as per Charak and explain Dristanta in detail.
28. Explain the type of Anumana Pramana and importance of Swaarthanumana and
Pararthanuman.
Page 37 of 54

29. Explain Hetwaabhas.
30. Explain Tadvidya Sambhasha.
31. What is the meaning of Panchavayav Vakya? Explain it.
32. Write about practical application of Anumana Pramana.
33. How Anumana Pramana is helpful in diagnosis of disease? Explain the arguments.
34. Use of Anumana Pramana in diagnosis and treatment.
35. Use of Anumana Pramana in Physiology and Research.
5. Yuktipariksha/ Pramana
a. Lakshana and discussion.
b. Importance in Ayurveda.
c. Practical study and utility in therapeutics and research.

36. Describe Yukti Pramana.
37. Define Yukti and explain importance of it in treatment.
38. Enlist the types of Pramana according to Charaka and describe yukti pramana.
39. Importance of Yukti Pramana in Ayurveda.
40. Define the Yukti Pramana along with its importance in therapeutics and research.
41. Describe the definition and characteristic features of Yukti and explain its utility in
treatment.
27. Upamana Pramana
7. Lakshana.
8. Application in therapeutics and research.
42. Define Upamana and explain its types in detail.
43. Describe Upamana Pramana.
44. Define Upamana Pramana and write its importance in detail.
45. Explain the therapeutic utility of Upamana Pramana with examples.
FirstRanker.com - FirstRanker's Choice
Page 1 of 54






1. Pariksha
1. Definition, significance, necessity and use of Pariksha.
2. Definition of Prama, Prameya, Pramata, Pramana.
3. Significance and importance of Pramana, Enumeration of Pramana
according to different schools of philosophy.
4. Four types of methods for examination in Ayurveda (Chaturvidha-
Parikshavidhi), Pramana in Ayurveda.
5. Subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
6. Practical application of methods of examination (Parikshavidhi) in treatment
(Chikitsa).
Very Short Question: 02 marks
1. Define Prama.
2. Write Nirukti of Pramana.
3. Define Pariksha and need of it in Ayurveda.
4. Define Prameya.
5. What is Pramata ?
6. Enlist the types of Prama.
7. Enlist the types of Aprama.
8. Explain Prameya with example.
9. Explain Pramata with example.
10. Explain Prama with example.
11. Explain Pramana with example.
12. Enumerate Pramana according to Acharya Chakrapani
PADARTHA VIGYAN EVUM AYURVEDA ITIHAS
(Philosophy and History of Ayurveda)
Paper II - 100 Marks; Part A - 75 Marks
02 Marks Questions

Page 2 of 54

13. Write Lakshana of Pramana according to Nyay.
14. What is Smriti?
15. Enlist types of Smriti.
16. Enlist causes of Smriti.
17. Enlist eight causes of Smriti.
18. Define Smriti. Give two examples of it.
19. Write causes of Smiti.
20. What is Anubhava?
21. Define Anubhava. Give two examples of it.
22. Which Darshana accepted only one Pramana.
23. Who accepted two Pramanas.
24. Enlist Pramanas according to Sankhya Darshana.
25. Sushruta accepted which Pramanas?
26. Charak accepted which Pramanas?
27. Write about subsudation of different Pramanas under three Pramanas.
28. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Rog-Rogi Pariksha.
29. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Vada siddhi.
30. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for the knowledge of truth and untruth.
31. Which Pramanas accepted by Charak for Sat and Asat Pariksha.
32. Why Charak included Yukti Pramana?
33. Why Charak accepted Yukti as Pramana?
34. Why Sushruta accepted Upamana as Pramana?
35. Synonyms of Pramana.
36. What is the meaning of Avinabhava Sambandha?
2. Aptopdesha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Aptopadesha, Lakshana of Apta.
2. Lakshana of Shabda, and its types.
Page 3 of 54

3. Shabdavritti-Abhidha, Lakshana, Vyanjana and Tatparyakhya.
Shaktigrahahetu.
4. Vaakya: Characteristics, Vaakyarthagyanahetu- Aakanksha, Yogyata,
Sannidhi.
37. Define Apta.
38. Importance of Aptopdesha.
39. Define Aptopdesha according to Nyay.
40. Define Aptopdesha according to Charak.
41. What is Shaktigrah?
42. Enumerate Shabda
43. Enlist types Shabda.
44. Enumerate the types of Shabda
45. Enlist types Shabda according to Charak.
46. Enlist types Shabda according to Nyay.
47. Enlist types Shabda according to Tarka Sangraha.
48. What is Dristartha Shabda?
49. What is Adristartha Shabda?
50. What is Satya Shabda?
51. What is Anruta Shabda?
52. Give the examples of Dristartha Shabda?.
53. Give the examples of Adristartha Shabda?
54. Give the examples of Satya Shabda?
55. Give the examples of Anruta Shabda?
56. What is Dwanyaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
57. What is Varnaatmaka Shabda? Give example.
58. Define Abhidha Vritti.
59. Define Lakshanaa Vrutti.
60. Define Vyanjana Vritti.
Page 4 of 54

61. Vyanjana Vritti Describe in brief.
62. Define Tatparyaakhya Vritti.
63. Enlist types of Lakshanaa Vrutti.
64. What is utility of Shabdartha Bodhak Vritti'
65. Enlist Shabdartha Bodhaka Vritti.
66. Name the Vaakyaartha Gyana Hetus.
67. Enlist the types of Pada.
68. Describe any four features of sacred book.
69. Write the difference between Aptopadesha and Itihasa Pramana.
3. Pratyaksha Pariksha/ Pramana
1. Lakshana of Pratyaksha, types of Prat