Download MBBS Radio-diagnosis and Imaging Presentations 2.KUB Radiographs Lecture Notes

Download MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) 1st Year, 2nd Year, 3rd Year and Final year Radio-diagnosis and Imaging 2.KUB Radiographs PPT-Powerpoint Presentations and lecture notes

How to Read KUB




? Introduction
? Technique
? Normal anatomy
? Evaluation

How are X-rays produced?

? What is radiation?
? Ionizing radiation

3 cardinal principles

? Dimensional flattening
? Attenuation
? Contrast

Dimensional flattening

Twodimensional (2D) representation of a threedimensional (3D) structure.


Absorption of x-rays by the material

Image contrast

Structures can only be seen if there is sufficient contrast with

surrounding tissues (contrast is the difference in absorption between

one tissue and another).

What is a fil ing defect?

How wil you read a radiograph?

? Give the type of the radiograph:

? Erect

? Check patient details
? Date of the radiograph
? Quality and technical adequacy

Normal Anatomy

Abdominal viscera

? Solid

? Liver

? Spleen

? Kidneys and adrenals

? Pancreas

? Hollow

? Stomach

? Small bowel

? Large bowel

? Musculoskeletal parts

The most useful tip for radiographs

? For a moment, forget that you are

facing the examiner.

? Describe as if you are describing

the radiograph to a colleague, over

the phone.

? Speak what you are seeing, but


ABC of abdominal radiographs

? A for Air

? B for Bowel

? C for Calcification

C for calcifications

? Calculi ? here, there and everywhere

? Organ calcifications


Calculi along urinary tract
? Anywhere
? Kidney
? Ureter
? Bladder

Predisposing factors






Bacterial infections


Receptor modulation


Epithelial injury


Nephrocalcin, uropontine

Chemical composition of calculi

? Calcium containing

? Devoid of calcium

Calcium Oxalate ? metabolism



Uric acid

Struvite ? UTI with urea splitting

Protease inhibitors



Thank you

This post was last modified on 08 April 2022