**JNTU-KAKINADA : Syllabus and Course Structure – M.Tech (Control Systems).**

**1.2 Course Structure and scheme of evaluation (Semester – wise)**

Name of the Subject | Hrs. / Week L T P | Evaluation (Marks) | ||

Internal (Theory) | External (Practical) | Total | ||

I-SEMESTER- Advanced Control theory
- Digital Control Systems
- Random Variable Stochastic Process
- Micro Controller & Applications
- Elective-I
- Computer Controlled Systems
- Control of Special Machines
- Elective-II
i. System Identifications and Parameter Estimations ii. Computation Techniques and Optimization 7. Control Systems Simulation Lab | 4 - – 4 - – 4 - – 4 - – 4 - – 4 - – 4 - – - - 3 | 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 | 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 | 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 |

II-SEMESTER- Robotics and Control
- Non-Linear Systems Analysis
- Advanced Digital Signal Processing
- Optimal Control Theory
- Elective-III
i. A I Techniques ii. Embedded Real Time Operating System EMS - Elective-IV
i. Renewable Energy Sources ii. Power Quality Management 7. Advance Control System Lab | 4 - – 4 - – 4 - – 4 - – 4 - – 4 - – 4 - – - - 3 | 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 | 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 | 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 |

III & IV SEMESTERS 1. Seminar 50 (Internal Evaluation) 2. Project Work Grading (Excellent / Good / Satisfactory / Not Satisfactory) |

**SEMESTER – I**

**1. ADVANCED CONTROL THEORY**

**Unit I**

Introductory matrix algebra and linear vector space. State space representation of systems. Linearization of a non – linear System. Solution of state equations. Evaluation of State Transition Matrix (STM) – Simulation of state equation using MATLAB/ SIMULINK program.

**Unit II**

Similarity transformation and invariance of system properties due to similarity transformations. Minimal realization of SISO, SIMO, MISO transfer functions. Discretization of a continuous time state space model. Conversion of state space model to transfer function model using Fadeeva algorithm.

**Unit III**

Fundamental theorem of feedback control – Controllability and Controllable canonical form – Pole assignment by state feedback using Ackermann’s formula – Eigen structure assignment problem.

**Unit IV**

Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem and solution of algebraic Riccati equation using eigenvalue and eigen vector methods, iterative method. Controller design using output feedback.

**Unit V**

Observability and observable canonical form – Design of full order observer using Ackermann’s formula – Bass Gura algorithm.

**Unit VI**

Duality between controllability and observability – Full order Observer based controller design. Reduced order observer design.

**Unit VII**

Internal stability of a system. Stability in the sense of Lyapunov, asymptotic stability of linear time invariant continuous and discrete time systems. Solution of Lyapunov type equation.

**Unit VIII**

Model decomposition and decoupling by state feedback. Disturbance rejection, sensitivity and complementary sensitivity functions.

** **

**Reference Books****:**

1. K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall, India 1997

2. T. Kailath, T., Linear Systems, Perntice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980.

3. N. K. Sinha , Control Systems, New Age International, 3^{rd} edition, 2005**.**

4. Panos J Antsaklis, and Anthony N. Michel, Linear Systems, New – age international (P) LTD.

Publishers, 2009.

5. John J D’Azzo and C. H. Houpis , “Linear Control System Analysis and Design Conventional

and Modern”, McGraw – Hill Book Company, 1988.

6. B.N. Dutta, Numerical Methods for linear Control Systems – , Elsevier Publication, 2007.

7. C.T.Chen Linear System Theory and Design - PHI, India.

8. Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, 11^{th} Edition, Pearson Edu, India, 2009.

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

**2. DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS**

**UNIT I: **

Introduction - Advantages of Digital control systems - Practical aspects of the choice of sampling rate and multirate sampling - Basic discrete time signals - Quantization – Sampling theorem – Data conversion and Quantization - Sampling process - Mathematical modeling - Data reconstruction and filtering of sampled signals – zero – order hold.

**UNIT II:**

z - transform and inverse z – transform, Relationship between s - plane and z - plane - Difference equation – Solution by recursion and z – transform - pulse transfer functions of the zero – order Hold and relationship between G(s) and G(z)– Bilinear transformation .

**UNIT III:**

** **Digital control systems - Pulse transfer function - z transform analysis of open loop, closed loop systems - Modified z Transform - transfer function - Stability of linear digital control systems - Stability tests.

**UNIT IV:**

Root loci - Frequency domain analysis - Bode plots - Gain margin and phase margin – Design of Digital Control Systems based on Root Locus Technique.

**UNIT V: **

Cascade and feedback compensation by continuous data controllers – Digital controllers – Design using bilinear transformation – Realization of Digital PID controllers.

** **

**UNIT VI: **

State equations of discrete data systems, solution of discrete state equations, State transition Matrix: z – transform method. Relation between state equations and transfer functions.

**UNIT VII**

Concepts on Controllability and Observability – Digital state observer: Design of the full order and reduced order state observer – Pole placement design by state feed back.

** **

**UNIT VIII: **

Design of Dead beat Controller – some case studies – Stability analysis of discrete time systems based on Lyapunov approach.

**Reference Books:**

- K. Ogata, Discrete Time Control Systems, PHI/Addison – Wesley Longman Pte. Ltd., India, Delhi, 1995.
- B.C Kuo, Digital Control Systems, 2
^{nd}Edition, Oxford Univ Press, Inc., 1992.

3. F. Franklin, J.D. Powell, and M.L. Workman, Digital control of Dynamic Systems,

Addison – Wesley Longman, Inc., Menlo Park, CA , 1998.

4. Gopal, Digital Control and State Variable Methods, Tata McGraw Hill, India, 1997.

5. C. H. Houpis and G.B. Lamont, Digital Control Systems, McGraw Hill, 1985.

6. John S. Baey, Fundamentals of Linear State Space Systems, Mc. Graw – Hill, 1^{st }edition

7. Bernard Fried Land, Control System Design, Mc. Graw – Hill, 1^{st }edition

8. Dorsay, Continuous and Discrete Control Systems, McGraw – Hill.

** **

**3. RANDOM VARIABLE STOCHASTIC PROCESS**

**Unit I: Probability: **

Probability introduced through Sets and Relative Frequency: Experiments and Sample Spaces, Discrete and Continuous Sample Spaces, Events, Probability Definitions and Axioms, Mathematical Model of Experiments, Probability as a Relative Frequency, Joint Probability, Conditional Probability, Total Probability, Bayes’ Theorem, Independent Events:

**Unit II: The Random Variable: **

Definition of a Random Variable, Conditions for a Function to be a Random Variable, Discrete and Continuous, Mixed Random Variable, Distribution and Density functions, Properties, Binomial, Poisson, Uniform, Gaussian, Exponential, Rayleigh, Conditional Distribution, Methods of defining Conditioning Event, Conditional Density, Properties.

**Unit III: Operation On One Random Variable – Expectations : **

Introduction, Expected Value of a Random Variable, Function of a Random Variable, Moments about the Origin, Central Moments, Variance and Skew, Chebychev’s Inequality, Characteristic Function, Moment Generating Function, Transformations of a Random Variable: Monotonic Transformations for a Continuous Random Variable, Nonmonotonic Transformations of Continuous Random Variable, Transformation of a Discrete Random Variable.

**Unit IV: Multiple Random Variables: **

Vector Random Variables, Joint Distribution Function, Properties of Joint Distribution, Marginal Distribution Functions, Conditional Distribution and Density – Point Conditioning, Conditional Distribution and Density – Interval conditioning, Statistical Independence, Sum of Two Random

Variables, Sum of Several Random Variables, Central Limit Theorem, (Proof not expected). Unequal Distribution, Equal Distributions.

**Unit V: Operations On Multiple Random Variables:**

** **Expected Value of a Function of Random Variables: Joint Moments about the Origin, Joint Central Moments, Joint Characteristic Functions, Jointly Gaussian Random Variables: Two Random Variables case, N Random Variable case, Properties, Transformations of Multiple Random Variables, Linear Transformations of Gaussian Random Variables.

**Unit VI: Random Processes – Temporal Characteristics:**

The Random Process Concept, Classification of Processes, Deterministic and Nondeterministic Processes, Distribution and Density Functions, concept of Stationarity and Statistical Independence. First-Order Stationary Processes, Second- Order and Wide-Sense Stationarity, (N-Order) and Strict-Sense Stationarity, Time Averages and Ergodicity, Mean-Ergodic Processes, Correlation-Ergodic Processes, Autocorrelation Function and Its Properties, Cross-Correlation Function and Its Properties, Covariance Functions, Gaussian Random Processes, Poisson Random Process.

**Unit VII: Random Processes – Spectral Characteristics:**

The Power Spectrum: Properties, Relationship between Power Spectrum and Autocorrelation Function, The Cross-Power Density Spectrum, Properties, Relationship between Cross-Power Spectrum and Cross-Correlation Function.

**Unit VIII: Linear Systems With Random Inputs:**

Random Signal Response of Linear Systems: System Response – Convolution, Mean and Mean-squared Value of System Response, autocorrelation Function of Response, Cross-Correlation Functions of Input and Output, Spectral Characteristics of System Response: Power Density Spectrum of Response, Cross-Power Density Spectrums of Input and Output, Band pass, Band-Limited and Narrowband Processes, Properties, Modeling of Noise Sources: Resistive (Thermal) Noise Source, Arbitrary Noise Sources, Effective Noise Temperature, Average Noise Figures, Average Noise Figure of cascaded networks.

**Reference Books:**

1.** **Probability, Random Variables & Random Signal Principles – Peyton Z. Peebles, TMH, 4th

Edition, 2001.

2.** **Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes – Athanasios Papoulis and S.

Unnikrishna Pillai, PHI, 4th Edition, 2002.

3. Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, A. Papoulis, International student

edition, Kogakusha Ltd., New Delhi.

4. Communication Systems Analog & Digital – R.P. Singh and S.D. Sapre, TMH, 1995.

5. Probability and Random Processes with Application to Signal Processing – Henry Stark and

John W. Woods, Pearson Education, 3rd Edition.

6. Probability Methods of Signal and System Analysis. George R. Cooper, Clave D. MC Gillem,

Oxford, 3rd Edition, 1999.

7. Statistical Theory of Communication – S.P. Eugene Xavier, New Age Publications, 2003.

8. Signals, Systems & Communications – B.P. Lathi, B.S. Publications, 2003

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

**4. MICRO CONTROLLER & APPLICATIONS**

** **

**Unit-I: 8051 Microcontrollers**

Introduction to Intel 8 bit & 16 bit Microcontrollers, MCS-51 Architecture, Registers in MCS-51, 8051 Pin Description, 8051 Connections, 8051 Parallel I/O Ports, Memory Organization

**Unit II: MCS-51 Addressing Modes and Instructions**

8051 Addressing Modes, MCS-51 Instruction Set, 8051 Instructions and Simple Programs, Using Stack Pointer, 8051 Assembly Language Programming, Development Systems and Tools, Software Simulators of 8051

**Unit-III: MCS-51 Interrupts, Timer/Counters and Serial Communication**

Interrupts, Interrupts in MCS-51, Timers and Counters, Serial Communication, Atmel Microcontrollers (89CXX and 89C20XX), Architectural Overview of Atmel 89C51 and Atmel 89C2051, Pin Description of 89C51 and 89C2051, Using Flash Memory Devices Atmel 89CXX and 89C20XX

**Unit-IV: Applications of MCS-51 and Atmel 89C51 and 89C2051 Microcontrollers**

Applications of MCS-51 and Atmel 89C51 and 89C2051 Microcontrollers- Square Wave Generation- Rectangular Waves- Pulse Generation- Pulse Width Modulation- Staircase Ramp Generation- Sine Wave Generation- Pulse Width Measurement- Frequency Counter

**Unit- V: PIC Microcontrollers**

PIC Microcontrollers: Overview and Features, PIC 16C6X/7X, FSR(File Selection Register) [Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer], PIC Reset Actions, PIC Oscillator Connections, PIC Memory Organizations, PIC PIC 16C6X/7X Instructions, Addressing Modes, I/O Ports, Interrupts in PIC 16C61/71, PIC 16C61/71 Timers, PIC 16C71 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC)

**Unit- VI: PIC 16F8XX Flash Microcontrollers**

Introduction, Pin Diagram of 16F8XX, STATUS Register, OPTION_REG Register, Power Control Register (PCON), PIC 16F8XX Program Memory, PIC 16F8XX Data Memory, DATA EEPROM and Flash Program EEPROM, Interrupts in 16F877, I/O Ports, Timers

**Unit- VII: Interfacing and Microcontroller Applications-** Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), Push Buttons, Relays and Latch Connections, Keyboard Interfacing, Interfacing 7-Segment Displays, LCD Interfacing, ADC AND DAC Interfacing with 89C51 Microcontrollers

** **

**Unit- VIII: Industrial Applications of Microcontrollers –** Measurement Applications, Automation and Control Applications

**Reference Books:**

- Microcontrollers-Theory and Applications by Ajay V Deshmukh, McGraw Hills
- Microcontrollers by Kennith J ayala, Thomson publishers

3. Microprocessor and Microcontrollers by Prof C.R.Sarma

** **

** **

** **

**5.1 COMPUTER CONTROLLED SYSTEMS (Elective-I)**

**Unit I: Multivariable Controls**

Multivariable control- Basic expressions for MIMO systems- Singular values- Stability norms- Calculation of system norms- Robustness- Robust stability.

**Unit II:** **H ^{2 }/ H^{? }Theory**

H^{2 }/ H^{? }Theory- Solution for design using H^{2 }/ H^{? }– Case studies. Interaction and decoupling- Relative gain analysis- Effects of interaction- Response to disturbances- Decoupling- Introduction to batch process control.

**Unit III:**

PLC Basics: PLC system, I/O modules and interfacing, CPU processor, programming equipment, programming formats, construction of PLC ladder diagrams, devices connected to I/O modules.

**Unit IV:**

PLC Programming: Input instructions, outputs, operational procedures, programming examples using contacts and coils. Drill press operation.

**Unit V:**

Digital logic gates, programming in the Boolean algebra system, conversion examples. Ladder diagrams for process control: Ladder diagrams and sequence listings, ladder diagram construction and flow chart for spray process system.** **

**Unit VI:** **Large Scale Control Systems **

SCADA: Introduction, SCADA Architecture, Different Communication Protocols, Common System Components, Supervision and Control, HMI, RTU and Supervisory Stations, Trends in SCADA, Security Issues

**Unit VII: Distributed Control Systems**

DCS: Introduction, DCS Architecture, Local Control (LCU) architecture, LCU languages, LCU – Process interfacing issues, communication facilities, configuration of DCS, displays, redundancy concept – case studies in DCS.

**Unit VIII: Real Time Systems **

Real time systems- Real time specifications and design techniques- Real time kernels- Inter task communication and synchronization- Real time memory management- Supervisory control- direct digital control- Distributed control- PC based automation.

**Reference Books: **

1. Shinskey F.G., Process control systems: application , Design and Tuning, McGraw Hill

International Edition ,Singapore,1988.

2. Be.langer P.R. , Control Engineering: A Modern Approach, Saunders College Publishing ,

USA, 1995.

3. Dorf, R.C. and Bishop R. T. , Modern Control Systems , Addison Wesley Longman Inc., 1999

4. Laplante P.A., Real Time Systems: An Engineer.s Handbook, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.,

New Delhi, 2002.

5. Stuart A. Boyer: SCADA-Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, Instrument Society of

America Publications,USA,1999

6. Efim Rosenwasser, Bernhard P. Lampe, Multivariable computer-controlled systems: a transfer

function approach, Springer, 2006

7. Programmable Logic Controllers – Principle and Applications by John W. Webb and Ronald

A. Reiss, Fifth Edition, PHI

8. Programmable Logic Controllers – Programming Method and Applications by JR.Hackworth

and F.D Hackworth Jr. – Pearson, 2004.

**5.2 CONTROL OF SPECIAL MACHINES (Elective-I)**

** **

**Unit I: Stepper Motors**

Constructional features, Principle of operation, Modes of excitation torque production in Variable Reluctance (VR) stepping motor

**Unit II: Characteristics of Stepper Motors**

Dynamic characteristics, Drive systems and circuit for open loop control, closed loop control of stepping motor.

**Unit III: Switched Reluctance Motors**

Constructional features, Principle of operation. Torque equation, Characteristics, Control Techniques, Drive Concept.

**Unit IV: Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motors**

Commutation in DC motors, Difference between mechanical and electronic commutators, Hall sensors, Optical sensors, Multiphase Brushless motor, Square wave permanent magnet brushless motor drives, Torque and emf equation, Torque-speed characteristics, Controllers-Microprocessors based controller.

**Unit V: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors**

Principle of operation, EMF, power input and torque expressions, Phasor diagram, Power Controllers, Torque speed characteristics, Self control, Vector control, Current control Schemes.

**Unit VI: Servomotors **

Servomotor – Types – Constructional features – Principle of Operation – Characteristics – Control – Microprocessor based applications.

** **

**Unit VII: AC Tachometers**

Schematic diagram, Operating principle, numerical problems

**Unit VIII: Linear Motors**

Linear Motors: Linear Induction Motor (LIM) Classification – Construction – Principle of operation – Concept of Current sheet –Goodness factor – DC Linear Motor (DCLM) types – Circuit equation – DCLM control-applications.

** **

**Reference Books:**

** **

1. Miller, T.J.E. “Brushless Permanent Magnet and Reluctance Motor Drives”, Clarendon Press,

Oxford, 1989.

2. Kenjo, T, “Stepping Motors and their Microprocessor control”, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989.

3. Naser A and Boldea I, “Linear Electric Motors: Theory, Design and Practical Application”,

Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey,1987

4. Floyd E Saner,”Servo Motor Applications”, Pittman USA, 1993.

5. Kenjo, T and Naganori, S “Permanent Magnet and brushless DC motors”, Clarendon Press,

Oxford, 1989.** **

6. Generalized Theory of Electrical Machines – P.S.Bimbra-Khanna publications-5^{th} edition-1995

**6.1 SYSTEM IDENTIFICATIONS AND PARAMETER ESTIMATIONS (Elective-II)**

** **

**UNIT I**

Review of probably theory and random variable, random process, A Family of Transfer function Models-Equation Error Model Structure-Linear Regression- ARMAX Model Structure- Other Equation- Error-Type Model Structures-Output Error Model Structure- Box- Jenkins Model Structure- A General Family of Model Structures- Continuous Time Black -Box Model.

** **

**UNIT II**

Recursive methods, Recursive least squares (RLS), Consistency of estimation, Weighted LS, Prediction error and pseudo linear regression methods.

** **

**UNIT III**

Parametric models, LS estimation, bias; generalized least squares (GLS) and instrumental variable (IV) method.

**UNIT IV**

Persistently exciting input signal, Likelihood functions and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), Singular value decomposition (SVD).

**UNIT V**

Stochastic approximation algorithm (STA); Model order and structure determination.

**UNIT VI**

Kalman filter state and parameter estimation, ** **Adaptive Estimation via Parallel Processing, Adaptive Estimation via Extended Least Squares

**UNIT VII**

Extended Kalman Filters for discrete time systems, the Kalman Filter, Best Linear Estimator Property of the Kalman Filter, Identification as a Kalman Filtering Problem, Application of Kalman Filters.

**UNIT VIII**

Multi-variable system representation, controllability and observability indices, Feedback system

identification.

**Reference Books:**** **

1. Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Process- Papoulis and Pillai, McGraw Hill,

2002.

2. Lessons in Estimation Theory for Signal Processing, Communications, and Control- Jerry M.

Mendel, Prentice-Hall, 1995.

3. Introduction to Stochastic Control Theory: Karl J Astrom, Mathematics in Series and Engg.,

Vol.70.

4. Filtering and System Identification A Least Squares Approach- Michel Verhaegen and

Vincent Verdult, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007.

5. Kalman Filtering Theory and Practice Using Matlab- M.S. Grewal and A.P. Andrews, John

Wiley, 2008.

6. Optimal filtering, Brian.D.O.Anderson and John B Moore, PRENTICE-HALL, INC.

Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632.

** **

**6.2 COMPUTATION TECHNIQUES AND OPTIMIZATION (Elective-II)**

** **

**Unit-I: Solution Of Algebraic And Transcendental Equations: **Zeros of a function, Successive bisection method, Regula-Falsi method, Secant method and Successive approximation method, Simultaneous equations: Gauss elimination method, Gause-Jordan method, Relaxation method, LU decomposition method, numerical solution by Gauss-Jacobi method, Gause-Seidel method.

**Unit-II: Interpolation And Curve Fitting: **Lagrange interpolation, Newton’s divided difference Interpolating polynomial, Newton-Gregory forward and backward interpolating polynomial, Cubic splines. Lease square approximation of functions, Linear and Polynomial regression,power exponential, parabolic, hyperbolic and sinusoidal curve fitting, multiple linear regression.

**Unit-III: Evaluation of Definite Integrals: **Newton-Cote’s formula, Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s 1/3 rule & 3/8 rule, Weddle’s Error analysis, evaluation of double integrals.

**Unit-IV: Numerical Solution of Differential Equations: **Euler’s method, Picard’s method, Predictor-Corrector method, Runge-Kutta Second and Fourth order equations.

**Unit-V: Linear Programming: **Standard form of linear programming problem, Geometry of L.P.P., Graphical solution, Simplex algorithm, Big-M method, Two phase method.

**Unit-VI: Non Linear Programming: **Single-Dimensional minimization methods: Unimodal function, three interval search method, Fibonacci method, Golden mean search method. Unconstrained Optimization Techniques, Descent Methods: Steepest Descent method, Conjugate gradient method, Quasi Newton method. Constrained Optimization Techniques, Interior and exterior penalty methods.

**Unit-VII: Linear and Nonlinear Optimization: **Necessary and sufficient conditions for optima; convex analyisis; unconstrained optimization; descent methods; steepest descent, Newton’s method, quasi Newton methods, conjugate direction methods; constrained optimization; Kuhn-Tucker conditions, Quadratic programming problems; algorithms for constrained optimization; gradient projection method, penalty and barrier function methods, Linear programming, simplex methods; duality in optimization, duals of linear and quadratic programming problems.

**Unit-VIII:** **CPM and PERT**: Basic Terminology, Network representation of project, critical path-The PERT method, Optimum scheduling by CPM, LP formulation of CPM-PERT problems.

**Reference Books:**

1. Krishnamurthy E.V. and Sen S.K. “*Numerical Algorithms: Computations in Science & Engg.*”, Affiliated East-West Press, 1993

2. S.S. Rao – “*Optimization Theory and Applications*”, Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi. 1991

3. Schaum’s Series – “*Operation Research”, *Tata Mcgraw Hill. 1997

4. S.S. Sastry “*Introductory Methods in Numerical Analysis*” PHI. 1994

5. Gerald and Wheatley “*Applied Numerical Analysis*”, PHI. 2005 *M.Tech ( Control Systems) Syllabus*

6. E. Kreyzig “*Advanced Engineering Mathematics*”John Wiley. 1999

7. Luenberger D.G. *Introduction to Linear and Nonlinear Programming*, (2e) Addison Wesley

1984

8. Fletcher R. *Practical methods of Optimization*, John Wiley. 1980

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

**7. CONTROL SYSTEMS SIMULATION LAB**** **

**List of Experiments **

The following experiments may be implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

- Preliminary Transformations:

(a) Transfer function to State space models vice- versa.

(b) Conversion of Continuous to Discrete time systems vice- versa.

(c) Verification of controllability and observablity of a given system.

- Design of state feedback controllers.
- Stability analysis of a given system using:

(a) Root Locus.

(b) Bode plot.

(c) Lyapunov stability.

- Implementation of Kalman Filter.
- Implementation of Least squares error method.
- Implementation of PID controller and its effects on a given system.
- Design of Lead, Lag, Lead- Lag compensators using frequency domain analysis.
- Construction of Simulink model for an Induction motor.

**Note: At least four problems may be implemented from the following **

- Solving steady state Ricatti Equation.
- Construction of Simulink model foe single area and multi area Power system.
- Solving an optimal control problem using Ricatti equation.
- Implementation of Full order and minimum order Observer.
- Implementation of Back-Propagation Algorithm.
- Implementation of simple Fuzzy controller.
- Implementation of storage and recall algorithm of Hopfield network model.

** **

** **

**SEMESTER-II**

** **

**1. ROBOTICS AND CONTROL**

** **

**Unit I: Introduction-Robot Anatomy**

Coordinate frames-mapping- mapping Between rotated frames-mapping between translated frames-mapping between rotated and translated frames-description of objects in space-transformation of vectors—inverting homogeneous transform-fundamental rotation matrices

**Unit-II: Symbolic Modeling of Robots –Direct Kinematic Model**

Mathematical structure and notations-description of links and joints-kinematic modeling of the manipulator- Denavit-Hatenberg notation-kinematic relationship between adjacent links- manipulator transformation matrix

**Unit III: The Inverse Kinematics**

Manipulator work space – Solvability of kinematic model- -Solution techniques- closed form solution-guidelines to obtain closed form solution.

**Unit IV: Manipulator Differential Motion and Statics**

** **

Linear and angular velocity of a rigid body – Relationship between transformation Matrix and angular velocity – Mapping velocity vector-Velocity propagation along links-Manipulator Jacobian – Jacobian Inverse- Jacobian Singularities- Static Analysis

**Unit V: Dynamic Modelling**

Lagrangian Mechanics – Two degree of freedom Manipulator-Dynamic Model – Lagrange–Euler formulation - Newton –Euler Formulation – comparison of Lagrange–Euler & Newton –Euler Formulations – Inverse Dynamics

**Unit VI: Trajectory Planning**

Definitions and planning tasks- terminology-steps in trajectory planning- Joint space techniques- Cartesian space techniques- Joint space Vs Cartesian space Trajectory planning.

**Unit VII: Control of Manipulators**

Open and close loop control – The manipulator control problem – Linear control schemes- Characteristics of second order linear systems- Linear Second order-SISO model of a manipulator joint- Joint Actuators- partitioned PD control scheme –PID control scheme – computed torque control- force control of robotic manipulators – description of force control tasks –Force-control strategies-Hybrid position/ force control- Impedance Force/Torque control

** **

**Unit VIII: Robotic Sensors and Applications**

Sensing- Sensors in robotics – Kinds of sensors used in robotics- -Robotic vision- Robotic vision- Industrial applications of vision controlled robotic systems- process of Imaging-Architecture of robotic vision systems- Image Acquisition- Image representation-Image processing – Industrial applications –material handling – Process applications – Assembly applications – Inspection application – Principles of Robot applications and application planning, Justification of robots- Robot safety

**Reference Books:**

- Robotics and control –RKMittal And I J Nagrath TMH Publishers-1
^{st}edition-2003 - Mikell P,Weiss G.M.,Nagel R.N., Odrey N.G., Industrial Robotics, McGraw Hill,1986.
- Deb.S.R- Robotics Technology and flexible automation, Tata McGraw Hill, 1994.
- Asfahi C.R. – Robotics and manufacturing automation, John wiley ,1992.
- Klafter R.D.- Chimielewski T.A & Neign M., Robotics engineering: An integrated approach, Prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd., 1994.

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

**2. NON-LINEAR SYSTEMS ANALYSIS**

**UNIT I**

** **Linear versus nonlinear systems – Describing function analysis: Fundamentals, common nonlinearities (saturation, dead – zone, on – off non – linearity, backlash, hysteresis) and their describing functions.

**UNIT II**

Describing function analysis of nonlinear systems. Reliability of describing method analysis. Compensation and design of nonlinear system using describing function method.

**UNIT III**

Phase plane analysis: Phase portraits, Singular points characterization. Analysis of non – linear systems using phase plane technique.

**UNIT IV**

Existence of limit cycles. Linearization: Exact linearization, input – state linearization, input – output linearization.

**UNIT V**

Concept of stability, stability in the sense of Lyapunov and absolute stability. Zero – input and BIBO stability. Second (or direct) method of Lyapunov stability theory for continuous and discrete time systems.

**UNIT VI**

Aizerman’s and Kalman’s conjecture. Construction of Lyapunov function – Methods of Aizerman, Zubov, Variable gradient method. Lure problem.

**UNIT VII**

Popov’s stability criterion, generalized circle criterion, Kalman – Yakubovich – Popov Lemma. Popov’s hyperstability theorem.

**UNIT VIII**

Concept of variable – structure controller and sliding control, reaching condition and reaching mode, implementation of switching control laws. Reduction of chattering in sliding and steady state mode. Some design examples of nonlinear systems such as the ball and beam, flight control, magnetic levitation and robotic manipulator etc.

** **

**Reference Books:**

1. J. E. Slotine and Weiping LI, Applied Nonlinear Control, Prentice Hall,

2. Hassan K. Khalil, Nonlinear Systems, Prentice Hall, 1996.

3. Sankar Sastry, Nonlinear Systems Analysis, Stability and Control.

4. M. Vidyasagar, Nonlinear Systems Analysis, Prentice – Hall International editions,1993.

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

**3. ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING**

**UNIT-I **

Short introduction, Analog to digital and Digital to Analog conversion, sampled and Hold circuit, Continuous time Fourier Transforms.

**UNIT-II **

Discrete-time signals and systems, Discrete-time Fourier transform- its properties and applications, Fast Fourier Transform (in time-domain and Frequency domain) , IDFT and its properties.

**UNIT-III: z- Transform:**

Definition and properties, Rational z-transforms, Region of convergence of a rational z- Transform, The inverse z- Transform, Z-Transform properties, Computation of the convolution sum of finite-length sequences, The transfer function

**UNIT-IV: Digital Filter Structures**:

Block Diagram representation, Equivalent structures, Basic FIR Digital Filter structures, Basic IIR Digital Filter structures, Realization of Basic structures using MATLAB, All pass filters, Computational complexity of Digital filter structures.

**UNIT V:** **IIR Digital Filter Design: **

Preliminary considerations, Bilinear transformation method of IIR Filter design, Design of low pass IIR Digital filters, Design of High pass, Band pass and band stop IIR digital filters, Spectral Transformations of IIR filter, IIR digital filter design using MATLAB, Computer aided design of IIR digital filters.

**UNIT VI:FIR Digital Filter Design: **

Preliminary considerations, FIR filter design based on windowed Fourier series, Computer aided design of Equiripple Linear phase FIR filters, Design of Minimum phase FIR filters, FIR digital filter design using MATLAB, Design of computationally efficient FIR digital filters.

**UNIT VII: Analysis of Finite word length effects**:

The quantization process and errors, quantization of Fixed point numbers, Quantization of floating point numbers, Analysis of coefficient quantization effects, Analysis of arithmetic round off errors, Low sensitivity digital filters, Reduction of product round off errors using error feedback, Round off errors in FFT algorithms.

**UNIT VIII**

The basic sample rate alteration devices, Multi rate structures for sampling rate conversion, Multistage design of decimator and interpolator, The Polyphase decomposition, Arbitrary-rate sampling rate converter, Nyquist Filters and some applications of digital signal processing.

** **

**Reference Books:**

1. S.K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing-, Tata McGraw-Hill, Third Edition, 2006.

2. B.P. Lathi, Principle of Signal Processing and Linear Systems-, Oxford International

Student Version, 2009

3. M. Mondal and A Asif, Continuous and Discrete Time Signals and Systems, Cambridge,

2007

4. Li Tan, Digital Signal Processing- Fundamentals and Applications-, Indian reprint,

Elsevier, 2008.

5. Alan V. Oppenheim, Ronald W. Schafer, and John R.Buck, Discrete- Time Signal

Processing-, Pearson Edu, 2008.

** **

**4. OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY **

**UNIT I**

An overview of optimization problem – concepts and terms related to optimization – constrained and unconstrained problems and their solutions using different techniques.

** **

**UNIT II**

** **Convex set and convex function – convex optimization problem – quadratic optimization problem – Karush – Kuhn – Tucker (KKT) necessary and sufficient conditions for quadratic programming problem.

** **

**UNIT III**

** **Interior point method for convex optimization – linear programming – primal and dual problems and basic concept of multi – objective optimization problem**. **

** **

**UNIT IV**

** **Concept of functional, different types of performance indices, Euler – Lagrange equation.

** **

**UNIT V**

Calculus of variation to optimal control problem – Fundamental concepts, functionals of a single function, functional involving several independent functions, necessary conditions for optimal control, linear regulator problems**.**

** **

**UNIT VI**

** **Linear quadractic regulator, remarks on weighting matrices, solution of Riccati equation.

** **

**UNIT VII**

** **Frequency domain interpretation of linear quadratic regulator, robustness studies.

** **

**UNIT VIII**

** **Dynamic programming, Pontrygin’s minimum principle, time optimal control, concept of system and signal norms, statement of problem and its solution.

** **

**Reference Books:**

** **

1. Jasbir S. Arora, Introduction to optimum design, Elesevier, 2005.

2. A Ravindran, K.M. Ragsdell, and G.V. Reklaitis, Engineering optimization : Methods and

applications, Wiley India Edition.

3. Donald E.Kirk, Optimal Control Theory an Introduction, Prentice – Hall Network series – First^{ }edition,

1970.

4. D.S. Naidu, Optimal control systems, CRC Press, First edition, 2002.

5. Arturo Locatelli, Optimal control: An Introduction, Birkhauser Verlag, 2001.

6. S.H.Zak, Systems and Controll, Indian Edition , Oxford University, 2003.

7. Niclas Anreasson, Anton Evgrafov and Michael Patriksson, An introduction to continuous

optimization, Overseas Press (India) Pvt. Ltd.

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

**5.1 AI TECHNIQUES (Elective-III)**

** **

**Unit – I: Introduction to Neural Networks**

Introduction, Humans and Computers, Organization of the Brain, Biological Neuron, Biological and Artificial Neuron Models. introduction-neural network models-architectures-knowledge representation learning process-learning tasks.

**Unit- II:Feed Forward Neural Networks**

Introduction, Perceptron Models: Discrete, Continuous and Multi-Category, Training Algorithms: Discrete and Continuous Perceptron Networks, Perceptron Convergence theorem, Limitations of the Perceptron Model, Applications.

**Unit–III: ANN Paradigm-**back propagation-RBF algorithms-Hope field networks.

**Unit IV : Genetic Algorithms-**introduction-encoding-fitness function-reproduction operators

**Unit V: Genetic Modelling-**genetic operators-cross over and mutation-generational cycle-coveragence of genetic algorithm.

**Unit – VI: Classical and Fuzzy Sets**

Introduction to classical sets – properties, Operations and relations; Fuzzy sets, Membership,

Uncertainty, Operations, properties, fuzzy relations, cardinalities, membership functions.

**UNIT VII: Fuzzy Logic System Components**

Fuzzification, Membership value assignment, development of rule base and decision making ystem,Defuzzification to crisp sets, Defuzzification methods.

**UNIT VIII: Application of AI Techniques**

Fuzzy control systems: simple fuzzy logic controllers & GA with examples, image processing, room heating system, Neural Networks: character recognition networks, inverted pendulum neuro controller, Neural network for Robot kinematics

**Reference Books:**

** **

1. Neural Networks, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithms: synthesis and applications by

Rajasekharan and Rai – PHI Publication.

2. Introduction to Artificial Neural Systems – Jacek M. Zuarda, Jaico Publishing House, 1997.

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

**5.2 ****EMBEDDED REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS**** EMS (Elective-III)**

** **

**UNIT I: INTRODUCTION**

History of Embedded Systems, Major Application Areas of Embedded Systems, Purpose of Embedded Systems, Core of the Embedded System, Sensors and Actuators, Communication Interface, Embedded Firmware.

**UNIT II: HARDWARE SOFTWARE Co-DESIGN and PROGRAMME MODELLING**

Characteristics of an Embedded System, Quality Attributes of Embedded Systems, Fundamental Issues in Hardware Software Co-Design, Computational Models in Embedded Design, Introduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML),Hardware Software Trade-offs.

**UNIT III: EMBEDDED HARDWARE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT**

Analog Electronic Components, Digital Electronic Components, VLSI and Integrated Circuit Design, Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Tools, Embedded Firmware Design Approaches, Embedded Firmware Development Languages.

**UNIT IV:REAL-TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS (RTOS) BASED EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN**

Operating System Basics, Types of Operating Systems, Tasks, Process and Threads, Multiprocessing and Multitasking, Task Scheduling, Threads, Processes and Scheduling :Putting them Altogether, Task Communication, Task Synchronization, Device Drivers, How to Choose an RTOS.

**UNIT V: DEVICES AND COMMUNICATION BUSES FOR DEVICES NETWORK**

IO Types and Examples, Serial Communication Devices, Parallel Device Ports, Sophisticated Interfacing Features in Device Ports, Wireless Devices, Timer and Counting Devices, Watchdog Timer, Real Time Clock, Networked Embedded Systems, Serial Bus Communication Protocols, Parallel Bus Device Protocols- Parallel Communication Network Using ISA, PCI, PCI-X and Advanced Buses, Internet Enabled Systems- Network Protocols, Wireless and Mobile System Protocols.

** **

**UNIT VI: PROGRAM MODELING CONCEPTS**

Program Models, DFG Models, State Machine Programming Models for Event-controlled Program Flow, Modeling of Multiprocessor Systems, UML Modeling.

**UNIT VII: REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS**

OS Services, Process Management, Timer .Functions, Event Functions, Memory Management, Device, File and IO Subsystems Management, Interrupt Routines in RTOS Environment and Handling of Interrupt Source Calls, Real-time Operating Systems, Basic-Design an RTOS, RTOS Task Scheduling Models, Interrupt Latency and Response of the Tasks as Performance Matrices, OS Security Issues.

**UNIT VIII: DESIGN EXAMPLES AND CASE STUDIES OF PROGAM MODELING AND PROGRAMMING WITH RTOS-2**

Case study of Communication between Orchestra Robots, Embedded Systems in Automobile, Case study of an Embedded System for an Adaptive Cruise Control(ACC) System in a Car, Case study of an Embedded System for a Smart Card, Case study of a Mobile Phone Software for Key Inputs.

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

**Reference Books:**

- Introduction to Embedded System- Shibu KV, Mc-Graw Hill Higher Edition.
- Embedded Systems Architecture, Programming and Design- Raj Kamal, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies.
- Embedded System Design by Peter Marwedel, Springer.

4. Embedded System Design – A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction-Frank Vahid, Tony D.

Givargis, John Wiley, 2002.

5. Embedded/ Real Time Systems-KVKK Prasad, Dreamtech Press, 2005.

6. An Embedded Software Primer- David E. Simon, Pearson Ed. 2005.

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

**6.1 RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (Elective-IV)**

**Unit-I**

Solar Energy – Availability – Solar radiation data and measurement – Estimation of average solar radiation- Solar water heater types – Heat balance – Flat plate collector efficiency – Efficiency of heat removal – Thermo siphon flow calculation – Forced circulation calculation – Evacuated collectors – Basics of solar concentrators

**Unit-II**

Solar Energy Applications – Solar air heaters – Solar Chimney – Crop driers – Passive solar system – Active solar systems – Water desalination – Output from solar still – Principle of solar ponds.

**Unit-III**

Wind Energy – Nature of wind – Characteristics – Variation with height and time – Power in wind –Aerodynamics of Wind turbine – Momentum theory – Basics of aerodynamics – Aerofoils and their characteristics – HAWT – Blade element theory – Prandtl’s lifting line theory (prescribed wake analysis) VAWT aerodynamics – Wind turbine loads – Aerodynamic loads in steady operation – Yawed operation and tower shadow.

** **

**Unit-IV**

Wind Energy Conversion System – Siting – Rotor selection – Annual energy output – Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) – Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) – Rotor design considerations – Number of blades – Solidity – Blade profile – Upwind/Downwind – Yaw system – Tower – Braking system - Synchronous and asynchronous generators and loads – Integration of wind energy converters to electrical networks – Inverters – Control system – Requirement and strategies – Noise – Applications of wind energy

**Unit-V**

Biomass energy – Bio fuel classification – Examples of thermo chemical, Pyrolysis, biochemical and agrochemical systems – Energy farming – Direct combustion for heat – Process heat and electricity – Ethanol production and use – Anaerobic digestion for biogas – Different digesters – Digester sizing – Applications of Biogas – Operation with I.C.Engine

**Unit-VI**

Ocean Energy – OTEC Principle – Lambert’s law of absorption – Open cycle and closed cycle – heat exchanger calculations – Major problems and operational experience.

**Unit-VII**

Tidal Power – Principles of power generation – components of power plant – Single and two basin systems – Turbines for tidal power – Estimation of energy – Maximum and minimum power ranges – tidal powerhouse.

Wave Energy – Concept of energy and power from waves – Wave characteristics – period and wave velocities – Different wave energy conservation devices (Saltor duck, oscillating water column and dolphin types) – operational experience.

**Unit-VIII**

Geothermal Energy – Classification- Fundamentals of geophysics – Dry rock and hot aquifier energy analysis – Estimation of thermal power – Extraction techniques – Prime movers.

** **** **

** **

** **

**Reference Books:**

- Renewable Energy Resources / John Twidell and Tony Weir / E & F.N.Spon
- Renewable Energy Resources Basic Principles and Applications / G.N.Tiwari and M.K.Ghosal / Narosa
- Solar Energy – Principles of thermal collection and storage/ S.P. Sukhatme / TMH
- Solar Energy Thermal Processes,/Duffie & Beckman
- Solar Heating and Cooling / Kreith & Kreider
- Wind Energy Handbook / Tony Burton, David Sharpe, Nick Jenkins and Ervin Bossanyi / WileyWind Electrical Systems / S.N.Bhadra, D.Kastha and S.Banerjee / Oxford
- Biogas Technology – A Practical Hand Book / K.Khendelwal & S.S. Mahdi / McGraw-Hill

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

** **

**6.2 POWER QUALITY MANAGEMENT (Elective-IV)**

** **

**Unit –I: Introduction To Power Quality**

What is Power Quality?, Voltage Quality, Why are we concerned about power quality?, The power quality evaluation procedure-Need for a consistent-Vocabulary, General classes of power quality problems, Transients, Long-Duration voltage variations, Short-Duration voltage variations, Voltage Imbalance, waveform distortion, voltage fluctuation, Power frequency variations, Power quality terms, Ambiguous Terms, CBEMA and ITI curves

**Unit- II: Power Frequency Disturbances**

Introduction-Common power frequency disturbances-Cures for low frequency disturbances-Voltage tolerance criteria

** **

**Unit III: Voltage Sags And Interruptions**

Sources of sags and interruptions-Estimating Voltage sag performance-Fundamental principles of protection-Solutions at the End-User level-Evaluating the economics of different ride_ through alternatives-Motor_ starting sags-Utility system fault_ clearing issues

**Unit IV: Transient Over Voltages**

Sources of transient over voltages-Principles of over voltage protection-Devices for over voltage protection-Utility capacitor_ switching Transients-Utility system Lightning protection-Managing Ferroresonance-Switching Transients problems with loads-Computer tools for transient analysis.

**Unit-V:Fundamentals Of Harmonics**

Harmonic Distortion-Voltage versus current distortion-Harmonic versus Transients-Power system Quantities under non sinusoidal conditions-Harmonic indices-Harmonic sources from commercial loads-Harmonic sources from industrial loads-Locating harmonic sources-System response characteristics-Effects of harmonic distortion- Inter harmonics

**Unit VI: Applied Harmonics**

Harmonic distortion evaluations-Principles for controlling harmonics-Where to control harmonics-Harmonic study-Devices for controlling harmonic distortion-Harmonic filter design-Case studies-Standards on harmonics

**Unit-VII: Long Duration Voltage Variations**

Principles of regulating the voltage-Devices for voltage regulation-Utility voltage regulator application-Capacitors for voltage regulations-End user capacitor application-Regulating utility voltage with distributed resources-Flickers

**Unit VIII: Power Quality Monitoring **

Monitoring considerations-Historical perspective of power quality measuring instruments-Power quality measurement equipment-Assessment of power quality measurement data-Application of intelligent systems-Power quality monitoring standards

**Reference Books:**

** **

1.Electrical power systems quality-Roger C.Dugan- McGraw- Hills

2.Power quality- C.Sankaran, CRC Press

** **

**7. ADVANCE CONTROL SYSTEMS LAB**

** **

**List of Experiments**

1. To obtain the moment of inertia and then develop the transfer function of the given DC Motor

for (a) Armature controlled case and (b) Field controlled case. Draw the relevant block

diagrams.

2. To conduct experiments on the given amplidyne for (a) To obtain the transfer function (b) To

obtain the load characteristics under different levels of compensation (c) To obtain the

characteristics of a metadyne.

3. To design a Lag-Lead compensator and to obtain the characteristics by simulation using

MATLAB^{®}. Verify the performance using experiments with the compensator circuit made of

passive elements.

4. To set up a system for closed loop voltage regulation for a dc separately excited generator

using amplidyne and to obtain its characteristics

5. To obtain the model of the Inverted pendulum and study the closed loop performance using

experiments on Bytronic^{®} Inverted Pendulum

6. To conduct experiments on the Level Process Control Station and to study the working of a

level control loop.

7. To set up a closed loop feedback control system using the FEEDBACK^{®} MS150 DC Modular

Servo System-with velocity(rate) feedback.

8. Temperature controller using PID.

9. To set up an open loop control system using Micro-processor for controlling the stepper motor

10.To design a Lead compensator and to obtain the characteristics by simulation using

MATLAB^{®}. Verify the performance using experiments with the compensator circuit made of

passive elements.

11. Effect of P, PD, PI, PID Controller on a second order systems

12. Programmable logic controller – Study and verification of truth tables of logic gates, simple

Boolean expressions and application of speed control of motor?

**Reference Books:**

- Gene F Franklin, J David Powell, Abbas Emami Naeini,
*Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems,*4^{th}Ed, Pearson Education Asia, 2002 - Graham C Goodwin, Stefan F Graebe, Mario E Salgado,
*Control System Design*, Prentice Hall India, 2003. - John J D’Azzo, Constantine H Houpis, Stuart N. Sheldon,
*Linear Control System Analysis & Design with MATLAB*, 5^{th}Ed, Marcel Dekker, 2003 - John E Gibson, Franz B. Tuteur, Control System Components, McGrawHill, 1958
- Users’ Manual for FEEDBACK
^{®}MS150 AC Modular Servo System - Users’ Manual for 8085n Microprocessor kit, ©Vi MicroSystems.
**www.mathworks.com**- Users’ Manual for Bytronicâ Inverted Pendulum.
- Users’ Manual for Level Process Station, ©Vi McroSystems

**Click on any of the below links to Download :**

#### LINK 1

#### (OR)

#### LINK 2

#### (OR)

#### LINK 3

** **

please send me mtech 1st yesr power systems syllabus.