JNTU-KAKINADA : Syllabus and Course Structure – M.Tech (Control Systems).

JNTU-KAKINADA : Syllabus and Course Structure – M.Tech (Control Systems).

1.2 Course Structure and scheme of evaluation (Semester wise)

Name of the SubjectHrs. / Week


Evaluation (Marks)





  1. Advanced Control theory
  2. Digital Control Systems
  3. Random Variable Stochastic Process
  4. Micro Controller & Applications
  5. Elective-I
    1. Computer Controlled Systems
    2. Control of Special Machines
  6. Elective-II

i. System Identifications and Parameter Estimations

ii. Computation Techniques and Optimization

7. Control Systems Simulation Lab

4 - –

4 - –

4 - –

4 - –

4 - –

4 - –

4 - –

- - 3


























  1. Robotics and Control
  2. Non-Linear Systems Analysis
  3. Advanced Digital Signal Processing
  4. Optimal Control Theory
  5. Elective-III

i. A I Techniques

ii. Embedded Real Time Operating System EMS

  1. Elective-IV

i. Renewable Energy Sources

ii. Power Quality Management

7. Advance Control System Lab

4 - –

4 - –

4 - –

4 - –

4 - –

4 - –

4 - –

- - 3


























1. Seminar 50 (Internal Evaluation)

2. Project Work Grading

(Excellent / Good / Satisfactory / Not Satisfactory)



Unit I

Introductory matrix algebra and linear vector space. State space representation of systems. Linearization of a non – linear System. Solution of state equations. Evaluation of State Transition Matrix (STM) – Simulation of state equation using MATLAB/ SIMULINK program.

Unit II

Similarity transformation and invariance of system properties due to similarity transformations. Minimal realization of SISO, SIMO, MISO transfer functions. Discretization of a continuous time state space model. Conversion of state space model to transfer function model using Fadeeva algorithm.

Unit III

Fundamental theorem of feedback control – Controllability and Controllable canonical form – Pole assignment by state feedback using Ackermanns formula Eigen structure assignment problem.

Unit IV

Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem and solution of algebraic Riccati equation using eigenvalue and eigen vector methods, iterative method. Controller design using output feedback.

Unit V

Observability and observable canonical form – Design of full order observer using Ackermanns formula – Bass Gura algorithm.

Unit VI

Duality between controllability and observability – Full order Observer based controller design. Reduced order observer design.

Unit VII

Internal stability of a system. Stability in the sense of Lyapunov, asymptotic stability of linear time invariant continuous and discrete time systems. Solution of Lyapunov type equation.


Model decomposition and decoupling by state feedback. Disturbance rejection, sensitivity and complementary sensitivity functions.

Reference Books:

1. K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall, India 1997

2. T. Kailath, T., Linear Systems, Perntice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980.

3. N. K. Sinha , Control Systems, New Age International, 3rd edition, 2005.

4. Panos J Antsaklis, and Anthony N. Michel, Linear Systems, New – age international (P) LTD.

Publishers, 2009.

5. John J DAzzo and C. H. Houpis , Linear Control System Analysis and Design Conventional

and Modern, McGraw – Hill Book Company, 1988.

6. B.N. Dutta, Numerical Methods for linear Control Systems – , Elsevier Publication, 2007.

7. C.T.Chen Linear System Theory and Design - PHI, India.

8. Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, 11th Edition, Pearson Edu, India, 2009.



Introduction - Advantages of Digital control systems - Practical aspects of the choice of sampling rate and multirate sampling - Basic discrete time signals - Quantization Sampling theorem – Data conversion and Quantization - Sampling process - Mathematical modeling - Data reconstruction and filtering of sampled signals zero – order hold.


z - transform and inverse z – transform, Relationship between s - plane and z - plane - Difference equation – Solution by recursion and z – transform - pulse transfer functions of the zero – order Hold and relationship between G(s) and G(z) Bilinear transformation .


Digital control systems - Pulse transfer function - z transform analysis of open loop, closed loop systems - Modified z Transform - transfer function - Stability of linear digital control systems - Stability tests.


Root loci - Frequency domain analysis - Bode plots - Gain margin and phase margin – Design of Digital Control Systems based on Root Locus Technique.


Cascade and feedback compensation by continuous data controllers – Digital controllers – Design using bilinear transformation – Realization of Digital PID controllers.


State equations of discrete data systems, solution of discrete state equations, State transition Matrix: z – transform method. Relation between state equations and transfer functions.


Concepts on Controllability and Observability – Digital state observer: Design of the full order and reduced order state observer – Pole placement design by state feed back.


Design of Dead beat Controller – some case studies – Stability analysis of discrete time systems based on Lyapunov approach.

Reference Books:

  1. K. Ogata, Discrete Time Control Systems, PHI/Addison – Wesley Longman Pte. Ltd., India, Delhi, 1995.
  2. B.C Kuo, Digital Control Systems, 2nd Edition, Oxford Univ Press, Inc., 1992.

3. F. Franklin, J.D. Powell, and M.L. Workman, Digital control of Dynamic Systems,

Addison – Wesley Longman, Inc., Menlo Park, CA , 1998.

4. Gopal, Digital Control and State Variable Methods, Tata McGraw Hill, India, 1997.

5. C. H. Houpis and G.B. Lamont, Digital Control Systems, McGraw Hill, 1985.

6. John S. Baey, Fundamentals of Linear State Space Systems, Mc. Graw Hill, 1st edition

7. Bernard Fried Land, Control System Design, Mc. Graw Hill, 1st edition

8. Dorsay, Continuous and Discrete Control Systems, McGraw – Hill.


Unit I: Probability:

Probability introduced through Sets and Relative Frequency: Experiments and Sample Spaces, Discrete and Continuous Sample Spaces, Events, Probability Definitions and Axioms, Mathematical Model of Experiments, Probability as a Relative Frequency, Joint Probability, Conditional Probability, Total Probability, Bayes Theorem, Independent Events:

Unit II: The Random Variable:

Definition of a Random Variable, Conditions for a Function to be a Random Variable, Discrete and Continuous, Mixed Random Variable, Distribution and Density functions, Properties, Binomial, Poisson, Uniform, Gaussian, Exponential, Rayleigh, Conditional Distribution, Methods of defining Conditioning Event, Conditional Density, Properties.

Unit III: Operation On One Random Variable Expectations :

Introduction, Expected Value of a Random Variable, Function of a Random Variable, Moments about the Origin, Central Moments, Variance and Skew, Chebychevs Inequality, Characteristic Function, Moment Generating Function, Transformations of a Random Variable: Monotonic Transformations for a Continuous Random Variable, Nonmonotonic Transformations of Continuous Random Variable, Transformation of a Discrete Random Variable.

Unit IV: Multiple Random Variables:

Vector Random Variables, Joint Distribution Function, Properties of Joint Distribution, Marginal Distribution Functions, Conditional Distribution and Density Point Conditioning, Conditional Distribution and Density Interval conditioning, Statistical Independence, Sum of Two Random

Variables, Sum of Several Random Variables, Central Limit Theorem, (Proof not expected). Unequal Distribution, Equal Distributions.

Unit V: Operations On Multiple Random Variables:

Expected Value of a Function of Random Variables: Joint Moments about the Origin, Joint Central Moments, Joint Characteristic Functions, Jointly Gaussian Random Variables: Two Random Variables case, N Random Variable case, Properties, Transformations of Multiple Random Variables, Linear Transformations of Gaussian Random Variables.

Unit VI: Random Processes Temporal Characteristics:

The Random Process Concept, Classification of Processes, Deterministic and Nondeterministic Processes, Distribution and Density Functions, concept of Stationarity and Statistical Independence. First-Order Stationary Processes, Second- Order and Wide-Sense Stationarity, (N-Order) and Strict-Sense Stationarity, Time Averages and Ergodicity, Mean-Ergodic Processes, Correlation-Ergodic Processes, Autocorrelation Function and Its Properties, Cross-Correlation Function and Its Properties, Covariance Functions, Gaussian Random Processes, Poisson Random Process.

Unit VII: Random Processes Spectral Characteristics:

The Power Spectrum: Properties, Relationship between Power Spectrum and Autocorrelation Function, The Cross-Power Density Spectrum, Properties, Relationship between Cross-Power Spectrum and Cross-Correlation Function.

Unit VIII: Linear Systems With Random Inputs:

Random Signal Response of Linear Systems: System Response Convolution, Mean and Mean-squared Value of System Response, autocorrelation Function of Response, Cross-Correlation Functions of Input and Output, Spectral Characteristics of System Response: Power Density Spectrum of Response, Cross-Power Density Spectrums of Input and Output, Band pass, Band-Limited and Narrowband Processes, Properties, Modeling of Noise Sources: Resistive (Thermal) Noise Source, Arbitrary Noise Sources, Effective Noise Temperature, Average Noise Figures, Average Noise Figure of cascaded networks.

Reference Books:

1. Probability, Random Variables & Random Signal Principles – Peyton Z. Peebles, TMH, 4th

Edition, 2001.

2. Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes Athanasios Papoulis and S.

Unnikrishna Pillai, PHI, 4th Edition, 2002.

3. Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, A. Papoulis, International student

edition, Kogakusha Ltd., New Delhi.

4. Communication Systems Analog & Digital R.P. Singh and S.D. Sapre, TMH, 1995.

5. Probability and Random Processes with Application to Signal Processing Henry Stark and

John W. Woods, Pearson Education, 3rd Edition.

6. Probability Methods of Signal and System Analysis. George R. Cooper, Clave D. MC Gillem,

Oxford, 3rd Edition, 1999.

7. Statistical Theory of Communication – S.P. Eugene Xavier, New Age Publications, 2003.

8. Signals, Systems & Communications – B.P. Lathi, B.S. Publications, 2003


Unit-I: 8051 Microcontrollers

Introduction to Intel 8 bit & 16 bit Microcontrollers, MCS-51 Architecture, Registers in MCS-51, 8051 Pin Description, 8051 Connections, 8051 Parallel I/O Ports, Memory Organization

Unit II: MCS-51 Addressing Modes and Instructions

8051 Addressing Modes, MCS-51 Instruction Set, 8051 Instructions and Simple Programs, Using Stack Pointer, 8051 Assembly Language Programming, Development Systems and Tools, Software Simulators of 8051

Unit-III: MCS-51 Interrupts, Timer/Counters and Serial Communication

Interrupts, Interrupts in MCS-51, Timers and Counters, Serial Communication, Atmel Microcontrollers (89CXX and 89C20XX), Architectural Overview of Atmel 89C51 and Atmel 89C2051, Pin Description of 89C51 and 89C2051, Using Flash Memory Devices Atmel 89CXX and 89C20XX

Unit-IV: Applications of MCS-51 and Atmel 89C51 and 89C2051 Microcontrollers

Applications of MCS-51 and Atmel 89C51 and 89C2051 Microcontrollers- Square Wave Generation- Rectangular Waves- Pulse Generation- Pulse Width Modulation- Staircase Ramp Generation- Sine Wave Generation- Pulse Width Measurement- Frequency Counter

Unit- V: PIC Microcontrollers

PIC Microcontrollers: Overview and Features, PIC 16C6X/7X, FSR(File Selection Register) [Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer], PIC Reset Actions, PIC Oscillator Connections, PIC Memory Organizations, PIC PIC 16C6X/7X Instructions, Addressing Modes, I/O Ports, Interrupts in PIC 16C61/71, PIC 16C61/71 Timers, PIC 16C71 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC)

Unit- VI: PIC 16F8XX Flash Microcontrollers

Introduction, Pin Diagram of 16F8XX, STATUS Register, OPTION_REG Register, Power Control Register (PCON), PIC 16F8XX Program Memory, PIC 16F8XX Data Memory, DATA EEPROM and Flash Program EEPROM, Interrupts in 16F877, I/O Ports, Timers

Unit- VII: Interfacing and Microcontroller Applications- Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), Push Buttons, Relays and Latch Connections, Keyboard Interfacing, Interfacing 7-Segment Displays, LCD Interfacing, ADC AND DAC Interfacing with 89C51 Microcontrollers

Unit- VIII: Industrial Applications of Microcontrollers – Measurement Applications, Automation and Control Applications

Reference Books:

  1. Microcontrollers-Theory and Applications by Ajay V Deshmukh, McGraw Hills
  2. Microcontrollers by Kennith J ayala, Thomson publishers

3. Microprocessor and Microcontrollers by Prof C.R.Sarma


Unit I: Multivariable Controls

Multivariable control- Basic expressions for MIMO systems- Singular values- Stability norms- Calculation of system norms- Robustness- Robust stability.

Unit II: H2 / H? Theory

H2 / H? Theory- Solution for design using H2 / H? – Case studies. Interaction and decoupling- Relative gain analysis- Effects of interaction- Response to disturbances- Decoupling- Introduction to batch process control.

Unit III:

PLC Basics: PLC system, I/O modules and interfacing, CPU processor, programming equipment, programming formats, construction of PLC ladder diagrams, devices connected to I/O modules.

Unit IV:

PLC Programming: Input instructions, outputs, operational procedures, programming examples using contacts and coils. Drill press operation.

Unit V:

Digital logic gates, programming in the Boolean algebra system, conversion examples. Ladder diagrams for process control: Ladder diagrams and sequence listings, ladder diagram construction and flow chart for spray process system.

Unit VI: Large Scale Control Systems

SCADA: Introduction, SCADA Architecture, Different Communication Protocols, Common System Components, Supervision and Control, HMI, RTU and Supervisory Stations, Trends in SCADA, Security Issues

Unit VII: Distributed Control Systems

DCS: Introduction, DCS Architecture, Local Control (LCU) architecture, LCU languages, LCU – Process interfacing issues, communication facilities, configuration of DCS, displays, redundancy concept – case studies in DCS.

Unit VIII: Real Time Systems

Real time systems- Real time specifications and design techniques- Real time kernels- Inter task communication and synchronization- Real time memory management- Supervisory control- direct digital control- Distributed control- PC based automation.

Reference Books:

1. Shinskey F.G., Process control systems: application , Design and Tuning, McGraw Hill

International Edition ,Singapore,1988.

2. Be.langer P.R. , Control Engineering: A Modern Approach, Saunders College Publishing ,

USA, 1995.

3. Dorf, R.C. and Bishop R. T. , Modern Control Systems , Addison Wesley Longman Inc., 1999

4. Laplante P.A., Real Time Systems: An Engineer.s Handbook, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.,

New Delhi, 2002.

5. Stuart A. Boyer: SCADA-Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, Instrument Society of

America Publications,USA,1999

6. Efim Rosenwasser, Bernhard P. Lampe, Multivariable computer-controlled systems: a transfer

function approach, Springer, 2006

7. Programmable Logic Controllers Principle and Applications by John W. Webb and Ronald

A. Reiss, Fifth Edition, PHI

8. Programmable Logic Controllers Programming Method and Applications by JR.Hackworth

and F.D Hackworth Jr. Pearson, 2004.


Unit I: Stepper Motors

Constructional features, Principle of operation, Modes of excitation torque production in Variable Reluctance (VR) stepping motor

Unit II: Characteristics of Stepper Motors

Dynamic characteristics, Drive systems and circuit for open loop control, closed loop control of stepping motor.

Unit III: Switched Reluctance Motors

Constructional features, Principle of operation. Torque equation, Characteristics, Control Techniques, Drive Concept.

Unit IV: Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motors

Commutation in DC motors, Difference between mechanical and electronic commutators, Hall sensors, Optical sensors, Multiphase Brushless motor, Square wave permanent magnet brushless motor drives, Torque and emf equation, Torque-speed characteristics, Controllers-Microprocessors based controller.

Unit V: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

Principle of operation, EMF, power input and torque expressions, Phasor diagram, Power Controllers, Torque speed characteristics, Self control, Vector control, Current control Schemes.

Unit VI: Servomotors

Servomotor Types Constructional features Principle of Operation Characteristics – Control Microprocessor based applications.

Unit VII: AC Tachometers

Schematic diagram, Operating principle, numerical problems

Unit VIII: Linear Motors

Linear Motors: Linear Induction Motor (LIM) Classification Construction Principle of operation Concept of Current sheet Goodness factor DC Linear Motor (DCLM) types Circuit equation DCLM control-applications.

Reference Books:

1. Miller, T.J.E. Brushless Permanent Magnet and Reluctance Motor Drives, Clarendon Press,

Oxford, 1989.

2. Kenjo, T, Stepping Motors and their Microprocessor control, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989.

3. Naser A and Boldea I, Linear Electric Motors: Theory, Design and Practical Application,

Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey,1987

4. Floyd E Saner,Servo Motor Applications, Pittman USA, 1993.

5. Kenjo, T and Naganori, S Permanent Magnet and brushless DC motors, Clarendon Press,

Oxford, 1989.

6. Generalized Theory of Electrical Machines P.S.Bimbra-Khanna publications-5th edition-1995



Review of probably theory and random variable, random process, A Family of Transfer function Models-Equation Error Model Structure-Linear Regression- ARMAX Model Structure- Other Equation- Error-Type Model Structures-Output Error Model Structure- Box- Jenkins Model Structure- A General Family of Model Structures- Continuous Time Black -Box Model.


Recursive methods, Recursive least squares (RLS), Consistency of estimation, Weighted LS, Prediction error and pseudo linear regression methods.


Parametric models, LS estimation, bias; generalized least squares (GLS) and instrumental variable (IV) method.


Persistently exciting input signal, Likelihood functions and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), Singular value decomposition (SVD).


Stochastic approximation algorithm (STA); Model order and structure determination.


Kalman filter state and parameter estimation, Adaptive Estimation via Parallel Processing, Adaptive Estimation via Extended Least Squares


Extended Kalman Filters for discrete time systems, the Kalman Filter, Best Linear Estimator Property of the Kalman Filter, Identification as a Kalman Filtering Problem, Application of Kalman Filters.


Multi-variable system representation, controllability and observability indices, Feedback system


Reference Books:

1. Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Process- Papoulis and Pillai, McGraw Hill,


2. Lessons in Estimation Theory for Signal Processing, Communications, and Control- Jerry M.

Mendel, Prentice-Hall, 1995.

3. Introduction to Stochastic Control Theory: Karl J Astrom, Mathematics in Series and Engg.,


4. Filtering and System Identification A Least Squares Approach- Michel Verhaegen and

Vincent Verdult, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007.

5. Kalman Filtering Theory and Practice Using Matlab- M.S. Grewal and A.P. Andrews, John

Wiley, 2008.

6. Optimal filtering, Brian.D.O.Anderson and John B Moore, PRENTICE-HALL, INC.

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632.


Unit-I: Solution Of Algebraic And Transcendental Equations: Zeros of a function, Successive bisection method, Regula-Falsi method, Secant method and Successive approximation method, Simultaneous equations: Gauss elimination method, Gause-Jordan method, Relaxation method, LU decomposition method, numerical solution by Gauss-Jacobi method, Gause-Seidel method.

Unit-II: Interpolation And Curve Fitting: Lagrange interpolation, Newtons divided difference Interpolating polynomial, Newton-Gregory forward and backward interpolating polynomial, Cubic splines. Lease square approximation of functions, Linear and Polynomial regression,power exponential, parabolic, hyperbolic and sinusoidal curve fitting, multiple linear regression.

Unit-III: Evaluation of Definite Integrals: Newton-Cotes formula, Trapezoidal rule, Simpsons 1/3 rule & 3/8 rule, Weddles Error analysis, evaluation of double integrals.

Unit-IV: Numerical Solution of Differential Equations: Eulers method, Picards method, Predictor-Corrector method, Runge-Kutta Second and Fourth order equations.

Unit-V: Linear Programming: Standard form of linear programming problem, Geometry of L.P.P., Graphical solution, Simplex algorithm, Big-M method, Two phase method.

Unit-VI: Non Linear Programming: Single-Dimensional minimization methods: Unimodal function, three interval search method, Fibonacci method, Golden mean search method. Unconstrained Optimization Techniques, Descent Methods: Steepest Descent method, Conjugate gradient method, Quasi Newton method. Constrained Optimization Techniques, Interior and exterior penalty methods.

Unit-VII: Linear and Nonlinear Optimization: Necessary and sufficient conditions for optima; convex analyisis; unconstrained optimization; descent methods; steepest descent, Newtons method, quasi Newton methods, conjugate direction methods; constrained optimization; Kuhn-Tucker conditions, Quadratic programming problems; algorithms for constrained optimization; gradient projection method, penalty and barrier function methods, Linear programming, simplex methods; duality in optimization, duals of linear and quadratic programming problems.

Unit-VIII: CPM and PERT: Basic Terminology, Network representation of project, critical path-The PERT method, Optimum scheduling by CPM, LP formulation of CPM-PERT problems.

Reference Books:

1. Krishnamurthy E.V. and Sen S.K. Numerical Algorithms: Computations in Science & Engg., Affiliated East-West Press, 1993

2. S.S. Rao – Optimization Theory and Applications, Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi. 1991

3. Schaums Series Operation Research, Tata Mcgraw Hill. 1997

4. S.S. Sastry Introductory Methods in Numerical Analysis PHI. 1994

5. Gerald and Wheatley Applied Numerical Analysis, PHI. 2005 M.Tech ( Control Systems) Syllabus

6. E. Kreyzig Advanced Engineering MathematicsJohn Wiley. 1999

7. Luenberger D.G. Introduction to Linear and Nonlinear Programming, (2e) Addison Wesley


8. Fletcher R. Practical methods of Optimization, John Wiley. 1980


List of Experiments

The following experiments may be implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  1. Preliminary Transformations:

(a) Transfer function to State space models vice- versa.

(b) Conversion of Continuous to Discrete time systems vice- versa.

(c) Verification of controllability and observablity of a given system.

  1. Design of state feedback controllers.
  2. Stability analysis of a given system using:

(a) Root Locus.

(b) Bode plot.

(c) Lyapunov stability.

  1. Implementation of Kalman Filter.
  2. Implementation of Least squares error method.
  3. Implementation of PID controller and its effects on a given system.
  4. Design of Lead, Lag, Lead- Lag compensators using frequency domain analysis.
  5. Construction of Simulink model for an Induction motor.

Note: At least four problems may be implemented from the following

  1. Solving steady state Ricatti Equation.
  2. Construction of Simulink model foe single area and multi area Power system.
  3. Solving an optimal control problem using Ricatti equation.
  4. Implementation of Full order and minimum order Observer.
  5. Implementation of Back-Propagation Algorithm.
  6. Implementation of simple Fuzzy controller.
  7. Implementation of storage and recall algorithm of Hopfield network model.



Unit I: Introduction-Robot Anatomy

Coordinate frames-mapping- mapping Between rotated frames-mapping between translated frames-mapping between rotated and translated frames-description of objects in space-transformation of vectorsinverting homogeneous transform-fundamental rotation matrices

Unit-II: Symbolic Modeling of Robots Direct Kinematic Model

Mathematical structure and notations-description of links and joints-kinematic modeling of the manipulator- Denavit-Hatenberg notation-kinematic relationship between adjacent links- manipulator transformation matrix

Unit III: The Inverse Kinematics

Manipulator work space Solvability of kinematic model- -Solution techniques- closed form solution-guidelines to obtain closed form solution.

Unit IV: Manipulator Differential Motion and Statics

Linear and angular velocity of a rigid body – Relationship between transformation Matrix and angular velocity – Mapping velocity vector-Velocity propagation along links-Manipulator Jacobian – Jacobian Inverse- Jacobian Singularities- Static Analysis

Unit V: Dynamic Modelling

Lagrangian Mechanics Two degree of freedom Manipulator-Dynamic Model LagrangeEuler formulation - Newton Euler Formulation comparison of LagrangeEuler & Newton Euler Formulations Inverse Dynamics

Unit VI: Trajectory Planning

Definitions and planning tasks- terminology-steps in trajectory planning- Joint space techniques- Cartesian space techniques- Joint space Vs Cartesian space Trajectory planning.

Unit VII: Control of Manipulators

Open and close loop control The manipulator control problem Linear control schemes- Characteristics of second order linear systems- Linear Second order-SISO model of a manipulator joint- Joint Actuators- partitioned PD control scheme PID control scheme computed torque control- force control of robotic manipulators description of force control tasks Force-control strategies-Hybrid position/ force control- Impedance Force/Torque control

Unit VIII: Robotic Sensors and Applications

Sensing- Sensors in robotics Kinds of sensors used in robotics- -Robotic vision- Robotic vision- Industrial applications of vision controlled robotic systems- process of Imaging-Architecture of robotic vision systems- Image Acquisition- Image representation-Image processing Industrial applications material handling Process applications Assembly applications Inspection application Principles of Robot applications and application planning, Justification of robots- Robot safety

Reference Books:

  1. Robotics and control RKMittal And I J Nagrath TMH Publishers-1st edition-2003
  2. Mikell P,Weiss G.M.,Nagel R.N., Odrey N.G., Industrial Robotics, McGraw Hill,1986.
  3. Deb.S.R- Robotics Technology and flexible automation, Tata McGraw Hill, 1994.
  4. Asfahi C.R. – Robotics and manufacturing automation, John wiley ,1992.
  5. Klafter R.D.- Chimielewski T.A & Neign M., Robotics engineering: An integrated approach, Prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd., 1994.



Linear versus nonlinear systems – Describing function analysis: Fundamentals, common nonlinearities (saturation, dead – zone, on – off non – linearity, backlash, hysteresis) and their describing functions.


Describing function analysis of nonlinear systems. Reliability of describing method analysis. Compensation and design of nonlinear system using describing function method.


Phase plane analysis: Phase portraits, Singular points characterization. Analysis of non – linear systems using phase plane technique.


Existence of limit cycles. Linearization: Exact linearization, input – state linearization, input – output linearization.


Concept of stability, stability in the sense of Lyapunov and absolute stability. Zero – input and BIBO stability. Second (or direct) method of Lyapunov stability theory for continuous and discrete time systems.


Aizerman’s and Kalman’s conjecture. Construction of Lyapunov function – Methods of Aizerman, Zubov, Variable gradient method. Lure problem.


Popov’s stability criterion, generalized circle criterion, Kalman – Yakubovich – Popov Lemma. Popov’s hyperstability theorem.


Concept of variable – structure controller and sliding control, reaching condition and reaching mode, implementation of switching control laws. Reduction of chattering in sliding and steady state mode. Some design examples of nonlinear systems such as the ball and beam, flight control, magnetic levitation and robotic manipulator etc.

Reference Books:

1. J. E. Slotine and Weiping LI, Applied Nonlinear Control, Prentice Hall,

2. Hassan K. Khalil, Nonlinear Systems, Prentice Hall, 1996.

3. Sankar Sastry, Nonlinear Systems Analysis, Stability and Control.

4. M. Vidyasagar, Nonlinear Systems Analysis, Prentice – Hall International editions,1993.



Short introduction, Analog to digital and Digital to Analog conversion, sampled and Hold circuit, Continuous time Fourier Transforms.


Discrete-time signals and systems, Discrete-time Fourier transform- its properties and applications, Fast Fourier Transform (in time-domain and Frequency domain) , IDFT and its properties.

UNIT-III: z- Transform:

Definition and properties, Rational z-transforms, Region of convergence of a rational z- Transform, The inverse z- Transform, Z-Transform properties, Computation of the convolution sum of finite-length sequences, The transfer function

UNIT-IV: Digital Filter Structures:

Block Diagram representation, Equivalent structures, Basic FIR Digital Filter structures, Basic IIR Digital Filter structures, Realization of Basic structures using MATLAB, All pass filters, Computational complexity of Digital filter structures.

UNIT V: IIR Digital Filter Design:

Preliminary considerations, Bilinear transformation method of IIR Filter design, Design of low pass IIR Digital filters, Design of High pass, Band pass and band stop IIR digital filters, Spectral Transformations of IIR filter, IIR digital filter design using MATLAB, Computer aided design of IIR digital filters.

UNIT VI:FIR Digital Filter Design:

Preliminary considerations, FIR filter design based on windowed Fourier series, Computer aided design of Equiripple Linear phase FIR filters, Design of Minimum phase FIR filters, FIR digital filter design using MATLAB, Design of computationally efficient FIR digital filters.

UNIT VII: Analysis of Finite word length effects:

The quantization process and errors, quantization of Fixed point numbers, Quantization of floating point numbers, Analysis of coefficient quantization effects, Analysis of arithmetic round off errors, Low sensitivity digital filters, Reduction of product round off errors using error feedback, Round off errors in FFT algorithms.


The basic sample rate alteration devices, Multi rate structures for sampling rate conversion, Multistage design of decimator and interpolator, The Polyphase decomposition, Arbitrary-rate sampling rate converter, Nyquist Filters and some applications of digital signal processing.

Reference Books:

1. S.K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing-, Tata McGraw-Hill, Third Edition, 2006.

2. B.P. Lathi, Principle of Signal Processing and Linear Systems-, Oxford International

Student Version, 2009

3. M. Mondal and A Asif, Continuous and Discrete Time Signals and Systems, Cambridge,


4. Li Tan, Digital Signal Processing- Fundamentals and Applications-, Indian reprint,

Elsevier, 2008.

5. Alan V. Oppenheim, Ronald W. Schafer, and John R.Buck, Discrete- Time Signal

Processing-, Pearson Edu, 2008.



An overview of optimization problem – concepts and terms related to optimization – constrained and unconstrained problems and their solutions using different techniques.


Convex set and convex function – convex optimization problem – quadratic optimization problem – Karush – Kuhn – Tucker (KKT) necessary and sufficient conditions for quadratic programming problem.


Interior point method for convex optimization – linear programming – primal and dual problems and basic concept of multi – objective optimization problem.


Concept of functional, different types of performance indices, Euler – Lagrange equation.


Calculus of variation to optimal control problem – Fundamental concepts, functionals of a single function, functional involving several independent functions, necessary conditions for optimal control, linear regulator problems.


Linear quadractic regulator, remarks on weighting matrices, solution of Riccati equation.


Frequency domain interpretation of linear quadratic regulator, robustness studies.


Dynamic programming, Pontrygins minimum principle, time optimal control, concept of system and signal norms, statement of problem and its solution.

Reference Books:

1. Jasbir S. Arora, Introduction to optimum design, Elesevier, 2005.

2. A Ravindran, K.M. Ragsdell, and G.V. Reklaitis, Engineering optimization : Methods and

applications, Wiley India Edition.

3. Donald E.Kirk, Optimal Control Theory an Introduction, Prentice – Hall Network series – First edition,


4. D.S. Naidu, Optimal control systems, CRC Press, First edition, 2002.

5. Arturo Locatelli, Optimal control: An Introduction, Birkhauser Verlag, 2001.

6. S.H.Zak, Systems and Controll, Indian Edition , Oxford University, 2003.

7. Niclas Anreasson, Anton Evgrafov and Michael Patriksson, An introduction to continuous

optimization, Overseas Press (India) Pvt. Ltd.

5.1 AI TECHNIQUES (Elective-III)

Unit I: Introduction to Neural Networks

Introduction, Humans and Computers, Organization of the Brain, Biological Neuron, Biological and Artificial Neuron Models. introduction-neural network models-architectures-knowledge representation learning process-learning tasks.

Unit- II:Feed Forward Neural Networks

Introduction, Perceptron Models: Discrete, Continuous and Multi-Category, Training Algorithms: Discrete and Continuous Perceptron Networks, Perceptron Convergence theorem, Limitations of the Perceptron Model, Applications.

UnitIII: ANN Paradigm-back propagation-RBF algorithms-Hope field networks.

Unit IV : Genetic Algorithms-introduction-encoding-fitness function-reproduction operators

Unit V: Genetic Modelling-genetic operators-cross over and mutation-generational cycle-coveragence of genetic algorithm.

Unit VI: Classical and Fuzzy Sets

Introduction to classical sets – properties, Operations and relations; Fuzzy sets, Membership,

Uncertainty, Operations, properties, fuzzy relations, cardinalities, membership functions.

UNIT VII: Fuzzy Logic System Components

Fuzzification, Membership value assignment, development of rule base and decision making ystem,Defuzzification to crisp sets, Defuzzification methods.

UNIT VIII: Application of AI Techniques

Fuzzy control systems: simple fuzzy logic controllers & GA with examples, image processing, room heating system, Neural Networks: character recognition networks, inverted pendulum neuro controller, Neural network for Robot kinematics

Reference Books:

1. Neural Networks, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithms: synthesis and applications by

Rajasekharan and Rai PHI Publication.

2. Introduction to Artificial Neural Systems – Jacek M. Zuarda, Jaico Publishing House, 1997.



History of Embedded Systems, Major Application Areas of Embedded Systems, Purpose of Embedded Systems, Core of the Embedded System, Sensors and Actuators, Communication Interface, Embedded Firmware.


Characteristics of an Embedded System, Quality Attributes of Embedded Systems, Fundamental Issues in Hardware Software Co-Design, Computational Models in Embedded Design, Introduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML),Hardware Software Trade-offs.


Analog Electronic Components, Digital Electronic Components, VLSI and Integrated Circuit Design, Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Tools, Embedded Firmware Design Approaches, Embedded Firmware Development Languages.


Operating System Basics, Types of Operating Systems, Tasks, Process and Threads, Multiprocessing and Multitasking, Task Scheduling, Threads, Processes and Scheduling :Putting them Altogether, Task Communication, Task Synchronization, Device Drivers, How to Choose an RTOS.


IO Types and Examples, Serial Communication Devices, Parallel Device Ports, Sophisticated Interfacing Features in Device Ports, Wireless Devices, Timer and Counting Devices, Watchdog Timer, Real Time Clock, Networked Embedded Systems, Serial Bus Communication Protocols, Parallel Bus Device Protocols- Parallel Communication Network Using ISA, PCI, PCI-X and Advanced Buses, Internet Enabled Systems- Network Protocols, Wireless and Mobile System Protocols.


Program Models, DFG Models, State Machine Programming Models for Event-controlled Program Flow, Modeling of Multiprocessor Systems, UML Modeling.


OS Services, Process Management, Timer .Functions, Event Functions, Memory Management, Device, File and IO Subsystems Management, Interrupt Routines in RTOS Environment and Handling of Interrupt Source Calls, Real-time Operating Systems, Basic-Design an RTOS, RTOS Task Scheduling Models, Interrupt Latency and Response of the Tasks as Performance Matrices, OS Security Issues.


Case study of Communication between Orchestra Robots, Embedded Systems in Automobile, Case study of an Embedded System for an Adaptive Cruise Control(ACC) System in a Car, Case study of an Embedded System for a Smart Card, Case study of a Mobile Phone Software for Key Inputs.

Reference Books:

  1. Introduction to Embedded System- Shibu KV, Mc-Graw Hill Higher Edition.
  2. Embedded Systems Architecture, Programming and Design- Raj Kamal, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies.
  3. Embedded System Design by Peter Marwedel, Springer.

4. Embedded System Design A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction-Frank Vahid, Tony D.

Givargis, John Wiley, 2002.

5. Embedded/ Real Time Systems-KVKK Prasad, Dreamtech Press, 2005.

6. An Embedded Software Primer- David E. Simon, Pearson Ed. 2005.



Solar Energy – Availability – Solar radiation data and measurement – Estimation of average solar radiation- Solar water heater types – Heat balance Flat plate collector efficiency Efficiency of heat removal – Thermo siphon flow calculation – Forced circulation calculation – Evacuated collectors – Basics of solar concentrators


Solar Energy Applications – Solar air heaters Solar Chimney – Crop driers – Passive solar system – Active solar systems – Water desalination – Output from solar still Principle of solar ponds.


Wind Energy Nature of wind Characteristics Variation with height and time Power in wind Aerodynamics of Wind turbine Momentum theory Basics of aerodynamics Aerofoils and their characteristics HAWT Blade element theory Prandtls lifting line theory (prescribed wake analysis) VAWT aerodynamics Wind turbine loads Aerodynamic loads in steady operation Yawed operation and tower shadow.


Wind Energy Conversion System Siting Rotor selection Annual energy output Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) Rotor design considerations Number of blades Solidity – Blade profile Upwind/Downwind Yaw system Tower Braking system - Synchronous and asynchronous generators and loads Integration of wind energy converters to electrical networks Inverters Control system Requirement and strategies Noise Applications of wind energy


Biomass energy – Bio fuel classification Examples of thermo chemical, Pyrolysis, biochemical and agrochemical systems Energy farming Direct combustion for heat Process heat and electricity Ethanol production and use Anaerobic digestion for biogas Different digesters Digester sizing Applications of Biogas – Operation with I.C.Engine


Ocean Energy – OTEC Principle – Lamberts law of absorption – Open cycle and closed cycle – heat exchanger calculations Major problems and operational experience.


Tidal Power – Principles of power generation – components of power plant Single and two basin systems Turbines for tidal power – Estimation of energy Maximum and minimum power ranges – tidal powerhouse.

Wave Energy Concept of energy and power from waves Wave characteristics period and wave velocities – Different wave energy conservation devices (Saltor duck, oscillating water column and dolphin types) operational experience.


Geothermal Energy – Classification- Fundamentals of geophysics – Dry rock and hot aquifier energy analysis – Estimation of thermal power – Extraction techniques – Prime movers.

Reference Books:

  1. Renewable Energy Resources / John Twidell and Tony Weir / E & F.N.Spon
  2. Renewable Energy Resources Basic Principles and Applications / G.N.Tiwari and M.K.Ghosal / Narosa
  3. Solar Energy – Principles of thermal collection and storage/ S.P. Sukhatme / TMH
  4. Solar Energy Thermal Processes,/Duffie & Beckman
  5. Solar Heating and Cooling / Kreith & Kreider
  6. Wind Energy Handbook / Tony Burton, David Sharpe, Nick Jenkins and Ervin Bossanyi / WileyWind Electrical Systems / S.N.Bhadra, D.Kastha and S.Banerjee / Oxford
  7. Biogas Technology – A Practical Hand Book / K.Khendelwal & S.S. Mahdi / McGraw-Hill


Unit I: Introduction To Power Quality

What is Power Quality?, Voltage Quality, Why are we concerned about power quality?, The power quality evaluation procedure-Need for a consistent-Vocabulary, General classes of power quality problems, Transients, Long-Duration voltage variations, Short-Duration voltage variations, Voltage Imbalance, waveform distortion, voltage fluctuation, Power frequency variations, Power quality terms, Ambiguous Terms, CBEMA and ITI curves

Unit- II: Power Frequency Disturbances

Introduction-Common power frequency disturbances-Cures for low frequency disturbances-Voltage tolerance criteria

Unit III: Voltage Sags And Interruptions

Sources of sags and interruptions-Estimating Voltage sag performance-Fundamental principles of protection-Solutions at the End-User level-Evaluating the economics of different ride_ through alternatives-Motor_ starting sags-Utility system fault_ clearing issues

Unit IV: Transient Over Voltages

Sources of transient over voltages-Principles of over voltage protection-Devices for over voltage protection-Utility capacitor_ switching Transients-Utility system Lightning protection-Managing Ferroresonance-Switching Transients problems with loads-Computer tools for transient analysis.

Unit-V:Fundamentals Of Harmonics

Harmonic Distortion-Voltage versus current distortion-Harmonic versus Transients-Power system Quantities under non sinusoidal conditions-Harmonic indices-Harmonic sources from commercial loads-Harmonic sources from industrial loads-Locating harmonic sources-System response characteristics-Effects of harmonic distortion- Inter harmonics

Unit VI: Applied Harmonics

Harmonic distortion evaluations-Principles for controlling harmonics-Where to control harmonics-Harmonic study-Devices for controlling harmonic distortion-Harmonic filter design-Case studies-Standards on harmonics

Unit-VII: Long Duration Voltage Variations

Principles of regulating the voltage-Devices for voltage regulation-Utility voltage regulator application-Capacitors for voltage regulations-End user capacitor application-Regulating utility voltage with distributed resources-Flickers

Unit VIII: Power Quality Monitoring

Monitoring considerations-Historical perspective of power quality measuring instruments-Power quality measurement equipment-Assessment of power quality measurement data-Application of intelligent systems-Power quality monitoring standards

Reference Books:

1.Electrical power systems quality-Roger C.Dugan- McGraw- Hills

2.Power quality- C.Sankaran, CRC Press


List of Experiments

1. To obtain the moment of inertia and then develop the transfer function of the given DC Motor

for (a) Armature controlled case and (b) Field controlled case. Draw the relevant block


2. To conduct experiments on the given amplidyne for (a) To obtain the transfer function (b) To

obtain the load characteristics under different levels of compensation (c) To obtain the

characteristics of a metadyne.

3. To design a Lag-Lead compensator and to obtain the characteristics by simulation using

MATLAB. Verify the performance using experiments with the compensator circuit made of

passive elements.

4. To set up a system for closed loop voltage regulation for a dc separately excited generator

using amplidyne and to obtain its characteristics

5. To obtain the model of the Inverted pendulum and study the closed loop performance using

experiments on Bytronic Inverted Pendulum

6. To conduct experiments on the Level Process Control Station and to study the working of a

level control loop.

7. To set up a closed loop feedback control system using the FEEDBACK MS150 DC Modular

Servo System-with velocity(rate) feedback.

8. Temperature controller using PID.

9. To set up an open loop control system using Micro-processor for controlling the stepper motor

10.To design a Lead compensator and to obtain the characteristics by simulation using

MATLAB. Verify the performance using experiments with the compensator circuit made of

passive elements.

11. Effect of P, PD, PI, PID Controller on a second order systems

12. Programmable logic controller Study and verification of truth tables of logic gates, simple

Boolean expressions and application of speed control of motor?

Reference Books:

  1. Gene F Franklin, J David Powell, Abbas Emami Naeini, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 4th Ed, Pearson Education Asia, 2002
  2. Graham C Goodwin, Stefan F Graebe, Mario E Salgado, Control System Design, Prentice Hall India, 2003.
  3. John J DAzzo, Constantine H Houpis, Stuart N. Sheldon, Linear Control System Analysis & Design with MATLAB, 5th Ed, Marcel Dekker, 2003
  4. John E Gibson, Franz B. Tuteur, Control System Components, McGrawHill, 1958
  5. Users Manual for FEEDBACK MS150 AC Modular Servo System
  6. Users Manual for 8085n Microprocessor kit, Vi MicroSystems.
  7. www.mathworks.com
  8. Users Manual for Bytronic Inverted Pendulum.
  9. Users Manual for Level Process Station, Vi McroSystems

Click on any of the below links to Download :






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  1. gera jagadish October 2, 2013 Reply

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